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MANUEL L.

QUEZON
Quezon y Molina, Manuel Luis (1878-1944), Philippine statesman, born in Baler, and educated at the University of San Toms.. He cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Toms in Manila in 1899 to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. After Aguinaldo surrendered in 1901, however, Quezon returned to the university, obtained his degree (1903), and practiced law for a few years. Convinced that the only way to independence was through cooperation with the United States, he ran for governor of Tayabas province in 1905. Once elected, he served for two years before being elected a representative in 1907 to the newly established Philippine Assembly. In 1909 Quezon was appointed resident commissioner for the Philippines, entitled to speak, but not vote, in the U.S. House of Representatives; during his years in Washington, D.C., he fought vigorously for a speedy grant of independence by the United States. Quezon played a major role in obtaining Congress' passage in 1916 of the Jones Act, which pledged independence for the Philippines without giving a specific date when it would take effect. The act gave the Philippines greater autonomy and provided for the creation of a bicameral national legislature modeled after the U.S. Congress. Quezon resigned as commissioner and returned to Manila to be elected to the newly formed Philippine Senate in 1916; he subsequently served as its president until 1935. In 1922 he gained control of the Nacionalista Party, which had previously been led by his rival Sergio Osmea. Quezon fought for passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934), which provided for full independence for the Philippines 10 years after the creation of a constitution and the establishment of a Commonwealth government that would be the forerunner of an independent republic. Quezon was elected president of the newly formulated Commonwealth on Sept. 17, 1935. As president he reorganized the islands' military defense (aided by Gen. Douglas MacArthur as his special adviser), tackled the huge problem of landless peasants in the countryside who still worked as tenants on large estates, promoted the settlement and development of the large southern island of Mindanao, and fought graft and corruption in the government. A new national capital, later known as Quezon City, was built in a suburb of Manila. Quezon was reelected president in 1941. After Japan invaded and occupied the Philippines in 1942, he went to the United States, where he formed a government in exile, served as a member of the Pacific War Council, signed the declaration of the United Nations against the Fascist nations, and wrote his autobiography, The Good Fight (1946). Quezon died of tuberculosis before full Philippine independence was established.

He began to practise law in 1903 and was elected governor of his native province of Tayabas (now Quezon) two years later. He became a member of the first Philippine assembly in 1906. As resident commissioner to the United States Congress (19091916), he worked for Philippine independence. He was elected the first president of the newly formed transitional Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935 and reelected in 1941. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II, he escaped to the United States, where he headed the Philippine government in exile until his death. Quezon City and Quezon Province are named after him. Manuel Luis Quezn y Molina was President of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. Filipino nationalism began to surface at the end of the 19th century, but it was not until the 1920s and 1930s that American policy towards the independence of the islands changed. In 1941 the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with Quezon as its first president. A fully independent Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed in 1946.
Si Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina[1] (Agosto 19, 1878 Agosto 1, 1944) ay ang ikalawang Pangulo ng Republika ng Pilipinas (Nobyembre 15, 1935Agosto 1, 1944). Siya ang kinilala bilang ikalawang pangulo ng Pilipinas, kasunod ni Emilio Aguinaldo (na ang administrasyon ay hindi kinilala ng ibang bansa sa mga panahong iyon at hindi kinilala bilang unang pangulo sa mga kapisanang internasyunal). Ipinanganak si Manuel L. Quezon sa Baler, sa lalawigan ng Tayabas (tinatawag na ngayong Aurora) noong Agosto 19, 1878. Ang tunay niyang pangalan ay Manuel Luis M. Quezon. Anak siya nina Lucio Quezon at Maria Dolores Molina, kapwa mga guro. Nagtapos siya ng pag-aaral mula sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran noong 1893.[1]Bilang isang binata, nakilahok siya sa pagaalsa laban sa mga Kastila. Nakipaglaban din siyang kasama ng mga Pilipinong Nasyonalista sa panahon ng Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano, bilang katulong ni Emilio Aguinaldo. Naipakulong siya dahil sa gawaing ito. Makaraang palayain, nanumpa siya ng katapatan sa Estados Unidos.[1] Naging manananggol si Quezon sa Baler. Noong 1906, nahalal siya bilang gobernador ng lalawigan ng Tayabas, ngunit nagbitiw upang makapangampanya para sa Asambleya ng Pilipinas, kung saan nakamit niya ang pagiging pinuno ng Asambleya. Mula 1909 hanggang 1916, nagsilbi si Quezon sa Estados Unidos bilang naninirahang komisyonero para sa Pilipinas. Sa panahong ito naipasa ang Batas Jones (Jones Act), nagtatanggal sa Komisyon sa Pilipinas ng Estados Unidos at nagbibigay ng mas mataas na antas ng pamamahala sa mga Pilipino. Dahil dito, itinuring na bayani si Quezon nang muli siyang magbalik sa Pilipinas.[1] Sa sumunod na dalawang taon, naglingkod siya bilang pangulo ng Senado ng Pilipinas. Noong 1935, nanalo si Manuel L. Quezon sa unang halalan ng pagkapangulo ng Pilipinas sa ilalim ng bagong Komonwelt ng Pilipinas, laban kina Emilio Aguinaldo at Obispo Gregorio Aglipay. Muli siyang nahalal noong 1941.[1]

Pagkaraan ng pananakop ng Hapon sa Pilipinas sa panahon ng Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig, tumakas siya papuntang Australya, at pagkaraan nagtuloy sa Estados Unidos. Sa dalawang bansang ito niya pinamunuan ang pamahalaan ng Pilipinas habang malayo sa bansa.[1] Nagkasakit ng tuberkulosis si Quezon at namatay sa Saranac Lake, Franklin County, New York noong Agosto 1, 1944 sa edad na 66.[1] Unang inilibing ang kanyang labi sa Arlington National Cemetery. Pagkaraan, ang kanyang labi ay inilibing muli sa Maynila, sa Manila North Cemetery at inilipat sa Lungsod Quezon sa loob ng monumento sa Quezon Memorial Circle. Ipinangalan sa kaniya ang Lungsod ng Quezon sa Kalakhang Maynila at ang lalawigan ng Quezon.Siya rin ay tinawag bilang 'Ama ng Wikang Pambansa'