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ABSTRACT

The main idea of this project is to control the moments of LAND ROVER using Mobile Phone. Till now weve used Mobiles only to talk and to send SMSs but now we can use Mobiles to control a robot (rover). This can be done using the concept of Touch Dialing alias as Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) where we decode the signal transmitted by the source to a 4 bit binary digit and that digit is used to decide the movements of the Rover. Although many methods to remotely control robots have been devised, the methods have the problems such as the need for special devices or software to control the robots. This project suggests a method for robotic control using the DTMF tone generated when the user pushes mobile phone keypad buttons when connected with a remote mobile robot.

INDEX
Chapter
1. 2. Transmitter End Receiver End 3. Mobile phone DTMF Decoder Hardware Overview

Title
Introduction Block Diagram

Pg. No.

INTRODUCTION
Signal processing is very important and broad area in relation to control. Analysis of system and signals, detection and estimation of signals are some of the applications of signal processing and are used in the fields of sonar, radar and communication to name a few. The aim of this project is to design a robot capable of being controlled remotely using keypad tones from a mobile phone. The idea for this project was developed from an interest in the tones produced from a standard telephones keypad. These tones are known as DTMF tones are used for more than just dialing and connecting phone calls. We use two mobile phones in this project, one acts as a remote control at distant location where as other acts as a receiver placed on the robot, when a key is pressed the signal from the transmitter end to the receiver is transferred via the mobile service provider. At the receiver end the received signal is decoded and is given to the DTMF decoder IC, where the decoder IC converts the received signal to a four bit binary number which is given to the microcontroller (ATmega 16) to control the motor driver in the given direction. From an engineering perspective, the technology gives the ability to control machinery from a considerable distance which can prove extremely useful, with DTMF signaling also being a very cost effective method of control.

2. BLOCK DIAGRAM

Transmitter End

3. HARDWARE OVERVIEW
MOBILE PHONE
A mobile phone or mobile (also called cell phone and hand phone, as well as cell phone, wireless phone, cellular phone, cellular device, cell, cellular telephone, mobile telephone) is a long-range, electronic device used for mobile telecommunications ( mobile telephony, text messaging or data transmission) over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Most current cell phones connect to a cellular network consisting of switching points and base stations (cell sites) owned by a mobile network operator ( the exception is satellite phones, which are mobile but not cellular ). In addition to the standard voice function, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, emails, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS. Any mobile phone which has a standard keypad is sufficient enough to build this project, it can be a GSM based or CDMA based mobile phones. But, at the receiver end the mobile phone should consist of auto call attending facility. The battery life of the mobile phone at the receiver end should be long enough as it should stay at remote places for longer duration. The mobile phone which we used for building this project is Nokia E51 at the receiver end and Nokia 6060 at transmitter end.

DTMF DECODER

The signaling method used by Touch-Tone telephones. Each key generates two tones, the combination of which is unique for each of the 12 keys.

MICROCONTROLLER
A microcontroller (also microcontroller unit, MCU or C) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting of a relatively simple CPU combined with support functions such as a crystal oscillator, timers, serial and along I/O etc. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as we;; as a typically small amount of RAM . Microcontrollers are designed for small or dedicated applications. Thus, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers and other high-performance or general purpose applications, simplicity is emphasized. Some microcontrollers may operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 KHz, as this is adequate for many typical applications, enabling low power consumption ( mill watts or microwatts). They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt ; power consumption while sleeping ( CPU clock and most peripheral off) may be just nanowatts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that used a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control nondigital electronic system.

MOTOR DRIVER
Motor drivers are essentially little current amplifiers; their function is to take lowcurrent control signal. And turn it into a proportionally higher-current signal that can drive a motor. Note here that the control signal is likely on the order of 10mA, and the motor may require 100s of mA to make it turn.

4. INTERNAL DIAGRAM

5. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
5.1 DTMF Receiver
DTMF ( Dual Tone Multi Frequency ) is the signal to the phone company that you generate when an ordinary telephones touch keys. In the United States and perhaps elsewhere, its known as Touchtone phone (formerly a registered trademark of AT&T). DTMF has generally replaced loop disconnect (pulse) dialing. With DTMF , each key you press on your phone generates two tones of specific frequencies. So that a voice cant imitate the tones, one tone is generated from a highfrequency group of tomes and other from a low frequency group. Here are the signals you send when you press your touchtone phone keys :

Table 1

5.2 Keypad
The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4x4 matrix, with each row representing a low frequency, and each column representing a high frequency. Pressing a single key (such as 1) will send a sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). The original keypad had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reasons for calling the system multifrequency. There tones are then decoded by the switching centre to determine which key was pressed.

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The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers, and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. This led to the addition of the number sign (#, sometimes called octothorpe or pound in this context) and asterisk or star (*) keys as well as group of keys for menu selection : A,B.C and D. In the end, the lettered keys were dropped from the most phones, and it was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppress caller ID.

5.3 DTMF Receiver M8870


The M-8870 is a full DTMF Receiver that integrates both band split filter and decoder functions into a single 18-pin DIP or SOIC package. Manufactured using CMOS process technology, the M-8870 offers lower power consumption (35mW max) and precise data handling. Its filter section uses switched capacitor technology for both the high and low group filters and for dial tone rejection. Its decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tome pairs into a 4-bit code. External component count is minimized by provision of on-chip differential input amplifier, clock generator, and latched tri-state interface bus. Minimal external components required include a low-cost 3.579545 MHz color burst crystal, a timing resistor, and a timing capacitor. The M-8870-02 provides a power-down option which, when enabled, drops consumption to less then 0.5mW. The M-8870-02 can also inhabit the decoding of fourth column digits

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5.4 PIN DIAGRAM OF 8870

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5.5 OPERATION
M-8870 operating functions include a band split filter that separates the high and low tones of the received pair, and a digital decoder that verifies both the frequency and duration of the received tones before passing the resulting 4-bit code to the output bus.

5.5.1 Filter
The low and high group tones are separated by applying the dual-tones signal to the inputs of two 6th order switched capacitor band pass filters with bandwidths that correspond to the bands enclosing the low and high group tones. The filter also incorporates notches at 350 and 440Hz, providing excellent dial tone rejection. Each filter output is followed by a single-order switched capacitor section that smoothes the signals prior to limiting. Signal limiting is performed by high-gain comparators.

5.5.2 Decoder
The M-8870 decoder uses a digital counting technique to determine the frequencies of the limited tones and to verify that they correspond to standard DTMF frequencies. A complex averaging algorithm is used to protect against tone simulation by external signals (such as voice) while tolerating small frequency variations.

5.5.3 Steering Circuit


Before a decoder tone pair is registered, the receiver checks for a valid signal duration (referred as character-recognition-condition). This check is performed by an external RC time constant driven by Est. A logic high on Est. causes VC rise as the capacitor discharge. Provided that signal condition is maintained ( Est remains high) for the validation period (tGTF), VC reaches the threshold (VTSt) of the steering logic to register the tone pair, thus latching its corresponding 4-bit code into the output latch. At this point, the GT output is activated and drives VC to VDD. GT continues to drive high as long as Est remains high. Finally after a short delay to allow the output latch to settle, the delayed steering output flag (StD) goes high, signaling that a received tone pair had been registered. The contents of the output latch are made available on the 4-bit output bus by raising the three-state control input (OE) to a logic high. The steering 13

circuit works in the reverse to validate the interdigit pause between signals. Thus, as well as rejecting signals too short to be considered valid, the receiver will tolerate signal interruptions (dropouts) too short to be considered a valid pause. This capability, together with the ability to select the steering time constants externally, allows the designer to tailor performance to meet a wide variety of system requirements

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5.5.4 INPUT CONFIGURATION


The input arrangement of the M-8870 provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source (VREF) to bias the inputs at mid-rail. Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op-amp output (GS) for gain adjustment.

5.6 DTMF CLOCK CIRCUIT


The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard 3.579545 MHz television color burst crystal. The crystal connected to a single M-8870, a single crystal can be used to connect a series of M-8870s by coupling the oscillator output of each M-8870 through a 30pF capacitor to the oscillator input of the next M-8870.

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Table 3

6. MICROCONTROLLER (ATmega16)
The ATmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR (he AVR is a modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller (C) which was developed by Atmel in 1996. The AVR was one the first microcontroller families to use on chip flash memory for the program storage, as opposed to One-Time Programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by other microcontrollers at the time ). Enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.

6.1 FEATURES

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High-performance, Low-power AVR 8bit- Microcontroller. Advanced RISC Architecture. 131 Powerful Instructions- Most Single- Clock Cycle Execution. 32x8 General Purpose Working Registers. Fully Static Operation. Up to 16 MIPS Throughputs at 16MHz. On- chip 2-cycle Multiplier. High Endurance Non- volatile Memory Segments 16K Bytes of In-System Self-programable Flash Program Memory 512 Bytes EEPROM 1K Byte Internal SRAM Write/ Erase Cycles : 10,000 Flash/ 10,000 EEPROM

In- System Programmig by On-chip Boot Program True Read- While Write Operation Programming Lock for software Security Boundary-Scan Capabilities According to the JTAG standard. Extensive On-chip Debug Support Two 8-bit Timer/ Counters with Separate Presales and Compare Modes One 16-bit Timer/ Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture mode Real Time Counter with separate Oscillator Four PWM Channels 8-Channel, 10-Bit ADC Byte-oriented Two wire Serial Interface Programmable Serial USART Master/ Slave SPI Serial Interface Programmable Watchdog Timer with separate On-Chip Oscillatoe 17 JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface

Peripheral Features

2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x, 10x, or 200x

On-chip Analog Comparator Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator External and Internal Interrupt Sources Six Sleep Modes : Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby

Special Microcontroller Features

I/O and Packages 32 Programmable I/O Lines 40-pin PDIP, 44-Lead TQFP, and 44-pad QFN/MLF 2.7 5.5V for ATmega 16L 4.5 5.5V for ATmega 16 0- 8 MHz for ATmega 16L 0- 16 MHz for ATmega 16 Active 1.1 mA

Operating Voltages -

Speed Grades -

Power Consumption @ 1MHz, 3V, and 25C for ATmega 16L Idle Mode : 0.35mA

6.2 PIN CONFIGURATION OF ATmega16

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6.3 ARCHITECTURE

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6.4 PIN DESCRIPTION


VCC : Digital supply voltage. 20

GND :

Ground.

Port A (PA7...PA0) : Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port B (PB7...PB0) : Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16. Port C (PC7...PC0) : Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PC5 (TDI), PC3 (TMS) and PC2 (TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega16. Port D (PD7...PD0) : Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will 21

source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16. RESET : Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in table shown below. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. XTAL1 : Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 : Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. AVCC : AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. AREF : AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.

7. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
A crystal oscillator (sometimes abbreviated to XTAL on schematic diagrams) is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a physical crystal of

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piezoelectric material along with an amplifier and feedback to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. It is an especially accurate form of an electronic oscillator. This frequency is used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters .Crystal oscillators are a common source of time and frequency signals. The crystal used therein is sometimes called a "timing crystal".

7.1 MOTOR DRIVER (L293D)


A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source A regulated power supply is an embedded circuit, or standalone unit, the function of which is to supply a stable voltage (or less often current), to a circuit or device that must be operated within certain power supply limits. The output from the regulated power supply may be alternating or unidirectional, but is nearly always DC (Direct Current).The type of stabilization used may be restricted to ensuring that the output remains within certain limits under various load conditions, or it may also include compensation for variations in its own supply source. The latter is much more common today.

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