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# LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

## List Of Experiments of Survey I

Experiment No. 1: Measurement of Length by different Methods. Experiment No. 2: Chain Traverse Experiment No. 3: Topographic Survey (Using Chain & Tape) Experiment No. 4: Off-Set Survey. Experiment No. 5: Measurement of Building. Experiment No. 6: Compass Surveying. Experiment No. 7: Study of Theodolite. Experiment No. 8: Measurement of Height of the Building using the Theodolite. Experiment No. 9: Measurement of horizontal angles by repetition and reiteration method with the theodolite. Experiment No. 10: Study of Auto-Level. Experiment No. 11: To determine Levelling Scheme with the Auto Level. Experiment No. 12: Plane Table Surveying. Experiment No. 13: Study of Total Station. Experiment No. 14: Measurement of Distance using Total Station. Experiment No. 15: Layout of different structures (Setting out).

Experiment # 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Title Measurement of length by pacing. Measurement of Building. Off-set Surveying. Compass Survey. Study of non-digital theodolite. Measurement of horizontal angles by repetition and reiteration method with non-digital theodolite. Traversing. Study of Tilting level. To determine leveling scheme with tilting level. Plane tabling.

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## EXPERIMENT NO. 1. Measurement of Length by different Methods. 1. Measurement of length by pacing.

OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this experiment is to find the length with a human pace. It is useful when rough estimates are needed and no instruments are present at hand. APPARATUS: Measuring Tape, Ranging rods PROCEDURE: First mark a straight line of a standard length on a flat firm ground. Walk on the line with normal footsteps and count the number of paces .Record three observation of number of paces. Calculate the number of average paces by adding them and dividing by three. Then calculate the standard pace by dividing the average pace with the total length of tape. Standard Pace = Total length of tape / Average Pacing OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION:

Line

Standard Length 1

Number of Paces

AB BC CD DE EA

## Diagram of the closed traverse .

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Surface should be smooth and even. 2. Surveyor must walk in straight line. 3. Measuring tape must be kept straight and horizontal. 4. Ranging should be performed for measurements grater than tape length.

EXPERIMENT NO. 5. Measurement of Height of the Building using the Theodolite. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this experiment is to measure the boundary of the building. APPARATUS: Measuring Tape PROCEDURE: The steel tape is taken and two parties are made. One party stands at the point from where measurement is started and the other party goes to the point up till which measurement is required. The observation is made and the distance observed is recorded, in this way whole of the building is measured and each length is recorded in the copy. Then some scale is chosen to represent these measurements on the field book and it is drawn on the field book like a plan. (Picture of the plan)

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Measuring tape should be at the same level on both sides. 2. Measuring tape should be tightly used. 3. I f tape is used in the air then there should be minimum sag.

EXPERIMENT NO. 4 Off-Set Survey. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this experiment is to get familiar with the method of off-set surveying which is a simple technique to show the information about the area. APPARATUS: Following apparatus are used in the practical, i) ii) iii) Chain Tape Ranging Rods

RELEVANT INFORMATION: Offset surveying is the simplest method of surveying in the field. Following terms are mostly used in this practical; there definitions are as under, CHAINING: It is a method of surveying, in which lengths of the sides of traverse are calculated with the help of chain. OFFSET: It is the lateral measurement taken from an object to the chain. CHAINAGE: Distance measured along the chain line up to the point from where we take offset. PROCEDURE: It includes following steps, a) First of all select the Station from where we have to start our survey. b) After selecting the station say A, also select the next station say B, fix the ranging rod on both stations, so that both the stations are in line when seen from naked eye. c) Now lay down the chain from station A to station B. d) Now take offsets at various points with the help of chain and measure distance from the object to the chain, also measure the change of each offset. e) Repeat this procedure for whole traverse. f) Record all these observations in the field book. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Make sure that the tape is properly stretched and is free from any bending.

2. Check that the off-set distance recorded is the smallest (perpendicular) distance. 3. Check the chain line which should be straight. 4. The readings recorded should be of the same units .i.e either feet or meter.

EXPERIMENT NO.6 Compass Surveying. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this experiment is to know the other method of surveying which is compass surveying. It is different from off-set surveying. APPARATUS: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Prismatic compass Tripod stand on which Prismatic compass can be placed Metallic Chain Metallic Tape Ranging Rods Plumb bob

RELEVANT INFORMATION: The principle of compass surveying is traversing, which involves a series of connected lines. The magnetic bearing of the lines are measured by prismatic compass and the distances are measured with chain. Such survey does not involve the formation of a network of triangles. Compass surveying is not recommended for the areas where local attraction is suspected due to the presence of magnetic substances like steel structures, iron, electric cables conveying current, e.t.c. For more details refer to the book. PROCEDURE: The compass is fixed over the tripod stand and is centered over the station where the bearing is to be found. This is done with the plumb bob. Then the compass is properly levelled with the help of the bubble given on the compass. Adjust the prism to view the readings correctly. Then the compass is turned until the rod at the next station is bisected. When the needle comes to rest look through the prism and note the reading .It will give the required bearing. Record this reading and accordingly repeat the same procedure for the whole traverse. Stations without local attraction are founded and other readings are corrected in accordance with these readings.

Line

## Correction Corrected Corrected Remarks Fore Back Bearing Bearing

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Properly center and level the compass. 2. Observe the reading correctly on the compass. 3. Carry the compass carefully. 4. Observe the readings twice or thrice to make sure that they are free from any human error.

EXPERIMENT NO. 11. To determine Levelling Scheme with the Auto Level. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this experiment is to find the reduced level of different points using the tilting level. APPARATUS: Tilting level, Tripod stand, Measuring tape, Hand level RELEVANT INFORMATION: The purpose of the hand level is to check that whether the staff is truly vertical. The art of determining the relative heights of different points on or below the surface of the earth is known as levelling. The vertical distance of a point above or below the datum is known as the reduced level of that point. For further details refer to the book. PROCEDURE: First of all staff is placed on the bench mark and hand level is used to check its verticality. Then level is set up at any arbitrary point at some distance from the staff say 100 ft. It is properly levelled. Then the staff reading is taken and recorded as backsight in the book. The distance between the staff and the level is measured using the tape. After wards the staff is shifted to the other point whose reduce level has to be determined. This observation is called the foresight and any reading observed in between the backsight and foresight is called the intermediate sight. In this manner the level and staff are moved up till the required point, of which reduce level is to be founded.

Station

## Height of Reduce instrument level

Remarks

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Make sure that the staff is held vertical. 2. Check the level of the tilting level and make sure that it is not disturbed while observing the reading. 3. Make sure that the readings observed are free form any parallax error. 4. The distance measured using the tape is accurate. 5. Check that the entries of B.S, I. S, F.S are correctly executed in the field book.

EXPERIMENT NO. 12. Plane Table Surveying. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this experiment is to know the purpose of plane table and to be familiar with different methods of plane tabling. APPARATUS: i) ii) iii) iv) v) The Plane Table The Alidade The Spirit Level The Compass U-Fork or Plumbing Fork with Plumb Bob

There are four methods of plane table surveying, but the method we adopted in the field is Traversing Method. RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Principle of Plane tabling is parallelism, meaning that the rays drawn from stations to objects on the paper are parallel to the lines from the stations to the objects on the ground. Plane tabling is a graphical method of surveying, hence, the field work and plotting are done simultaneously and such survey does not involve use of field book. PROCEDURE: Following steps are included in procedure, a) Suppose A, B, C and D are the traverse stations. b) The table is setup at station A.A suitable point a is selected on the sheet in such a way that the whole area may be plotted in the sheet. The table is centered, leveled and clamped. The North line is marked on the right hand top corner of the sheet. c) With the alidade touching point a the ranging rod at B is bisected and a ray is drawn. The distance AB is measured and plotted on a suitable scale. d) The table is shifted and centered over B. It is then leveled, oriented by back sighting and clamped. e) With the alidade touching the point b, the ranging rod at C is bisected and a ray is drawn. The distance BC is measured and plotted on suitable scale. f) The table is shifted and setup at C and the same procedure is repeated. g) In this manner all the stations of the traverse are connected. h) At the end, the finishing point may not coincide with the starting point and there may be some closing error. The error is adjusted graphically by Bowditchs rule.

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Make sure that the table is properly levelled. 2. Mark the position of the station correctly and accurately with the alidade. 3. Fix the sheet properly on the table.

## Experiment No. 8: Measurement of Height of the Building using the Theodolite.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this experiment is to measure the height of the building using the theodolite. APPARATUS: Theodolite Tape RELEVANT INFORMATION: The height of the building is measured using the theodolite only. There comes occasions when the top of the building or any structure is inaccessible. Then we use the theodolite with the trigonometric technique to know the height of the building. PROCEDURE: 1. Setup the theodolite at the point from where the top of building is visible. 2. Properly setup the instrument at that point. 3. Centre and Level it at the point. 4. Measure the HOI with the help of the tape. 5. Observe the vertical angle which the top of the building makes with the horizontal, 6. Draw the diagram of the triangle 7. By trigonometry, measure the height of the building.

SKETCH

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Make sure that the instrument is properly levelled. 2. Make sure that the instrument is not disturbed while observing the reading. 3. Properly read the reading from the theodolite. Making sure that the reading entered in the book is accurate.

Experiment No. 9: Measurement of horizontal angles by repetition and reiteration method with the theodolite.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this experiment is to observe the horizontal angles using the theodolite by different methods. APPARATUS: i) ii) iii) Theodolite Tripod Stand Ranging Rod

RELEVANT INFORMATION: Theodolite is used for measuring the horizontal angles and vertical angles accurately. The proper method of measuring the horizontal angle by theodolite is essential for every engineer. Repetition Method; In this method, the angle is added several times mechanically and the value of the angle obtained by dividing the accumulated readings by the number of repetitions. Reiteration Method; It is another method of measuring of measuring the horizontal angle with more precision and is preferred when several angles are to be measured at a station. In this method several angles are measured successively and finally the horizon is closed i.e. the initial station is measured. The final reading of the leading vernier should be the same as the initial reading. If not, the discrepancy is equally distributed among all the measured angles. PROCEDURE OF REPETITION METHOD: 1. Set up the instrument over O and level it accurately. 2. With the help of upper clamp and tangent screw, set 0 reading on vernier A. Note the reading of vernier B. 3. Release the upper clamp and direct the telescope approximately towards the point P. Tighten the lower clamp and bisect point P accurately by lower tangent screw. 4. Release the upper clamp and turn the instrument clock-wise towards Q. Clamp the upper clamp and bisect Q accurately with the upper tangent screw. Note the readings of verniers A and B to get the values of the angle POQ. 5. Release the lower clamp and turn the telescope clockwise to sight P again. Bisect P by using the lower tangent screw.

6. Release the upper clamp, turn the telescope clockwise and sight Q. Bisect Q by using the upper tangent screw. 7. Repeat the process until the angle measured (required number of times is 3). The average angle with face left will be equal to final reading divided by three. 8. Change face and make three more repetitions as described above. Find the average angle with face right, by dividing the final reading by three. 9. The average horizontal angle is then obtained by taking the average of the two angles with face left and face right. PROCEDURE OF REITEREATION METHOD: If it is required to measure angles AOB, BOC, and COD etc by reiteration method The following steps are to be used. 1. Set the instrument over O and level it set the Vernier to zero and bisect point A accurately. 2. Loose the upper clamp and turn the Telescope clockwise to point B. Bisect B by using the upper tangent screw. Read both the Verniers, the mean of the Verniers will give the angles AOB. 3. Similarly, bisect successively C, D etc, thus closing the circle. Read both the Verniers at any bisection. 4. Finally sight to A the reading of the vernier should be the same as the original setting reading. Repeat the steps 02 to 04 with other face i.e. face Right. PRECAUTIONS: 1. Your equipment must not cause an obstruction. 2. You must not put yourself or others in danger. 3. Do not set up over loose materials or cables. 4. Do not carry an instrument on a tripod. 5. Keep all accessories within arms length. 6. Do not leave equipment unattended.