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INTRODUCTION C

limate change is one of the greatest environmental, social and

economic threats facing the planet. The planet earth is estimated to be 5 billion years old and it has been nurturing biological species for more than 3.5 billion years. Biological species have come and gone with generations of human kinds. But life has persisted without interruption. But we do affect it significantly in recent centuries, in our quest for food, clothing and shelter and for other host of products for the growing population of the world. The 1980s were the warmest decade recorded on a global basis and this warm spell is still continuing. We do not know whether the increase in temperature is a normal climatic fluctuation or it is due to any specific cause or causes leading to global warming. But the consequences were clear and certain. There were droughts in most parts of the globe. Today, our world hotter than it has been in 2000 years by the end of the century, if current trend continues the global temperature will likely climb higher than at any time in the past two million years. And the result of this rise in temperature, extreme weather events like irregular monsoons, receding glaciers, fiercer storms, prolonged droughts, heat waves and worse.

PERIODICAL CLIMATE CHANGE


Climate change is caused by the

persistant

build up of greenhouse gases

such as carbon-dioxide (co2) in the earths atmosphere. The more fosssil fuel (oil, gas and coal) we burn for transportation or to generate energy, the more green house gases we emit into the atmosphere and hotter our planets gets.

Past climate change


The Earth's climate has changed throughout history. Many observations indicate that the worlds climate has changed during the 1980s. The various observations are: The average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6 degree celsius (1 degree farenheit) 2. Snow cover and ice extent have decreased. 3. The sea level has risen by 10 to 20 cm(4-8 inches).
1.

Some other important changes include precipitation, cloud cover and extreme temperatures. However, some aspects appear not to have changed, like Antartic sea ice extent or extreme events such as storms, tornadoes, thunder days, or hail events.

Causes of Change Prior to the Industrial Era (pre-1780)

affect the climate because they can emit aerosols and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Volcanic aerosols tend to block sunlight and contribute to short term cooling. Aerosols do not produce long-term change because they leave the atmosphere not long after they are emitted.

Volcanic eruptions:

Volcanoes can

Change in greenhouse gas concentrations: The heating or cooling of the

Earth's surface can cause changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. when global temperatures become warmer, carbon dioxide is released from the oceans. When changes in the Earth's orbit trigger a warm period, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide may amplify the warming by enhancing the greenhouse effect.

Fluctuations in temperature (red line) and in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (yellow) over the past 649,000 years. The vertical red bar at the end is the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past two centuries and before 2007.

Changes in ocean currents:

The heating or cooling of the Earth's surface can cause changes in ocean currents. Because ocean currents play a significant role in distributing heat around the Earth, changes in these currents can bring about significant changes in climate from region to region.

Recent climate change

Since the Industrial Revolution (around 1850),the Earth's average surface temperature has risen by 0.76 C. Most of the warming that has occurred over the last 50 years is very likely to have been caused by human activities. In its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), published on 2 February 2007, the projects that, without further action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the global average surface temperature is likely to rise by a further 1.84.0C this century. Global average temperature and sea level are projected to rise under all IPCC scenarios during the 21st century. 1. The average global surface temperature is projected to increase by something between 1.4 and 5.9 degree celsius (2.5 to 10 degree farenheit) over the period 1990 to 2100.This wide range is equally due to the level of greenhouse gases emissions supposed by each scenario and to the response of the individual computer model used. 2. It is very likely that nearly all land areas will warm more rapidly than the global average, particularly those at high northern latitudes in the cold season. 3. Northern hemispheres snow cover and sea ice extent are projected to decrease further, as well as glaciers and ice caps. The Antartic ice sheets is likely to gain mass white the Greenland ice sheet is likely to lose mass. 4. It is very unlikely that there will be a loss of grounded West Antartic ice raising substantial the sea level.

5.

Human activities have substantially added to the amount of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels and biomass has also resulted in emissions of aerosols that absorb and emit heat, and reflect light. The addition of greenhouse gases and aerosols has changed the composition of the atmosphere. The changes in the atmosphere have likely influenced temperature, precipitation, storms and sea level (IPCC, 2007).

Future Climate Changes


Due to uncertainties about future emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases, their net warming effect in the atmosphere, and the response of the climate system, estimates of future temperature change are uncertain.

The IPCC made the following projections of future warming (IPCC, 2007):

The average surface temperature of the Earth is likely to increase by 2 to 11.5F (1.1-6.4C) by the end of the 21st century, relative to 1980-1990, with a best estimate of 3.2 to 7.2F (1.8-4.0C) (see Figure 1). The average rate of warming over each inhabited continent is very likely to be at least twice as large as that experienced during the 20th century.

Temperature projections to the year 2100, based on a range of emission scenarios and global climate models. The orange line (constant CO2) projects global temperatures with greenhouse gas concentrations stabilized at year 2000 levels. Source: NASA Earth Observatory, based on IPCC

Fourth Assessment Report (2007)

Projected future regional patterns of warming based on three emissions scenarios (low, medium, and high growth). Source: NASA Earth Observatory, based on IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (2007)

Warming will not be evenly distributed around the globe. Land areas will warm more than oceans in part due to water's ability to store heat. High latitudes will warm more than low latitudes in part due to positive feedback effects from

melting ice. The warming will differ by season, with winters warming more than summers in most areas.

Ten Basic Tips which Helps to Stop Climate Change


Here are ten, simple, everyday things each of us can do to help stop climate change. Pick one, some, or all. Every little effort helps and adds up to a whole lot of good.

Change a light: Replacing a regular light Drive less: Walk, bike, carpool, take mass

bulb with a compact fluorescent one saves 150 pounds of carbon dioxide each year.

transit, and/or trip chain. All of these things can help reduce gas consumption and one pound of carbon dioxide for each mile you do not drive.

Recycle more and buy recycled: Save up to 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide
each year just by recycling half of your household waste. By recycling and buying products with recycled content you also save energy, resources and landfill space!

Check your tires: Properly inflated tires


mean good gas mileage. For each gallon of gas saved, 20 pounds of carbon dioxide are also never produced.

Stay informed. Use the Earth 911 Web site


to help stay informed about environmental issues, and share your knowledge with others. Together, we can and do Make Every Day Earth Day!

Use less hot water: It takes a lot of

energy to heat water. Reducing the amount used means big savings in not only your energy bills, but also in carbon dioxide emissions. Using cold water for your wash saves 500 pounds of carbon dioxide a year, and using a low flow showerhead reduces 350 pounds of carbon dioxide. Make the most of your hot water by insulating your tank and keeping the temperature at or below 120.

Avoid products with a lot of packaging: Preventing waste from being created in
the first place means that there is less energy wasted and fewer resources consumed. When you purchase products with the least amount of packaging, not only do you save money, but you also help the environment! Reducing your garbage by 10% reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 1,200 pounds.

Adjust your thermostat: Keeping

your thermostat at 68 degrees in winter and 78 degrees in summer not only helps with your energy bills, but it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions as well. No matter where you set your dial, two degrees cooler in the winter or warmer in the summer can mean a reduction of 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

Plant a tree: A single tree can absorb one ton


of carbon dioxide over its lifetime.

Turn off electronic devices when not in use: Simply turning off your TV,
VCR, computer and other electronic devices can save each household thousand of pounds of carbon dioxide each year.

Government actions to reduce Climate Change


The development of effective early warning systems. The development plans that identify competence and the guide answered during the events in danger. Contingency planning for the worst case scenario. The development of risk maps to help guide development in areas of low risk and prevent development in high-risk areas. Regional planning maintains that natural features such as wetlands, which reduce the frequency and severity of hazards. The identification of safe areas accessible by members of the community during the events of risk,

such as community "cooling centers' for vulnerable people during heat stress waves heat. The maintenance of an emergency fund to facilitate recovery.

Climate change will also result in the emergence of new risks with which we have limited experience in Canada. Risks exist will also become more widespread affecting areas previously not. Faced with these new risks will result in: Investment in our health systems so that they are ready for emerging health threats associated with climate change. Integration of climate change projections in the development of infrastructure, building codes and hazard mapping. Strengthening systems for predicting risk. This must be done to increase our preparedness to climate change. To strengthen our adaptability we need to know how different regions and sectors of the economy are vulnerable to climate change, how they are vulnerable, and why. Climate Change is here, lets do something about it!.

GLOBAL WARMING
Global warming is very likely caused by manmade green house gas emissions. Existing green house gas levels will lead to rising temperature, higher sea levels and more extreme weather such as heat waves, droughts and more intense hurricanes. Average world wide annual temperatures will increase between 1.8 and 4 degrees over the next century. Sea levels will rise between 18 and 59 cm over the same time period.

Causes and effects of global warming


The concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere may double within 50 or 100 years and the global temperature may increase by about 3 to 5 degree centigrade.

This will increase the quick evaporation of surface waters and also cloud formation leading to drastic climatic changes in the globe. It is stated that even a raise of 1.5 degrees centigrade in surface temperature can adversely affect the food production in the world. Wheat growing regions in the northern latitudes of Canada and Russia may recede to polar regions due to increase in temperature. Due to extreme heat, the polar ice caps, icy mountains and glaciers will melt and join the seas, resulting in lifting up of the sea-level by nearly 1.5 to 3.5 meters.

Coastal cities like Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkatta, Sydney, New york, Boston etc., will be either inundated or submerged due to increasing sea-level. Many parts of the world will be affected by flood, hurricanes, tornadoes and other calamities. Whatever the theories may contemplate, the fact that we, as inhabitants of earth, are experiencing the increasing heat of the earth and the consequent climatic changes cannot be denied. There are too many indicators now that climatic changes have begun to occur.

Present Danger of Global Warming


(a) Deaths Due to Climate Change
A study, at the World Health Organization (WHO) determined that 154,000 people die every year from the effects of global warming, from malaria to malnutrition, children in developing nations seemingly the most vulnerable. These numbers could almost double by 2020.

(b) Increasing Storms and Floods


Dr. Thomas Karl, director of the National Climatic Data Center (NOAA), says that global warming has produced an increase in precipitation during the 20th century, mostly in the form of heavy rainstorms, little in moderate, beneficial rainstorms. Recent decades have produced a 20% increase in blizzards and heavy rainstorms in the U.S. Floods are already increasing worldwide. The year 1998 was the worst on record, with 96 floods in 55 countries.

(c) Weather-Related Natural Disasters


On November 28, 1998 the San Francisco Chronicle ran an Associated Press article reporting that dollar damages from weather-related natural disasters (floods, storms, droughts, fires) worldwide for 1998 totaled $89 billion. Total damages for the entire decade of the 1980's were $83 billion inflation. Damage totals for the 1990's soared above $340 billion.

(d) Islands are Endangered by Rising Seas


An article in the fall, 1996 issue of the Earth Island Journal reported that rising seas are about to inundate Pate and Ndau, two small islands near the Indian Ocean resort island of Lamu.

Kenya has announced plans to spend $517,000 to build walls shielding these islands from the rising surf.

(e) Severe Diseases Caused by Climate Change


According to a report from World Wildlife Fund, dengue, or breakbone fever has now resurged in the Americas infecting over 200,000 people in 1995. "Many of the most important diseases in poor countries, from malaria to diarrhoea and malnutrition are highly sensitive to climate" .The parts of the globe most

vulnerable are the Asian and South American Pacific coasts and the Indian Ocean coast.

GREEN HOUSE EFFECT


The rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earths average temperature would be about 60F colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as green house gases.

Greenhouses are used to grow plants, especially in the winter. Greenhouses work by trapping heat from the sun. The glass panels of the greenhouse let in light but keep heat from escaping.

The greenhouse effect is important. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would not be warm enough for humans to live. But if the greenhouse effect becomes stronger, it could make the Earth warmer than usual.

Causes
Carbon dioxide during the last 400,000 years and the rapid rise since the industrial revolution;
changes in the Earths orbit around the Sun, known as Milankovitch cycles, are believed to be the pacemaker of the 100,000 year ice age cycle. Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The monthly CO2 measurements display small seasonal oscillations in an overall yearly uptrend each years maximum is reached during the Northern Hemispheres late spring, and declines during the Northern Hemisphere growing season as plants remove some CO2 from the atmosphere. The Earths climate changes in response to external forcing, including variations in its orbit around the sun(orbital forcing), Volcanic eruptions, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The detailed causes of the recent warming remain an active field of research, but the scientific consensus identifies elevated levels of greenhouse gases due to human activity as the main influence.

This

attribution is clearest for the most recent 50 years, for which the most detailed data are available. In contrast to the scientific consensus that recent warming is mainly attributable to elevated levels of greenhouse gases, other hypotheses have been suggested to explain the observed increase in mean global temperature. One such hypothesis proposes that warming may be the result of variations in solar activityNone of the effects of forcing are instantaneous. The thermal inertia of the Earth's oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that the Earth's current climate is not in equilibrium with the forcing imposed. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if greenhouse gases were stabilized at 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.5 C (0.9 F) would still occur.

The Ozone Layer and Climate Change


The Earth's atmosphere is made up of different layers. The layer closest to the surface is called the troposphere. The ozone layer is located above the troposphere in the stratosphere (10 km to about 50 km high). Stratospheric ozone is Earth's natural protection for all life forms, shielding our planet from harmful ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. UV-B radiation is harmful to humans, animals, and plant life.

Earth's Temperature is Rising


1998 was the hottest year since accurate records began in the 1840s, and 10 of the hottest years have occurred during the last 15 years. By examining growth rings from trees and ice cores drilled in Antarctica, scientists have determined that the past decade was the warmest in more than four centuries, and that the current rate of warming is probably unprecedented in at least 10,000 years.

The damage to our environment has already started. As the world warms, the outlook for all life forms looks bleak, unless we can turn down the heat by reducing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Ozone layer protects all life on Earth from the harmful effects of the Sun's rays. It has been depleting for many years now. Scientists have said that currently over Antarctica the Ozone hole is three times the size of

the United States and growing.


Also, according to scientists, more than 60 percent of the ozone layer blanketing the Arctic Circle was lost in the 1999/2000 winter. Also, September 9 to 10, 2000, the ozone hole

stretched over a populated city for the first time. It was in Punta Arenas, a southern Chile city of

about 120,000 people, exposing residents to very high levels of ultra violet radiation. The ozone depletion has also been correlated with higher levels of cancer in humans and animals. Which extends from the Earth's surface up to about 10 kilometers.

Montreal Protocol
Under the auspices of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Governments of the world, including the United States have cooperatively taken action to stop ozone depletion with the "The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer", signed in 1987. In 1995, 2,500 scientists prepared a report called the

Second Assessment of the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC reports that global warming and
climate change is a reality, and that human emissions of greenhouse cases are a culprit. There are several harmful impacts that result from a global warming trend.

Global Warming Can Increase Ozone Depletion


Scientist's are concerned that continued global warming will accelerate ozone destruction and increase stratospheric ozone depletion. Ozone depletion gets worse when the stratosphere (where the ozone layer is), becomes colder. Greenhouse gases act like a blanket for the troposphere and make the stratosphere colder. In other words, global warming can make ozone depletion much worse right when it is supposed to begin its recovery during the next century.

Causes for ozone depletion


Approximately 70 percent of the world's electricity is generated by the burning of fossil fuels. For every additional kWh used, there are more greenhouse gas emissions

generated by electric utility power plants. This is the indirect effect of global warming refrigerants. The environmental impact of even small changes in chiller energy use has an impact. If the efficiency of every centrifugal chiller in the world were increased by only 0.08 kW/ton, power plant-generated greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by literally billions of pounds. This is an amount equal to removing nearly two million cars from the road each year, or to planting nearly a half billion trees every year.

Effects of Ozone Depletion


(UV-B) radiation causes skin cancer, cataracts and immune suppression in both animals and humans. UV-B also damages plants including hardwood forests, and phytoplankton (an alga is a type of phytoplankton which is the building block of the oceanic food chain).

Effect on Infectious Diseases


Most infectious diseases are transmitted by insects and rodents. Transmitters of disease are called vectors. Like other animals and plants, vectors are accustomed to certain climate conditions. If the climate becomes warmer, the mosquito will try to fly to new places where it can survive and expose more people to the disease. Changes in sea surface temperature and sea level can lead to higher incidence of water-borne infectious and toxin-related illnesses such as malaria , cholera and dengue.

Effects on plants

Ozone depletion and global warming have harmful effects on plants and animals. Crops that are damaged will reduce food availability. UV-B also can damage mammalian immune systems which makes humans and other animals more susceptible to infectious diseases. Approximately 92 million people are expected to become refugees from global warming and climate change by 2100, not including any added from population growth.

Effects on Earth's Food Chain


Ozone depletion have harmful effects on plants and animals. If allowed to continue, our food chain will be seriously disrupted. In Antarctica, there has been upwards of 50 percent ozone depletion. This means that an unusually high amount of UVB radiation has reached the Earth's surface in the Antarctic region. "Total Environmental Impact" of

Refrigerants

Sea Level Changes


Sea levels are rising worldwide and along much of the U.S. coast.Tide gauge measurements and satellite altimetry suggest that sea level has risen worldwide approximately 4.8-8.8 inches (12-22 cm) during the last century. A significant amount of sea level rise has likely resulted from the observed warming of the atmosphere and the oceans.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the primary factors driving current sea level rise include:

the expansion of ocean water caused by warmer ocean temperatures melting of mountain glaciers and small ice caps (to a lesser extent) melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic Ice Sheet

Other factors may also be responsible for part of the historic rise in sea level, including the pumping of ground water for human use, impoundment in reservoirs, wetland drainage, deforestation, and the melting of polar ice sheets in response to the warming that has occurred since the last ice age. The rate of sea level rise increased during the 1993-2003 period compared with the longer-term average (1961-2003), although it is unclear whether the faster rate reflects a short-term variation or an increase in the long-term trend. (IPCC, 2007) While the global average sea level rise of the 20th century was 4.4-8.8 inches, the sea level has not risen uniformly from region to region. In the United States:

Sea level has been rising 0.08-0.12 inches per year (2.0-3.0 mm per year) along most of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf

coasts.

The rate of sea level rise varies from about 0.36 inches per year (10 mm per year) along the Louisiana Coast (due to land sinking), to a drop of a few inches per decade in parts of Alaska (because land is rising). See Figure 1 for sea level trends in selected cities.

Globally :

Indonesia, Thailand, and Bangladesh are experiencing aboveaverage sea level rise. Northwestern Australia is experiencing below-average sea level rise, a trend that is evident in much of the ocean between western Australia and East Africa. Most of the Pacific and Atlantic basins are experiencing average to above-average sea level rise. Many coastal areas outside of the U.S., Europe and Japan have too few tide gauges to be sure about long-term trends in regional sea level rise.

Accelerating rate of sea level rise:

The IPCC expresses high confidence that the rate of observed sea level rise increased from the mid 19th to the mid 20th century. During the 20th century, sea level rose at an average rate of 4.8 to 8.8 inches per century (1.2-2.2 mm/year). (IPCC, 2007) Tide gauges show little or no acceleration during the 20th century. Satellite measurements estimate that sea level has been rising at a rate of 9 to 15 inches per century (2.4 to 3.8mm/yr) since 1993, more than 50% faster than the rate that tide gauges estimate over the last century. )

Estimates of global warming and hurricanes


The most recent data indicate (conservatively) that global warming has increased hurricane destructiveness more than 45% in recent years. The data shown here relate hurricane strength to warmer waters but not directly to global warming.

They show that total hurricane energy is very sensitive to warmer water temperatures. This sensitivity is greater than was expected.

The graph above shows the first statistical estimate of the impact of global warming on Atlantic hurricanes in the years 2002-2004. Atlantic sea temperatures have risen by 0.5 C due to long-term global warmingthe consensus estimate for the global increase in sea surface temperatures since the 1800s. The red curve shows the best-fit relationship between annual sea temperatures and total annual hurricane energy. It measures what happens on average but not in any particular year.

Any estimate of global sea warming can be used with the red curve to determine its impact on Atlantic hurricanes. Using the 0.5 degrees warmer estimate shows a hurricane energy (and destructiveness) index for 2003 of 1.90 instead of 0.97. That's a 96% increase. This is an average prediction. Actual yearly outcomes varied, and we will never know what would have happened without global warming. Besides yearly variations, the red trend line is not completely accurate nor is the consensus of a 0.5 deg. C rise in sea temperature.
If global warming has warmed the Atlantic just 0.5 C, there is a 95% chance that it has increased average annual hurricane destructiveness by more than 45%

Top 10 things you can do to prevent Global Warming:

Plant native, drought-resistant trees and shrubs around your home and outdoor air conditioning unit. Use an electric or push mower instead of a gasolinepowered mower to cut your lawn. Replace your current home appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, dish washer) with high-efficiency models. Buy food and other products with reusable or recyclable packaging instead of those in non-recyclable packaging. Replace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. Install a solar heated system to provide your hot water. Recycle your home's waste newsprint, cardboard, glass and metal. Leave your car at home (walk, bike or take mass transit instead). Insulate your home, clean your air conditioning filters and install energy efficient showerheads. Purchase a fuel-efficient car (rated at 32 mpg or more) to replace your most frequently used automobile.

CONCLUSION
Changes were taking place in the environment ever

since human beings in habitated this planet and exploited the resources of the earth for over million of years. During the geological past, the activities of the mankind were little, confined to basic requirements of life, and the number of people demanding natures resources was limited. Humans were affecting the environment only at the local level and that too very minimal. Particularly, in the last 50 years, wonderful advancements in science and technology and transport causing tremendous pollution of the atmosphere as to influence the physical and chemical systems that governs the earth and atmosphere. The scenario what happened previously is nature which was dominating man, but now it is man which is dominating nature.

So, it is not in the matter of speaking about environmental problems but to act accordingly in order to save our earth.

CONTENTS
PGNO

Introduction
2

Periodical climate change


3 1.Past climate change 2.Recent climate change 3.Future climate change

Ten basic tips to stop climate change 9


Government actions to reduce climate change 11 Global warming 13 1.Green house effect 17 2.Ozone layer 20 3.Ozone depletion 23 4.Sea level changes 26 5.Hurricanes 30 Top 10 things to prevent global warming 32 Conclusion 33

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING


AGATHESWARI SHINI R. ARTI M.J P. THULASI A.SUBHA

K.S. KAMALAM R. SARANYA D. SAAHITYA T. VIJAYALAKSHMI