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5th EST Congress WHY TRANSLATION STUDIES MATTERS

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

3rd-5th September 2007 University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Book of Abstracts EST 2007 Ljubljana 3rd-5th September 2007 University of Ljubljana Editors Darja Fier, Iva Jevti, Nike K. Pokorn Department of Translation Studies Faculty of Arts University of Ljubljana Printed by Tiskarna Pleko Printed in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007 Organization EST 2007 was organized by the European Society for Translation Studies (http://www.esttranslationstudies.org/) and Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana (http://www.prevajalstvo.net/index.asp?LANG=eng). The congress webpage is located at http://www.est2007.si. Scientific Committee Gyde Hansen (chair, Denmark), Birgitta Englund Dimitrova (Sweden), Dirk Delabastita (Belgium), Dorothy Kelly (Spain), Heidrun Gerzymisch-Arbogast (Germany), Helle Dam (Denmark), Nike K. Pokorn (Slovenia) Organizing Committee (Department of Translation, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana) Nike K. Pokorn (chair), Vojko Gorjanc, David Limon, pela Vintar, Mojca Schlamberger Brezar, Irena Kovai, Nataa Hirci, Darja Fier, Iva Jevti, Ura Vogrinc Javorek

CIP - Kataloni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjinica, Ljubljana 81'25(063)(082) EUROPEAN Society for Translation Studies. Congress (5 ; 2007 ; Ljubljana) Why translation studies matter : book of abstracts / 5th EST Congress, 3rd-5th September 2007 ; [organized by the European Society for Translation Studies and Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana ; editors Darja Fier, Iva Jevti, Nike K. Pokorn]. - Ljubljana : Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of Arts, 2007 1. Gl. stv. nasl. 2. Fier, Darja, 1978- 3. European Society for Translation Studies 4. Filozofska fakulteta. Oddelek za prevajalstvo (Ljubljana) 234302976 2

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements .............................................................................................................................4 Panels ..................................................................................................................................................5 Posters.................................................................................................................................................7 Papers................................................................................................................................................13

President of the Scientific Committee

Acknowledgements
This book of abstracts has been prepared as an orientation aid for participants in what will be a rich Congress with many parallel sessions. For their help, we are indebted to the members of the Scientific Committee, namely Helle Dam, Dirk Delabastita, Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Heidrun Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Daniel Gile and Dorothy Kelly, and to the members of the Local Organizing Committee, Darja Fier and Iva Jevti. Gyde Hansen, chair of the Scientific Committee Nike K. Pokorn, chair of the Organizing Committee and member of the Scientific Committee

Panels

Panels
Yves GAMBIER University of Turku, Finland yves.gambier@utu.fi Allison BEEBY Departament de Traducci i d'Interpretaci, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona allison.beeby@uab.es Dorothy KELLY Universidad de Granada dkelly@ugr.es Nike K. POKORN University of Ljubljana, Slovenia nike.kocijancic@guest.arnes.si Christiane NORD University of Applied Sciences, Magdeburg/Germany cn@christiane-nord.de Angelique PETRITS European Commission angelique.petrits@cec.eu.int

The Bologna Reform and After?


In the last two decades, different working groups have tried to promote and develop training in translation (e.g. Memorandum BD (1986)/Posi, Socrates Thematic Network (1997-1999), Gemersheim Declaration (2004)). The Bologna Declaration (1999) has put forward several keywords in order to harmonize the different European higher education systems - keywords such as flexibility, employability, competitiveness, mobility, comparability, compatibilty. But most of the countries that signed the Declaration have implemented the reform of the studies within the framework of their legal and administrative regulations. - What are today the challenges and consequences of the University reform? - Can we talk about harmonisation of the curricula in translation while the number of programmes has dramatically increased here and there? - Are professionnal-oriented undergraduate studies possible without qualified teachers? Can we plan a European training of teachers? - What does the quality control imply as long as there is no accreditation process? - What are the common requirements for the Master's Degree as long as a selection is only sometimes taking place? - Is the European Master's Degree as proposed by the DGT (Directorate-General for Translation) <http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/translation/events/emt2006/index_en.htm> an effort to overcome the shortcomings of the reform? - The third cycle (doctoral level) will be on the European agenda in Spring 2007: would a dissertation be possible in a 3-year period? Would networks of professors (not necessarily specialised in TS) be acceptable? Can we develop European Intensive Programmes? - How can EST anticipate new developments and make recommendations for action and/or for research in training?

Panels

Delia CHIARO, Chiara BUCARIA, Rachele ANTONINI University of Bologna at Forl, Italy delia.chiaro@unibo.it, chiara.bucaria2@unibo.it, rachele.antonini@sslmit.unibo.it

In Defence of Empirical Research in Translation and Interpreting Studies Towards Research Thats New. Towards Research That Matters.
The aim of this panel is to argue for more empirically based research within translation studies. Research is generally understood as original investigation or experimentation carried out to further knowledge and understanding acquired through diligent exploration aided by a systematic method of enquiry. The result of research produces not only better knowledge of situations, events, behaviours, phenomena and laws, but it also revises accepted theories in the light of new findings. Naturally, the term research can also be used to describe the collection of information on a particular subject, not to mention the generation of ideas, inventions and artefacts which can lead to new or improved materials, products and processes. The image of a person in a white coat standing in a laboratory surrounded by coloured liquids bubbling in test tubes or a faded photograph of Albert Einstein scribbling mathematical formulae on a blackboard are likely to correspond to the collective imagination of a researcher, a scientist. But what of those working within the humanities, such as scholars of translation? While not corresponding to any popular image, are we not also researchers? Are we not also scientists? If so, then presumably we too should be actively engaged in finding answers to the right questions through methodical analysis. Recently, Translation Studies (TS) has begun to be referred to in terms of its interdisciplinarity. However, in reality, the interdisciplinary essence of TS has come to mean two things. Firstly, by its very nature, the field is inextricably linked to linguistics. Thus, scholars of translation, who had often been educated in linguistics, would naturally apply linguistic approaches to TS. By the same score, the application of methodologies deriving from literary and cultural studies applied to the discipline have also rendered it interdisciplinary. Secondly, the physical act of translation itself can concern any element of human knowledge, thus the label of interdisciplinarity is applied because translations are carried out in every area of human knowledge. But, interdisciplinarity does not only mean working from the perspective of a closely related discipline, neither does it only mean translating texts pertaining to different disciplines. Rather than existing between disciplines, in the sense of being neither here nor there, I would like to argue that an interdiscipline also works with other disciplines on an equal standing. And not only with disciplines which are simply close cousins, like literature and linguistics, but also distant relatives like psychology and sociology, as well as friends of the family such as statistics, mathematics and cognitive science. At a time of immense technological change, massive relocation of human beings and areas of large scale conflict, what can be more relevant than translation, the key to intercultural communication? Yet much research within the discipline tends still to be confined to intellectual argument, not to mention the plethora of small scale case studies frequently carried out by translation scholars. This panel aims to promote research from within the so called Empirical Scientific Paradigm exemplifying research actually carried out by the three panellists within the areas of audiovisual translation, interpreting and child language brokering. Amongst other things the panel will tackle a whole range of objections frequently raised by researchers within the Liberal Arts Paradigm.
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Posters

Posters
Anna KUZNIK Departament de Traducci i d'Interpretaci, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain annakuznik@catalonia.net

La encuesta en la Traductologa Orgenes, metodologa, caractersticas (Taller)


La comunicacin que nos proponemos presentar versa sobre la encuesta, sus caractersticas y su uso en la Traductologa. Desde finales de los aos ochenta, en los Estudios de Traduccin, se empezaron a realizar, en el mbito acadmico, los estudios con aplicacin de la encuesta. Estos 20 aos de experiencia investigadora nos permiten plantear la existencia de la encuesta como una tcnica de investigacin vlida y comn entre los distintos mtodos empricos de investigacin traductolgica. Siendo una herramienta fornea a la Traduccin, proveniente de la investigacin social y mercantil, ha tenido que pasar por una poca de exploracin metodolgica y de adaptacin. Hoy en da, podemos empezar a resumir la experiencia de su aplicacin durante este casi cuarto de siglo y a afirmar su lugar particular entre las encuestas realizadas en otros campos y entre otras tcnicas empricas de investigacin. Gracias a sus caractersticas compartidas con la encuesta de tipo sociolgico, resulta una tcnica pertinente para investigar la realidad social, econmica y laboral del traductor e intrprete, mientras que su principal particularidad -y limitacin a la vez- consiste en un cuerpo conceptual previo an no suficientemente elaborado y en la dificultad de obtener muestras estadsticamente representativas. La aplicacin de la encuesta en los estudios empricos sobre la traduccin e interpretacin demuestran, por un lado, la consolidacin de un colectivo laboral nuevo -los profesionales de interpretacin y traduccin- de mucho inters para los investigadores, y, del otro lado, el acercamiento de nuestra disciplina, cada vez ms consciente y fructfero, a las Ciencias Sociales. La comunicacin constar de tres bloques temticos generales. A saber: 1) la encuesta en las Ciencias Sociales, principalmente en la Sociologa; 2) la encuesta en la Traductologa; 3) comparacin entre una encuesta realizada en el campo de Turismo y un estudio por encuesta proveniente del campo de la Traductologa sobre la traduccin de folletos tursticos. Los bloques tienen una estructura paralela: en cada bloque se plantean sucesivamente los principales aspectos metodolgicos de la encuesta, desde el campo de las Ciencias Sociales primero, luego desde la Traductologa y finalmente desde un estudio comparativo de dos casos de investigaciones por encuesta dentro del mismo mbito temtico: el turismo. En la presentacin de la aplicacin de la encuesta en la Traductologa (bloque 2.), se tomarn en cuenta todas las encuestas recopiladas por nosotros y realizadas en nuestro campo desde finales de los ochenta hasta el ao 2005. Queremos subrayar el aspecto multidisciplinario de la metodologa de investigacin en nuestro campo y sugerir posibles maneras de aprovechamiento de los estudios referidos al mismo campo temtico (el turismo) que se hayan llevado en otras reas de conocimiento (el Turismo). Ya que comentaremos dos estudios concretos por encuesta, la comunicacin tendr un fuerte componente prctico (taller). Toda la informacin recopilada y las reflexiones que de ello resulten forman parte de nuestra tesis doctoral que estamos llevado a cabo en el Departamento de Traduccin e Interpretacin de la Universidad Autnoma de Barcelona (Espaa), con el soporte de la Generalitat de Catalunya. A continuacin desglosamos el contenido de cada bloque temtico de nuestra comunicacin.
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Posters

Bloque 1. La encuesta en las Ciencias Sociales: definicin de las Ciencias Sociales; orgenes de la encuesta; el uso de la encuesta en distintas disciplinas de las Ciencias Sociales; caractersticas del mtodo y del diseo de investigacin con encuesta (mtodo cuantitativo, trabajo de campo); tipologa de encuestas; diferencias entre las encuestas realizadas en el mbito mercantil y acadmico; diseo de investigacin con encuesta; fases de ejecucin de la encuesta; la muestra y el cuestionario: dos elementos fundamentales; puntos comunes y divergencias con otras tcnicas empricas de investigacin. Bloque 2. La encuesta en la Traductologa: definicin de la Traductologa; orgenes del uso de la encuesta; su aplicacin en distintos campos de investigacin dentro de la Traductologa (presentacin de la recopilacin de encuestas en la Traductologa; las encuestas del mbito mercantil y acadmico); tipologa de las encuestas; diseo de investigacin con encuesta; fases de ejecucin de encuestas en la Traductologa; la muestra y el cuestionario; tipos de datos recogidos; tipos de anlisis de datos aplicados; caractersticas comunes de las encuestas en nuestro campo; puntos comunes y divergencias con otras tcnicas empricas. Bloque 3. Comparacin de dos encuestas: la temtica y el planteamiento del problema de investigacin; el diseo de investigacin; el marco terico/ conceptual; los elementos bsicos de las dos encuestas (la muestra y el cuestionario); tipos de datos recogidos; modelos de anlisis de datos; tipos de conclusiones inferidas. Para cerrar la comunicacin y en trminos de conclusiones generales, se presentarn propuestas de algunos temas en nuestro campo -la Traduccin e Interpretacin- que se podran investigar con xito, en un futuro, con aplicacin de la encuesta y soluciones metodolgicas ms apropiadas, a nuestro modo de ver, para este tipo de investigacin.

Posters

Sieglinde POMMER McGill University, Canada and University of Vienna, Austria spommer@post.harvard.edu

How Translation Matters in ECJ Proceedings


This posters goal is to achieve a clarifying visualization of the important role translation is playing in the proceedings before the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance of the European Communities. Inspired by her traineeship at the Highest European Court in Luxembourg in 2005, the author aims at showing how translation is integrated in the workflow of the legal proceedings and in how far these are influenced by European multilingualism and the resulting necessity of translation. Depicting how, from a practical viewpoint, translation matters in the context of European legal harmonization, this poster highlights the paramount influence of translation on the European unification project and describes legal translation at the European Court of Justice as the invisible machinery of the motor of European legal integration. The European Union currently has 21 official languages. The Translation Service at the European Court, shared between the Court of Justice, the Court of First Instance and the Civil Service Tribunal, exclusively employs so-called lawyer-linguists who have completed a full legal education in one Member State and are required to have thorough knowledge of at least one other European legal system and language. The working language at the Court is French. The exact course of events differs according to the type of proceedings launched, namely preliminary rulings, direct actions, appeals, and procedures before the Court of First Instance. The language of the case is the one in which the initial request for a hearing in accordance with the law is registered at the Registry of the Court of Justice in the language of the national court. Most translations are performed into the language of the case as well as into the internal working language. Furthermore, the poster gives an overview of what types of legal texts are translated at the ECJ and at what time during the proceedings. The first document to be translated usually is the request for a hearing, followed by the translation of the report of this hearing in case an oral procedure takes place. In preliminary rulings, the Opinion, which is drawn up by the Advocate General in his own language, is then translated into the language of the case and into the internal working language. The judgment must be delivered in the languages of the case and must also be translated into all official languages. Similarly, in direct actions the application, the defence, the reply and the rejoinder are translated into the internal working language. Statements in interventions lodged by the Member States are not only translated into the internal working language but also into the language of the case. Furthermore, minor divergences in the procedure for appeals to the European Court of Justice as well as the one before the Court of First Instance are addressed and the special tasks (such as additional translations of certain essential documents for the case-file) of the language divisions whose language is that of the case are explained. Finally, this poster analyzes how the steady expansion of the European Union already in 2007, the admissions of Bulgaria and Romania are expected - and how concomitant complications and resulting drawbacks, such as delays or lack of translations and the recent adoption of relay translation systems to cater for the new languages, influence existing practices.

Posters

Jelena PRALAS Institute for foreign languages, University of Montenegro pralas@cg.yu

Practical Use of Translation Studies Research Results in Teaching Translation


Being a small country and using the language similar, or the same as the language of its much larger neighbours, Montenegro has never been a significant market for translations, either literary or technical (translations in the field of law, economics, technical sciences, etc.). It usually imported translations from neighbouring countries, which led to the situation that neither translation practice, nor translation training developed significantly. Translation Studies has not even been tackled here yet. However, the period of transition, reforms that are needed and required by international community, the need to harmonize our laws with European and other international standards, and particularly aspiration towards European Union along with the increased interest of various foreign investors in investing in our country led to the increased demand for translation, particularly the technical ones, which in its turn generated a demand for translation training (leaving nevertheless Translation Studies theory and research aside, still non-existent or at their earliest beginnings). Having experience in translating, teaching translation and researching in the field of Translations Studies in Montenegrin context I am of the opinion that Translations Studies is not only useful but sometimes of vital importance if you teach translation with a view of producing high quality translators. It makes translators start thinking responsibly about what they are doing. It makes them be aware of the decisions they are supposed to make and of the responsibility they are taking. My paper will try to show and prove this by providing an example of using some of the results from my research in Translation Studies in teaching translation. The research I am working on deals with translation of culture-specific items in Julian Barness fiction. Using the dynamic definition provided by Javier Franco Aixela I am trying not only to identify the culture specific items in the novels and short stories written by Julian Barnes, but also to describe various techniques translators used when dealing with them, like conservation (repetition, orthographic adaptation, linguistic (non-cultural) translation etc.) and substitution (synonymy, limited universalization, absolute universalization, naturalization, deletion, autonomous creation). After describing them, my research tries to tackle the issue of the products produced in the process in which these techniques were used as well as their effects. One of the goals is to try to explain why the translators used the techniques they used i.e. to find a rationale behind the decisions they made. Although my approach in this research is in no way prescriptive, and although my wish is to remain in the domain of descriptive, I think that the results of my research can be successfully used in teaching translation. Not by saying to students that there are certain norms they should apply, but simply by telling them that there are different techniques, describing how and why they are used, and most importantly showing them what the effects of the decisions translators made in translating J. Barnes were. Seeing that, students of translation start changing their approach in translation, they start thinking more thoroughly about what they should do with culture-specific items when translating and about the effects of their decisions. This does not necessarily have to be applied to literary translation. On the contrary. I used this in the classroom where I teach translation of legal texts and my paper will provide examples for that.

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Posters

Mirna RADIN SABADO University of Novi Sad anrim@uns.ns.ac.yu

Translating Nadsat Language as a Means of Estrangement in a Clockwork Orange


Translating generic fiction usually involves difficulties arising from areas other than the language field. One specific case in that respect is Burgess novel, A Clockwork Orange. Its popularity worldwide mostly relied on the commercial and artistic success of the film by Stanley Kubrick, rather than on the novels literary merits. Therefore, its translations often had been influenced by its visual representation, repeatedly showing disregard for the idiosyncratic features of its text. Its narrative framework is retrospective first person narrative, and the novel distinctively belongs to the dystopian genre, which assigns one of the major functional features to the Nadsat language created by the author. Presenting an innovation to the genre, Burgess formed this new language mainly by introducing innovated lexical units, which may be seen as blends with either Slavic or Russian root, or combinations of Slavic roots and English suffixes, into the English language system. Such a linguistic device, functions within the genre matrix as a means of estrangement, i.e. it transports the reader to the unspecified point of time in the future, without introducing any other means of estrangement (time travel machines, dreams etc.) previously common to the genre. Therefore, maintaining its existence in the translations would be of crucial importance. A contrast of Slavic or Russian roots and English lexemes is another distinctive feature of the Nadsat, and its implications may be assessed in literary analyses placing the novel into the appropriate social and historical perspective. The present paper seeks to provide an insight into the problems translators might have encountered in their attempt to translate Clockwork Orange into Slavic languages, presenting some of the solutions deployed in Russian translations, and more importantly, to conduct an in-depth analysis of both the original and the translated text which would provide explanations and evaluate translators choices regarding the three translations of the novel into Serbian (Paklena pomoranda Zoran ivkovi 1973, Mirjana Miti 2000, Zoran ivkovi/Aleksandar Nedeljkovi 2006), and one into Croatian (Paklena narana by Marko Fanovi 1999). The preliminary analysis indicates that even though the translator of the first Serbian edition (1973) had recognized the importance of the contrast of Slavic and Germanic, or English components, of Nadsat, he failed to conduct a literary analysis of the novel, thus completely disregarding its generic structuring. Apart from being a translation of the abridged American edition, published in the edition dedicated to the international film festival FEST where Kubricks film was first presented to the Yugoslav audience, the first Serbian version of the translation eliminated Nadsat completely, substituting it with a version of fairly neutral colloquial language of the urban population of the time. The second Serbian translation followed as late as the year 2000, but surprisingly enough, was also based on the abridged American edition. Nadsat in the 2000 translation received no due attention either, or received even less attention than in the translation from 1973. It was transformed into a semi-vulgar youth street talk of the 1990s, therefore no longer functioning as an estrangement strategy, but quite the opposite, counterfeiting the time frame and reference.

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Posters

The third Serbian translation, the one of 2006, is expected by the end of the year. The Croatian translation of 1999 offers a solution for the Nadsat which is fairly acceptable and functional within the genre frame, but also lacks proper literary analysis that would include all the aspects of Nadsat mentioned as distinctive features of the original text. The investigation is, thus, primarily focused on the potential problems involved in the translation of the specific linguistic features with multiple functional aspects within a literary work, and the interlocking of genre analysis and translators choices affecting the generic matrix of the translated text, hoping to provide arguments which would contribute to the future translation practices.

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Papers

Papers
Kristiina ABDALLAH University of Tampere kristiina.abdallah@uta.fi

The New Science of Networks Uncovering the Major Principles Affecting the Field of Professional Translation
Since the 1990s, the field of professional translation has undergone major structural changes. As a consequence, many in-house translators are being outsourced and accordingly, the freelance market has become more competitive. With outsourcing, translators are less frequently in direct contact with their end client, for they often work as subcontractors in global production networks which consist of multiple intermediaries. These new developments have greatly affected the role and status of translators at the same time posing new challenges to Translation Studies as a discipline. How can we take stock of what is happening in the field of translation? This paper will explore the use of networks as a methodological tool to uncover the underlying principles and forces that affect our field. According to the Hungarian physicist Albert-Lzsl Barabsi (2002), networks are essential tools in grasping complex systems and production networks are, by definition, complex systems (Patkai 2004). The paper sketches an outline of a network analysis of the contemporary translation industry. Towards this end, I will draw from my empirical ethnographic work that includes translator interviews between the years of 2005-2006, and then relate this data to the theory of the self-organizing, scale-free networks proposed by Barabsi. The traditional dyadic model that presents the translator as an expert who is in a direct contact with the client is being challenged in the current translation market by a new structure that takes the form of a network. This new structure no longer has the client and the translator in direct contact, and the emergence of the translation company as a powerful intermediary between them has changed the dynamics of the field, resulting in a new configuration. This new configuration has been called a production network, which is a set of inter-firm relationships that bind a group of firms into a larger economic unit (Sturgeon 2001: 2). Production networks have emerged in the wake of globalisation when lead firms (such as television channels, companies or institutions) outsource those activities that were previously performed in-house, and the turn-key suppliers (such as translation companies) serve these lead firms by providing a full-package of goods and services. But instead of hiring in-house staff, the turn-key suppliers often subcontract work to component suppliers, i.e. subcontractors who may in turn have another layer of subcontractors for ever smaller units of work. In the emerging networks, these lead firms often provide instructions and specifications on what to make, whereas the turn-key suppliers can usually decide how and where the products or services are made. (Sturgeon 2001: 89.) The subcontractors have less say in any of this, and they are typically only linked to the end client via the intermediary supplier. When translators get involved in such economic networks, they are faced with a different rationality from the familiar dyadic relations between the client and the translator.

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Papers

In the contemporary language industry, the turn-key suppliers of documentation, localization or translations often deal with huge multilingual projects consisting of thousands of pages, and a subcontracting translator for one part of one language version is merely one tiny part of a complex system. With network-based production, the translators position and role as the expert of translation seems to have diminished, while translation companies have firmly established themselves as the intermediary between the client and the translator. Such a revolutionary development cannot be ignored in Translation Studies. A major challenge now is to extract information about the complicated working environment with its various subsystems and about the relations of its actors. For as Buzelin aptly notes, translated texts are the expression of the relations between the various actors who have participated in their production (2004: 729; see also Buzelin 2005). As global production networks have made translating part of a bigger system of production, the current challenge is to understand the big picture. In this paper, I will take one step in this direction by applying some of the findings of Barabsis network analysis to the field of translation industry. References: Barabsi, Albert-Lzsl (2002): Linkit. Verkostojen uusi teoria. (Linked: the New Science of Networks).Translated from English by K. Pietilinen, Helsinki: Terra Cognita Oy. Buzelin, Hlne (2004): La Traductologie, ethnographie et la production des connaissances. Meta 49 (4), pp.729746. Buzelin, Hlne: 2005. Unexpected Allies: How Latours Network Theory Could Complement Bourdieusian Analyses in Translation Studies. The Translator. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Translation and Interpreting (ed.) Moira Inghilleri, Vol. 11, Number 2. November 2005, pp. 193-218. Patkai, Bela (2004): An Integrated Methodology for Modelling Complex Adaptive Production Networks. Doctoral dissertation. Tampere University of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Sturgeon, Timothy J.: 2001. How Do We Define Value Chains and Production Networks? IDS Bulletin, Vol.32, 3. 1-10. URL: www.ids.ac.uk/ids/global/pdfs/vcdefine.pdf > Read 1.3.2005.

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Papers

Barbara AHRENS*, Eliza KALDERONOVA**, Christoph KRICK, Wolfgang REITH *University of Applied Sciences Cologne barbara.ahrens@fh-koeln.de **University of Mainz / FASK Germersheim eliza.kalderonova@gmx.net

fMRI for Exploring Simultaneous Interpreting


For centuries, human cognition and its underlying neurophysiological processes have been fascinating scientists from different disciplines, for example medicine and philosophy. In the 20th century, also psychology, linguistics and computer science started to deal with the human mind and the complex tasks it is able to master due to efficiency, adaptability, expert skills and training. One of the problems faced by empirical research done in these fields has always been that of introspection. Since state-of-the-art technology, such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), nowadays allows researchers to have a look into living and functioning brains, neurophysiological processes have been approached in a large number of empirical research projects and studies carried out in the different above-mentioned fields. Simultaneous interpreting with its underlying cognitive processes is a complex task which also has been fascinating researchers from different disciplines, since it involves the simultaneous processing of two languages. Therefore, the bilingual brain with its neurophysiological characteristics as well as with its cognitive resources and efficiency is regarded as a valuable object of study. As far as neurophysiological processes in interpreting are concerned, only a few number of empirical studies have been conducted so far (cf. Gran/Fabbro 1988, Kraushaar/Lambert 1987, Kurz 1996, Krick et al. 2005). This might be due to several reasons: on the one hand, suitable technology has emerged only in the last years, offering more detailed and precise imaging of cerebral activities, on the other hand, the complexity of the interpreters tasks poses a lot of methodological problems. The paper presented here deals with a case study using fMRI for gaining insight into several student interpreters brains while they were interpreting! Core questions of the study that will be discussed are: - Is it possible to use fMRI for empirical research into simultaneous interpreting? - What kind of methodological problems have to be faced and how can they be solved? - Is it possible to observe neurophysiological activities while the interpreter is interpreting? - If fMRI is applicable to simultaneous interpreting research, would there be differences in the cerebral activities during interpreting as compared to spontaneous speech production? The case study with the language combination Spanish into German was carried out in cooperation with the Department of Neuroradiology of Saarland University Hospital in Homburg/Saar, Germany. The paper will discuss the method of fMRI as it was applied to speech production in simultaneous interpreting and to spontaneous speech production in the case study, the problems encountered and possible solutions in order to explain how this kind of research could contribute to a deeper understanding of the interpreters brain and the way it works. Since the test sample comprises a limited number of student interpreters and its results thus have to be regarded as preliminary, the study presented here considers itself as a starting point for further studies using fMRI in simultaneous interpreting research. For this reason, the paper will also deal with the question of future research in the interdisciplinary context of interpreting studies, medicine and neurophysiology, psychology and psycholinguistics.

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Papers

Axun AIERBE University of the Basque Country axun.aierbe@ehu.es

Los estudios de traduccin en el pas Vasco Espaol-Vasco / Vasco-Espaol


Los estudios de traduccin son relativamente recientes en el Pas Vasco. De hecho, los estudios universitarios se han implantado hace menos de una dcada (actualmente hay tres promociones de titulados universitarios), de modo que la investigacin en torno a la prctica traductolgica es muy reciente. En el Pas Vasco se hablan desde antao el euskara o la lengua vasca, la espaola y la francesa. Actualmente existen realidades polticas y administrativas diferentes en cuanto al nivel de oficialidad de la lengua vasca. El espaol es oficial en el Pas Vasco peninsular y el francs en el Pas Vasco continental. En cuanto a la distribucin administrativa se refiere, las provincias vascas situadas en el Pas Vasco continental (sudoeste de Francia) conforman junto con el Barn el departamento de los Pirineos Atlnticos que se encuentra en la regin de Aquitania, pero no disponen de autonoma poltica o administrativa dentro del departamento y la lengua vasca no es oficial. Las provincias situadas en el Pas Vasco peninsular (norte de Espaa) se encuentran a su vez divididas en dos comunidades autnomas: la Comunidad Autnoma del Pas Vasco y la Comunidad Foral de Navarra. A partir de 1978, ao en que se aprob la Constitucin Espaola, la lengua vasca disfruta de distintos niveles de oficialidad. En lo que respecta a la Comunidad Autnoma del Pas Vasco, el euskara es lengua co-oficial junto con el espaol y se rige su uso a tenor de lo dispuesto en la Ley Bsica de Normalizacin del Uso del Euskera desde que se aprobara en el ao 1982. En lo que se refiere a la Comunidad Foral de Navarra, existe una zonificacin lingstica basada en tres realidades jurdicas diferentes a tenor de lo dispuesto en la Ley del Vascuence aprobada en 1986. Esta situacin de reciente oficialidad de la lengua vasca y de bilingismo oficial ha llevado a realizar una gran cantidad de traducciones principalmente del espaol a la lengua vasca, tanto en el mbito administrativo como en el editorial, audiovisual, literario, cientfico-tcnico, etc. Sin embargo, la prctica traductolgica en sentido contrario (de la lengua vasca a la espaola) es muchsimo menor, y los textos traducidos corresponden principalmente al mbito literario, donde una buena parte son autotraducciones. En este sentido, se puede afirmar que los textos literarios en lengua vasca son textos de partida, por lo que el euskara es una lengua de origen en lo que respecta a este tipo de textos, pero actualmente la lengua vasca (al tener unos 700 000 hablantes) es una lengua meta a la que se traducen todo tipo de textos. En este sentido, durante las ltimas dcadas se han realizado muchas traducciones, pero la investigacin realizada sobre las traducciones existentes es ms escasa y reciente an, dado que se ha primado la prctica traductolgica a la investigacin. Sin embargo, la implantacin de los estudios universitarios de Traduccin e Interpretacin donde tanto las lenguas vasca como la espaola son lenguas de origen y lenguas meta, a su vez, requiere de investigaciones y estudios traductolgicos, que comienzan a aflorar. Esta comunicacin pretende realizar una presentacin de la situacin actual de los estudios de traduccin en el Pas Vasco, donde son mucho ms abundantes los estudios sobre las traducciones realizadas del espaol a la lengua vasca que los estudios sobre las traducciones realizadas partiendo de la lengua vasca hacia la espaola.

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Papers

Fabio ALVES Federal University of Minas Gerais fabio.ufmg@gmail.com

Investigating the Impact of Practice and Familiarity in the Cognitive Performance of Professional Translators When Using Translation Memory Systems
The ever more recurrent use of translation memory systems (henceforth TMS) in translation practice has introduced substantial changes in the way professional translators work. It may be argued that having to adjust to new technologies inevitably brings about changes in cognitive patterns already consolidated among professional translators. Recent experimental studies (Dragsted, 2004; OBrien, 2006) have attempted to investigate the type of impact that these new technologies may have on the performance of translators. These works have focused on changes in segmentation patterns and in post-editing processes resulting from the use of TMS. Dragsted (2004) investigated segmentation in natural and in translation memory systems contexts in the language pair Danish-English and found evidence that natural segmentation is affected by the use of a TMS. Dragsteds subjects were professional translators with little or no experience in the use of these recent technological tools. Her results, however, suggest that subjects with greater experience with TMS could perhaps perform differently. The present paper builds on Dragsted (2004) and investigates the impact of a TMS on the natural segmentation patterns of Brazilian professional translators already familiar with the new technology. Prior to the experiment, two pilot studies were carried out with Brazilian professional translators to verify the impact of familiarity with TMS as an independent variable (Pilot Study 1) and to calibrate the instruments and design of the final experiment (Pilot Study 2). In the experiment, which was carried out in two stages, 12 Brazilian professional translators were selected, 6 of them translating from German and 6 others translating from English into Brazilian Portuguese. All of them were fully familiar with Trados, the TMS chosen for the experiment. Two pairs of correlated texts, in English and German, of approximately 550 words each, were chosen. All subjects were instructed beforehand about the experimental conditions they were undergoing, signed consent forms, and, in order to increase the ecological validity of the data collection, were reimbursed for their professional services at Brazilian market prices. They also received written instructions about the translation brief in both phases of the experiment. During the experiment, carried out without time pressure, subjects had access to online resources as well as to printed forms of documentation. The first two source texts in English and German, about a blood sugar meter, were translated by the 12 subjects with the aid of the software Translog developed by Jakobsen & Schou. A log file with a pause representation protocol was generated and retrospective protocols were recorded with the aid of Translogs replay function immediately after the translations were finished. In the second stage of the experiment, the same 12 subjects were asked to translate the second pair of correlated source texts an excerpt from a an electric toothbrush manual, from English and German. At this second stage they worked with Trados and the onscreen recording software Camtasia was used to keep track of the subjects translation processes in a similar fashion as that provided by Translog. As in stage 1, retrospective protocols were recorded with the aid of Camtasia`s replay function immediately after the translation works came to an end. The data generated by the experiment was treated quantitatively with SPSS and qualitatively with Nud*Ist to account for differences in the phases of orientation, drafting and end-revision (Jakobsen, 2002) and to contrast segmentation patterns in both environments -- Translog and Camtasia (Trados) -- with the segmentation patterns of the Danish professional translators reported by Dragsted (2004).
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The data analysis points out that there were no significant differences in orientation times in both environments and suggests that the slight variation observed in the Trados environment may have been caused by the need observed among some of the professional translators to calibrate the screen to the use of the TMS. Contrary to what was found by Dragsted (2004), pauses in the drafting phase seemed to indicate that in long segments beyond clause boundaries cognitive segmentation can be mapped onto text segmentation (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004) in units which follow a pattern centered on Theme since text production progresses through the non-paused translation of a Rheme and its upcoming Theme. Pauses observed within sentence boundaries were usually shorter than three seconds, which could be an indication of operational pauses imposed by the TMS instead of pauses due to cognitive processing. Finally, differently from the subjects in Dragsted (2004), Brazilian professional translators were found to have longer revision times in the Trados environment during the endrevision phase. The differences in results bring further light into the evidence provided by Dragsted (2004). By replicating her study with a similar methodology, the results presented in this paper show that, from a complementary perspective, the degree of familiarity with TMS can play a major role in the impact this new technology has on the performance of professional translators and open room for a discussion about the role of deliberate practice (Ericsson, 2002) on the development of expertise in translation contexts where new technologies are becoming more and more prevalent.

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Cecilia ALVSTAD University of Oslo cecal@isk.liu.se

Images and Imaginations Constructed and Reproduced by Translation: Some Reflections about How Unequal Intercultural Relations Can Be Set in Motion by Translational Analysis
Within Translation Studies translation is generally conceived of as a complex linguistic, literary and cultural process in which different kinds of power relations are in play (see e.g. Bassnett & Lefevere 1998:137). One of the reasons that makes Translation Studies matter is that it aims at an understanding of such relations across languages and cultures. Through extensive analysis of the selection of texts that are translated, the people who translate them, the publishing houses that publish them, the linguistic-textual make-up of translations and reception, TS furthers our understanding of both source and target cultures, literatures and languages. In addition to this, research carried out within TS can enhance reflection about how these intercultural and interlinguistic relations would be affected if translation, publishing and reviewing of texts were carried out differently. The objective of this paper is to promote such reflection in relation to a specific literary field and target culture, namely Swedish translation of literature originating in Latin America. Together with literature from Africa and Asia literary works from Latin America constitute a genre of it own within Swedish translation literature. It has its own publishing houses, its own magazines, its own libraries, its own experts and its own vested interests and discourse. The fact that literary works from these continents enter the Swedish target culture as part of the same package is likely to both reproduce and create borders that are not only, or even predominantly, geographical, linguistic or cultural but also economical, historical, ideological and political. One could ask if literary works originating in Latin America, Africa and Asia do have things in common, that make the Swedish target culture treat them differently than for example literature from North America, Germany, Hungary or Spain. Maybe literary works originating in these continents do not have things in common, that makes them different from other literary works, until they enter the Swedish target system and meet its predominant norms of expectations. In that case, what do these norms of expectation look like? Is it for example expected in the Swedish target culture that literary works from Latin America, Africa and Asia answer to demands of exoticism, authenticity and/or descriptions of the pre-modern. Translational analysis can lay open not only prejudices of perception (see Herman 1999:95) but also make explicit open and concealed agendas of those who translate, their commissioners and readers. Herman (1999:95) argues that this is because translations construct or produce their originals. This paper will point at the fact that translations not only construct their originals, additionally they create and reproduce images and imaginations of continents and countries, of people and their cultures, literatures and languages. It will also suggest that stereotyped images of old-fashioned, unequal societies created in translation can make the Swedish target culture readers feel modern, wealthy, educated, and more equal when, for example, gender is concerned. TS, by laying bare images and imaginations of people/continents/cultures/literatures constructed and reproduced by translation, can enhance different groups of professionals (such as translators, publishers, reviewers, librarians, teachers of literature, languages, history and social sciences, students and scholars within the field of humanities,) to approach translations in more informed and reflexive ways. This in turn can give rise to demands of other texts to be translated, published and reviewed in other ways.

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Alexandra ASSIS ROSA University of Lisbon a.assis.rosa@netcabo.pt

Narrator Profile in Translation Work-In-Progress for A Semi-Automatic Analysis of Narratorial Dialogistic and Attitudinal Positioning in Translated Fiction
This paper presents work-in-progress for the development of a semi-automatic methodology for the analysis of shifts in narrator profile in translated fiction. Such a methodology is developed for a comparative quantitative analysis of electronic source and target texts organized in a parallel corpus. The first part of this paper presents the theoretical motivation for the organization of two systems of categories focusing on the relationship between the two discursive centres involved in reported speech narrator and character (but also quoter and quotee in other text types). The first system organizes in a cline a set of descriptive categories and subcategories of reported speech considered expressive of different evaluative positions towards what the narrator represents as speech by other speakers, and thus of different types of dialogistic or intertextual positioning; the second system organizes categories expressive of the narrators positive or negative evaluation mainly of characters that intervene in the story, and thus of attitudinal positioning, also as proposed by Appraisal Theory (White 2001). The second part of this paper analyses a selection of examples illustrative of such categories, and presents and comments the results of the comparative quantitative analysis of eight European Portuguese versions of Charles Dickenss Oliver Twist translated for juvenile and adult readerships. The purpose of developing this methodology for a semi-automatic quantitative and qualitative analysis of translated narrative fiction is to help describe the way interlinguistic translation may transform the narrator profile in terms of dialogistic/intertextual and attitudinal positioning as well as to contribute for the description of translational regularities, to correlate such regularities with contextual variables (such as the implied readership) and to formulate translational norms (Toury 1995). White, Peter R. 2001. Guide to Appraisal. http://www.grammatics.com/appraisal/AppraisalGuide/Framed/Frame.htm (20 October 2006). Toury 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. van Leuven-Zwart, Kitty M. 1989. "Translation and original: similarities and dissimilarities I", Target 1:2, pp. 151-181. van Leuven-Zwart, Kitty M. 1990. "Translation and original: similarities and dissimilarities II", Target 2:1, pp. 69-95.

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Louise AUDET Concordia University; Universit de Montral louise.audet@umontreal.ca

Conscience de la cration en traduction littraire Deux parcours gntiques


Le domaine de la thorie de la traduction est des plus riches : les coles et les courants couvrent tous les aspects de cette foisonnante activit, de lhermneutique (Steiner) stylistique contrastive (Vinay et Darbelnet), en passant par les courants philosophiques, littraires ou linguistiques (Berman, Meschonnic, Folkart) et interdisciplinaires (faisant appel la sociologie, la psycholinguistique), ce domaine a connu un essor fulgurant. Les thoriciens se sont galement intresss laspect cognitif de lactivit traduisante. Des modles ont t proposs pour dcrire les processus mentaux que des analyses empiriques sont venues confirmer ou infirmer. Ainsi, dans le domaine linguistique, Kintch (1998) a dvelopp un modle intgratif de la comprhension. En ce qui concerne la comprhension des textes littraires, il met lhypothse que tout - des relations textuelles aux images, au style, aux motions suscites chez le lecteur - concourt leffet de littrarit. En traductologie, Kussmaul (1992) a repris le modle de la crativit en quatre phases propos par Wallas (1926) : la phase prparatoire, lincubation, lillumination, et lvaluation. Dancette (1995) a illustr la comprhension en traduction par le schma de la double hlice qui reproduit les mouvements de la comprhension et de la reformulation en traduction, du temps 1 au temps n. Tout rcemment, elle a labor le concept de la comprhension crative (Dancette 2006, paratre), quelle dfinit comme la capacit dintgrer et de concilier des lments du sens disparates, voire incongrus, et den faire une production concise (unique) et cohrente. La cration dans le processus traductif a galement fait lobjet de travaux. Ce domaine est encore peu explor et cest du point de vue dune tude gntique que nous lavons abord (Audet 2006, thse de doctorat). Ce poste dobservation privilgi nous a permis de suivre les parcours de quatre rpondantes et dapporter quelques lments de rponse la question : qui, parmi ces traductrices, est cratrice et en quoi lest-elle ? Nous avons constat que les traductrices cratrices se caractrisent par des stratgies de r-criture qui mettent contribution leur rsilience, leur acharnement produire une traduction aboutie. Au-del de la valeur autoformative de lexercice du raisonnement voix haute releve par Dancette (1992), nous voudrions ici prsenter un aspect particulier de la cration en traduction littraire, celui de la conscience, ce thtre cartsien, lieu de prsentation des informations traites par nos sens. Lanalyse des donnes introspectives nous montre que le traducteur littraire cratif a une conscience aigu de son travail, et que cette conscience se manifeste par une trs grande cohrence du geste traductif, de lavanttraduction la posttraduction. La capacit valuative (expression de la satisfaction en regard dexigences leves) et les connaissances dexpert sont galement des atouts. Nous illustrerons notre propos par deux exemples rvlateurs de patrons prfrentiels de travail, lun sur laxe syntagmatique (celui du rythme, de lorganisation phrastique) et lautre, sur laxe paradigmatique (le jeu connotatif).

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Brian BAER Kent State University bbaer@kent.edu

Reviewing Translations in The U.S. Popular Press The Effects of Translation Studies on Translation Criticism
While Translation Studies has had a significant effect on a variety of academic disciplines, its influence outside the academyon general readers and mainstream publishers of translated literaturehas been less evident and very little studied. Reviews of translated literature that appear in the popular press represent arguably the most widely disseminated and read form of translation criticism and therefore can be assumed to play an extremely important role in shaping the general reading publics views on translation. However, reviewers of translated literature for the popular press are often monolingual, which limits their capacity to analyze the decisions taken by the translator in fashioning the target text and so fosters, perhaps inevitably, an over-reliance on readability as a category of analysis. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, by comparing translation criticism published in the popular press to criticism published in academic journals and reviews, I attempt to provide a better understanding of how translation criticism in the popular press shapes not only the reception of a specific work of translated literature, but, more importantly, the general publics understanding of translation in general and literary translation in particular. Second, I suggest a number of interventions designed to introduce certain fundamental concepts of Translation Studies into translation criticism written by monolingual reviewers for a general reading public. Growing out of my involvement with the forthcoming volume in the Modern Language Associations series dedicated to teaching literature, Teaching Literature in Translation, this paper offers a practical guide to reviewing literature in translation. For the descriptive analysis of translation criticism in the popular press and in scholarly journals, I examine reviews of three recent English translations of Russian literature, all of which were widely reviewed: Peter Constantines translation of the Complete Works of Isaac Babel (Norton 2002); Richard Peaver and Larissa Volokhonskys translation of Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy (Penguin 2000); and Andrew Bromfields translation of Homo zapiens by Viktor Pelevin (Viking 2002). The fact that the Peaver and Volohonsky translation of Anna Karenina and most of the Constantine translations of Babel are retranslations has sparked a lively debate among reviewers, which has raised a number of important theoretical issues, such as: the necessity and value of re-translation, the stability of a translated text versus a source text or original, and the indebtedness of re-translators to their translation forebears. Like the evaluation of the individual translations themselves, this debate has been treated rather differently in the popular press and in scholarly journals. For reviews published in the popular press, I focus on three of the most influential newspapers in the United States: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, and the Christian Science Monitor. For reviews published in academic journals, I have selected the most influential journals in the field of Slavic languages and literatures: Slavic Review, Russian Review, and Slavic and East European Journal. Particular attention will be paid to instances in which reviews published in the popular press differ markedly from those offered in scholarly journals.

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Papers

Elena BANDN University of Len dfmebf@unileon.es

Rewriting Renaissance English Plays for the Spanish Theatrical System under Francos Dictatorship Findings and Conclusions
In this paper, I present some of the findings and conclusions of my dissertation, which is framed within the theoretical and methodological aspects of DTS and carried out as part of the TRACE (TRAnlations CEnsored) project. The aim of this research has been to establish the effect of the Francoist (self)censorship on the rewritings of classical English plays for the Spanish theatrical system (Aaltonen 2000) under the dictatorship of Franco, when theatre texts were subject to a rigid state control. Secondly, I have aimed to identify the norms of translation underlying the transposition of theatre texts which were censored and performed on the Spanish stage between 1939 and 1978. This research relies on the sources found in the A.G.A. (Archivo General de la Administracin), a national archive located in Madrid, where the censorship files as well as the censored texts are kept. I have carried out a descriptive-comparative analysis of STs and TTs proceeding from a catalogue (TRACEtci 1939-1985) of assumed translations (Toury 1995) to a textual parallel corpus of selected censored fragments. For the analysis, I have selected six source texts (Hamlet, The Taming of the Shrew, Othello, Volpone, The Changeling and Tis Pity Shes a Whore) and 30 different Spanish rewritings of these texts signed by important playwrights of the period. It is a corpus based study which uses the rplica (Merino 1994) as the main unit of segmentation and comparison. The procedure of analysis is dynamic as it takes into account the singularity of theatre texts and the great dissimilarities that exist between the ST and its different target rewritings. It is based on the model proposed by Lambert & Van Gorp (1985) and it consists of two components: a preliminary study and a textual study, at the macro- and microtextual levels. From the observation of the translation strategies in each case study, I have stepped into the formulation of the norms of translation that governed the translators behaviour in this particular context. On the one hand, I have reached the conclusion that the main effect of external censorship had to do mainly with the choice of texts. The playwrights/translators, as initiators of the process of translation, chose canonical texts, considered safe from the point of view of censorship. Thus, the playwrights/translators acted as patrons themselves and thus exercising power as well as being subject to the power of others (Chesterman 1997: 65). The main function of these texts in the target context was to contribute to create a National Theatre based on notions of culture and prestige. Only in the seventies did adaptations emerge that could be considered reactionary to the morals of the Francoist ideology, as it was the case of La nueva fierecilla domada by Juan Guerrero Zamora. Besides, in this decade, The Changeling and Tis Pity Shes a Whore were performed for the first time on the Spanish stages, since they could have been prohibited in previous years. On the other hand, concerning the translation strategies at the textual level, it may seem that changes due to the requirements of the stage were far more influential to translation choices than (self)censorship itself.

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The rewriters use mechanisms of omission, addition and modification in order to manipulate the text and create an acceptable rewriting of the original play instead of being faithful to the form of the source text. These manipulations could have been motivated by a wish to reach a theatre audience and to make the text comprehensible for the spectators. In that respect, (self)censorship could be regarded as an issue related with questions of decorum, eliminating sexual and religious references and softening the indecorous language of the ST. Most of these manipulations are not exclusive of the Francoist context. These strategies may imply a continuation of the previous translating tradition through the appropriation of preceeding translations. From my point of view, the result is not a source text-bound translation but a stage-bound rewriting. I have observed a functional and dynamic relation of equivalence between the source texts and the target texts as the main aim of the translators seems to be to maintain a theatrical equivalence, that is to say, that the text functions on the stage. References: - AALTONEN, S. 2000. Time-sharing on stage: Drama translation in Theatre and Society. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD. - CHESTERMAN, A. 1997. Memes of Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. - LAMBERT, J. & VAN GORP, H. 1985. On describing translations. En Hermans, T. (ed.), The manipulation of Literatura. Londres & Sydney: Croom Helm: 42-53. - MERINO LVAREZ, R. 1994. Traduccin, tradicin y manipulacin. Teatro ingls en Espaa 1950-1990. Len: Universidad de Len; Lejona: Universidad del Pas Vasco. - TOURY, G. 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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Magdalena BARTLOMIEJCZYK Institute of English, University of Silesia magdalenabartlomiejczyk@hotmail.com

Effects of Short Intensive Practice on Interpreter Trainees Performance


The aim of this paper is to show how tools used in interpreting research to examine quality of interpreted texts can contribute to the evaluation of teaching methods in interpreter training. Our translator and interpreter programme at the Institute of English, University of Silesia is undergoing constant changes, the goal of which is to prepare our students for the challenges of the market in an optimal way. Recently, we have established contact with the UN Office at Vienna and sent a group of our students for a short interpreting practice in real conference conditions. Ten interpreter trainees, who had practiced simultaneous interpreting for three terms prior to the practice, participated in the 49th Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, which took place in March 2006 and lasted five working days, with a 3-hour-long session each morning and each afternoon. Under the supervision of the researcher, the trainees interpreted from English into Polish in available spare booths with microphones turned off. The estimated total interpreting time for each trainee was about 150% of one terms worth of interpreting under the normal conditions of our programme, with our students having one simultaneous interpreting class (90 minutes) per week over six terms. One month before the practice, the group going to Vienna undertook preparations for the conference, which included studying conference documentation available on-line, creating and interpreting during classes texts dealing with the topic of the conference, searching for and studying Polish texts on the same topic and compiling an English-Polish glossary containing all terms from the documentation which posed problems. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this practice, and, consequently, decide whether we should regularly send our students to similar practices, an experiment was organised. Two similar sets of source texts in English were prepared, each of them containing two texts, one on a general topic and one on the topic of the conference, i.e. illicit drugs. Directly before going to Vienna, five participants of the practice were asked to interpret into Polish the source texts from set A, and the other five were asked to do the same with the source texts from set B. After coming back, the participants were asked to interpret the set which they had not interpreted before. This second experimental session was organised one month after the practice, as we were interested in long-term effects rather than immediate ones. At the moment, the recorded and transcribed material is being analysed using tools which have already proven to be effective in research on quality of interpreted texts, i.e. propositional completeness score and error analysis (focusing on faithfulness to the original message, grammatical correctness and presentation). The subjective feelings of both the researcher and the trainees concerned are that the practice was useful in terms of enhancing the trainees performance. It is therefore expected that the interpreting outputs recorded after the practice will prove to be of markedly better quality (higher completeness scores, less errors of all categories) than the outputs recorded before the practice, and that this superiority will manifest itself in interpretations of both general and specialist texts. The findings of this study will have direct practical implications for our interpreter and translator training programme. As sending trainees for such practices requires a lot of organisational effort and is connected with considerable costs for the Institute as well as trainees themselves, similar practices will be organised in the future only if it is proven that the performance of participants actually improves as a result of intensive practice in real conference conditions.
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Papers A. BEEBY, M. FERNANDEZ, O. FOX, A. HURTADO, I. KOZLOVA, A. KUZNIK, W. NEUNZIG, P. RODRIGUEZ, L. ROMERO

Departament de Traduccio i d'Interpretacio. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona gr.pacte@uab.es

Validating the Pacte Translation Competence Model Results of an Experiment


The PACTE Group (Process in the Acquisition of Translation Competence and Evaluation) has been carrying out experimental research into translation competence and its acquisition in written translation since 1997. Research is being carried out from two complementary perspectives: (1) the translation process: gathering and analyzing data obtained from experimental studies concerning the mental processes involved in translating and the competences and abilities required; (2) the translation product: gathering and analyzing data obtained from the results of the translation process (translated texts). Our project is designed in two phases: (1) a first phase consisting of an empirical study of translation competence, currently in progress, in which data concerning the knowledge and behaviour of expert translators (Experimental Group 1) is compared with that of foreign language teachers with no experience in translation (Experimental Group 2); (2) a second phase consisting of a longitudinal study of the Acquisition of Translation Competence in trainee translators. The study will be carried out in the following language pairs: English-Spanish/Catalan, French- Spanish/Catalan, German- Spanish/Catalan. After first completing exploratory and pilot tests to validate different aspects of our research design, we have now carried out an experiment to determine translation competence in 35 professional translators and 24 foreign language teachers. This paper presents the variables under study in the experiment (Translation Project, Identification of Translation Problems; Decision-making; Knowledge of Translation; Efficacy of the Translation Process), the instruments and indicators of competences used, and the results obtained. PACTE is a consolidated research group funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture (1997-2000), the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology (2001-2004), the Spanish-Brazilian Inter-university Cooperation Agreement (2002- 2006) and the Government of Catalunya (2002-2005, 2005-2008). The PACTE Group is also affiliated to the Institute of Neurosciences of the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona.

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Yotam BENSHALOM University of Warwick benshalom@gmail.com

The Hermeneutic Uniqueness of Drama Translation


For many years drama has been considered to be one of the three major literary forms alongside poetry and prose, and, as such, textual in nature. The semiotic shift, affecting drama research since the 1930's, aided in changing this attitude among scholars, encouraging them to approach drama as a codifier for theatrical performance rather than as an independent literary form. The young discipline of translation studies followed this notion, focusing on issues related to 'performability' of translated drama while neglecting issues related to dramatic textual form and narrative nature. However, 'dramatic text' and 'theatrical text' are far from being synonyms; drama is still being widely read, taught, studied and enjoyed in written form. This paper aims at helping to fill a gap in drama translation studies by concentrating on the literary aspects of dramatic text. This is done by looking for the differences between drama translation and other types of literary translation, as experienced from the translator's point of view. The dramatic genre is defined by typical textual attributes, some of which are of great significance for the translator. Those attributes, which can be traced back to Aristotle's Poetics, are further developed in modern day work of researchers such as Susan Langer and Manfred Pfister: drama takes place in a closed fictional world while referring to the actual human world; dramatic characters perform consistent, complete and causal actions with varying degree of self-awareness; and, using terms coined by John Austin and John Searle, dramatic textual fabric consists mostly of directive and commissive speech acts. These attributes combined enable drama translators to focus their efforts on dealing with the reciprocal verbal functioning of the characters, and disregard the functioning of an author in front of his or her addressees. Such attitude may have a major impact on the hermeneutic approach of the drama translator to the source and target texts. It would influence the various types of equivalence and fidelity which the translator might be striving for, as shown in the works of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Eugene Nida and others; but more importantly, it would alter the emotional and psychological processes involved in the act of translation and interrupt the multi-phased, continuous and balanced relationship between translator and text, named by the contemporary hermeneutician George Steiner 'the hermeneutic movement'. A drama translator who is 'trying to become' a fictional character is under a different set of stresses than his peer, who is 'trying to become' a real, flesh and blood author. The former's hermeneutic task may become more difficult, since he is being forced to identify with a colourful character, a representation of an imaginary and usually extraordinary person going through extreme situations; but it is also less menacing, since he is not forced into an emotional competition with the real, established author, involving awe, guilt, rebellion and dedication. Thus, while some hermeneutic aspects of the translation process are simplified, others become more complex. The paper also proposes a practical model for 'action oriented translation', relevant for the translation of drama as well as for the translation of related literary forms, in which the narrator is dominant and functioning as an active character in the fictional world. According to this model, the translator prioritises the effective rendering of speech acts made by the speaking characters. The model is divided into three phases: first, decoding the action; second, adopting the action; and third applying it to the translation. The discussion of each phase is accompanied by the description of typical problems relevant to it, as well as several potential solutions. This model, applicable (and tested) for teaching drama translation as well as for practicing it, can serve as an example for the relevance of theoretical translation studies, even at their most philosophical forms, to real life situations faced by actual translators.
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Papers

Conceio BRAVO University of the Algarve mcbravo@clix.pt

The Link between TS and FL Teachers and Learners


The linguistic and socio-cultural functions of audiovisual translation, in the form of subtitles, are regarded by many language practitioners as undeniable aids in the academic field of foreign-language teaching. Portugal, traditionally a subtitling country, has very scarce research examining this area of Translation Studies. The two empirical studies presented here will highlight the relevance of intralingual and interlingual sutitles in screen translation for learning/ acquiring or maintaining a foreign language. In the first study I look at a sample of foreign learners of Portuguese, all adults and of mixed linguistic backgrounds, some from traditionally dubbing countries. They were exposed to different genres of audiovisual materials, with and without intralingual subtitles. Findings indicated that the presence of subtitles, in most text types, provided more comprehensible language input, for both the reading and listening skills, facilitated effective self-study and oral production and was regarded as a motivating tool to use. Even the students who initially regarded the activity as distracting and complicated (those normally used to dubbing policies) had a change of opinion at the end of the course. The second study was carried out on two groups of Portuguese schoolgoers, aged 14-15, learners of English as a foreign-language. The students were in their 5th year of English at school and, on average, were found to be at an intermediate level of proficiency. The aim was to test the effect of subtitling exposure on their understanding of English as a foreign-language and its pedagogical usefulness. Aspects such as the vocabulary acquired by viewers, their understanding of idiomatic expressions and phrasal verbs were given particular emphasis. Also, the degree of vocabulary retention was also tested, after several weeks had elapsed. One group was exposed to the condition of English-audio and Portuguese-subtitles, while the other was exposed to English-soundtrack and Englishsubtitles (closed captions). Advantages and drawbacks of both conditions will be highlighted. In conclusion, we can say that cultural, social and communicative components in subtitles offer language learners the opportunity of authentic, situationalized and contextualized language production. This places an added responsibility on the role of the subtitler. Thus, pedagogical findings, if properly channelled, can lead to better and informed decisions on subtitling policies, depending on viewer subgroups and their particular linguistic needs and capacities. These same findings can also serve to make learners aware of how they can adapt this audiovisual learning resource to their own specific linguistic needs, styles and learning paces. Audiovisual translation, in the form of subtitles, be they intralingual or interlingual, can be regarded as titles in-between, as they mediate linguistic, social and cultural issues between the source and target communities. Furthermore, they can be seen as a pedagogical link between TS and the academic community of foreign-language teachers and learners.

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Papers

Siobhan BROWNLIE The University of Manchester s.brownlie@manchester.ac.uk

Reaching Other Academic Communities


Ideas, concepts, theories and methods spread within and across disciplines, communities, countries and traditions. Richard Dawkins has suggested that memes (units of cultural transmission) are in competition for survival, and that in some situations of stability it is difficult for a new meme to invade. My interest is in ideas, concepts and methods in academia, and the fact that these memes have more or less difficulty in spreading. They encounter more or less resistance in jumping boundaries, whether those boundaries are disciplinary or boundaries constituted by national research traditions. The aim of my paper is to discuss such situations of resistance and non-resistance, taking examples from Translation Research, and to suggest through those examples how resistance may be overcome. I shall discuss three cases of boundary-crossing research projects. The first case study concerns the novel, Instruments des Tnbres by Nancy Huston. This novel consists of two stories in two different historical periods and in countries of two different languages. It is argued that there is mutual translation between the two stories, such that aspects of each story influence and infiltrate the other. In the study of Hustons novel translation is thus taken in a metaphorical sense in order to elucidate relationships between the two stories and characters. This research was presented at a Literary Studies conference, where no other person was from the field of Translation Studies nor presented anything related to translation in any sense. The paper was accepted without hesitation, as was its proposed publication. There was no resistance at all. It can be concluded that when translation is used metaphorically in a field outside of Translation Studies, it is not likely to occasion resistance towards the piece of research. This is probably due to the fact that translation has long been used metaphorically across many disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and the natural sciences. In fact it could be argued that translation is being used more and more widely in a range of metaphorical senses (cf. the upcoming conference at Bogazici University, Instanbul, on this topic). The second case study concerns a novel Vivre lOrange/To Live the Orange by Hlne Cixous, written as a parallel bilingual text. Prior to the study in question, the text had been much discussed but only from a Literary Studies perspective. The researcher of our case study applied a Descriptive Translation Studies approach to the text inspired by Kitty van Leuven-Zwarts principles. A close micro-level comparison of source text and target text revealed significant shifts with regard to gender. The researcher argued that this had a major impact on the macro-levels of interpersonal relations and themes; in fact it could be said that the translation contradicted the message of the original. This article was sent to a Literary Studies journal, and encountered considerable resistance. The resistance stemmed from the fact that methodology unfamiliar to the Literary Studies audience was used, and furthermore, the methodology had produced a result which was unexpected and even disagreeable to some Literary Studies experts on the text in question: these scholars had always treated the parallel texts as if they were exactly the same. In order for the article to be acceptable for publication it had to be rewritten quite significantly. A much simplified, more fully explained, more clearly organized and thus more forceful exposition of the method and findings were made for the benefit of the audience unfamiliar with Translation Studies, and the article then became acceptable to the readers. For the third case study, a somewhat similar scenario arose.

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In this study the researcher used the concepts of semantic prosody and semantic preference from Corpus Linguistics, and applied them in the study of the translation of a literary text, Zolas Nana. The paper was submitted to a Translation Studies journal in France whose editorial readers had difficulty in comprehending the basic concepts in the article. This was for two reasons: the readers were from a Literary Translation background, and were not familiar with Corpus Linguistics. Furthermore, Corpus Linguistics has not been well developed in France, and there were even basic difficulties at the level of terminology given that the paper was written in French. The resistance to the research stemmed thus from the fact that it was crossing a disciplinary boundary (bringing Corpus Linguistics into Literary Translation Studies), as well as crossing the boundary of a national research tradition (Corpus Linguistics was not well developed in France). As for the second case study, before it could be accepted for publication, the article had to undergo significant rewriting. In particular the basic concepts from Corpus Linguistics had to be clarified and explained in detail with the help of representative examples, and the unfamiliar approach was supplemented by a more traditional (and familiar) type of linguistic and literary analysis. It is interesting and enriching to do research which crosses boundaries, but the second and third case studies show that there may be problems when it comes to publication. Dan Sperber has suggested that for interdisciplinary research one solution is to produce different versions of papers for the different disciplines and disciplinary journals concerned. This is recognition of the sometimes vast differences in disciplinary conventions and expectations with respect to the presentation of research. Leah Ceccarelli has pointed out how important choices of linguistic expression can be: she proposes that the reason why Edward Wilsons book on consilience (the synthesis of knowledge from different specialized fields) garnered limited support, was that his language and style antagonized the parties concerned. In conclusion, it is salutary to see that the studies where resistance was encountered were not rejected by journal editors. This is no doubt due to the value accorded to originality and novelty in academia, and the recognition that new approaches can bring new and enriching perspectives on an object of study. However, it is important to note that in order for the research to cross boundaries successfully and be published, close attention had to be paid to the way the research was written up. Rhetoric is thus vital in overcoming resistance.

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Papers

Lilit BRUTIAN Yerevan State University leonid@liberty.r.am

On the Analysis of the Conditional Meaning in Shakespeares Hamlet (In the Text of the Original and Its Translations)
The aim of the research is to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of Translation Studies, namely to show its close relationship with text linguistics, logical analysis of natural languages and related fields. 1. In the proposed paper the problem of a text is considered in its connection with the problem of implicit and explicit meanings. The implicitness of a text is the result of the asymmetry of a language sign, which leads to the possible homonymy of structural models of a sentence from the semantic point of view, that is to cases when there exist different semantic models of a sentence with the absence of corresponding structures, on the one hand, and on the other hand, to the expression of one and the same semantic model by means of different structural forms. To reveal the precise implicit meanings of a text, it is useful to compare the implicit constructions with the semantically identical explicit ones. Even more, interesting results can be achieved when the comparative analysis of several languages is conducted from this angle. Such a comparative analysis can reveal and explain the specific explicit-implicit tendencies in different languages. It should be mentioned that any text can be adequately interpreted only when implicit and explicit meanings are considered simultaneously, without giving any preference to either of them. 2. One of the most essential features of any text is its integrity which is based on coherence. Among very important text-forming means which lead to its coherence and adequate interpretation are link-words, particularly, conjunctions. A specific conjunction is the conjunction implication (if-then). If considered as a logical conjunction in its interrelation with corresponding language correlates, it can be stated that the latter express the meaning of the logical conjunction if-then in a more differentiated way. Besides, it can be stated that the correlation between the logical if-then and its language expressions is the problem or correlation between invariant meaning (inherent in all languages) and the meanings of varied expressions in different languages. 3. In the light of what has been said, the problems mentioned above can be considered as translation problems. In particular, it is rather perspective and interesting to make a comparative analysis of one and the same unit of a text in the original and corresponding translations in different languages, as well as in various translations within one language. For these purposes the comparative analysis of implicative (conditional) sentences taken from Shakespeares Hamlet and corresponding translations into Armenian and Russian (17 translations) was made. The comparative analysis of the original with cross-language and intra-language translations supported by a statistical analysis has led to the following conclusions: 1) the means expressing condition are various, though conjunctions prevail; 2) the indicators of conditional meaning are in some cases expressed in the original and in different translations identically, but in the majority of cases synonymously; 3) finally, it can be concluded that in some cases the implicit meanings of the original are explicated in the corresponding translations and vice versa, which proves the effectiveness of the suggested method of the comparison of cross-language and intralanguage translations with the original.

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Papers

Lara BURAZER University of Ljubljana lara.burazer@guest.arnes.si

The Place of Translation Studies among the Hard Sciences


The issues raised at the EST colloquium in Ljubljana (September 2006) focused mainly on the divergence arising between the two fundamental research paradigms the ESP and the LAP. The underlying desire of this debate in TS seems to be that TS become more scientific. Looking through the prism of Victor H. Yngves theoretical scope of Hard Science or Human Linguistics (From Grammar to Science, 1996), we might be able to offer a solution to the ever puzzling question, and one pertaining to the whole of linguistics, of how to make the soft science Translation Studies more hard scientific. The author takes a closer look at the object of study as defined in translation studies and proposes a hard science human linguistics approach focusing on the physical domain realworld objects rather than on logical domain concepts. Entering the realm of the hard sciences requires the shift from the logical into the physical domain. This also requires that the scientist observe the basic assumptions and criteria employed in the hard sciences which have in its past 400-year tradition proven to stand on firm ground. Many traditional linguistic approaches have without question taken over various assumptions based in the philosophy of language and built theories of language and meaning on them. Human linguistics, on the other hand, having built its theory on the two standard criteria and the four basic assumptions of science alone, rejects this practice by observing only the criteria and assumptions of standard science: The standard criteria of science are those relating to acceptance of theory and acceptance of observations. These relate to predictions made in the theories which can be tested through observations and experiments conducted in the real world. This is consistent with the second criterion, which applies to the matter of reproducibility or replicability of results of these observations and experiments. The four basic assumptions in the hard sciences are the ontological, the regularity, the rationality and the causality assumption. These relate to the facts such as there being a real world out there to be studied (the ontological assumption), which is coherent, therefore we have a chance of finding out something about it (regularity), make valid conclusions by reasoning form valid premises (rationality) and, finally, that observed effects flow from immediate real-world causes (causality). Observing these criteria and assumptions is not a choice or an option in science, but a requirement. It thus follows that if the TS is to be made a part of the hard scientific community, it has to adhere to the criteria and assumptions presented above. In practice this would mean distancing of the researcher from the logical domain concepts such as language with its units (sentence, phrase, word, morpheme, and even text), for it is not these logical domain concepts that carry meaning or have any power whatsoever. It is people who endow texts with power by either making something out of them or not. It is people who have by means of convention created the phenomenon called language and have reached agreements about its regularity. Therefore it follows that what we need to study in TS in order to enter the realm of the hard sciences are the real-world entities in our case these are the human beings. We need to study the translators as human beings, their relevant linguistic properties and relating contexts in which these have been formed. By studying people rather than language we will be able to find out what people actually do in the course of their communicative activities, part of which is represented by translation, and perhaps take a step closer towards discovering the mysteries of the black-box activities in translators. Revealing these mysteries would contribute a great deal to the translator competence development strategies employed in translator training.
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Papers

Carmen CAMUS Departamento de Filologa camusc@unican.es

Censorship in the Pseudatranslations of the West


State censorship was a practice that pervaded all Spanish literary production during the Franco regime. Popular literature was a realm of Spanish literary production in which, in spite of Spains economic status, sales soared during the forties, fifties and sixties, to levels never achieved either before or after that period. During the Franco era, Spain was a country which was isolated from the rest of the world, with an economy devastated by a civil war and suffering the consequences of World War II. Within this context, censorship was a measure used by the state not only to control every minute detail of cultural activity that took place in the country but also acted as a brake on creative literary production. What then made it possible for a genre like the popular literature of the west to flourish and gain the favour of the public? Toury considers translations as products used to fill a void that has emerged in a given culture at a particular historical time. Pseudotranslations, works produced in the country where the need has been created, are imitation models of the original or source texts needed at a particular time in history in the host culture. These texts produced in the target culture are then regarded as translations of putative original texts written in the source culture. In Spain the soaring popularity of the narrative of the west in a country where food was scarce and rationed is a paradox. Did these texts receive special favour from the officials in charge of the censorship files?. Did Francos government somehow promote the emergence of this type of narrative?. Why were some writers of Republican ideology allowed to write and publish in this kind of genre? To address these questions, our analysis was based on the censorship files of western narrative at the Administration General Archive, AGA, which is where all the files opened during Francos regime are kept. A catalogue of 730 censorship files was created by selecting the files for western narrative contained in one of every fifty AGA boxes (the container used to keep the files), thus guaranteeing the representativity of the genre in the total amount of files kept at the Archive for literary production generated in Spain during the period studied. These files contained information not only on the authors names, any pseudonyms used and editorial affilation and characteristics but also and more importantly the details concerning the censors review and decision. This information was transferred to a specially created data base in electronic format to facilitate subsequent analysis in relation to sociopolitical data and official documentation on state censorship. This paper examines from a descriptive point of view the effects of Francos censorship on the pseudotranslations of the west for the period that spans between 1939 and 1975, and attempts to identify what governmental, political and economic measures made possible the flourishing and splendour of this popular narrative genre.

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Papers

Larisa CERCEL University of Freiburg, Germany larisacercel@web.de

Die Bedeutung der bersetzungswissenschaft fr die philosophische Hermeneutik


Die Problematik des bersetzens nimmt eine bevorzugte Stellung innerhalb der philosophischen Hermeneutik des 20. Jahrhunderts ein. Sie stellt einen wichtigen Topos im Werk von prominenten Vertretern dieser Disziplin (Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur) dar. Die Topik der bersetzung wird in den Texten Heideggers vor allem seit 1935 im Kontext seiner Beschftigung mit Hlderlin angeschlagen, sie geht vollends 1942-43 in seiner Vorlesung ber Parmenides auf und wird ausfhrlich diskutiert in drei spteren Texten: in der Abhandlung "Der Spruch des Anaximander" (1946) aus den "Holzwegen", in der zweiten Vorlesung "Was heit Denken?" aus dem Sommersemester 1952 und in der Vorlesung "Der Satz vom Grund" aus dem Wintersemester 1955/56. Bei Gadamer wird das Problem des bersetzens sowohl in "Wahrheit und Methode" (1960) als auch in anderen Texten, insbesondere in den Bnden 2, 3, 8, 9 und 10 seiner "Gesammelten Werke" diskutiert und fast immer als exemplarische Manifestation des Verstehens herangezogen. Ricoeur hat sein letztes Buch "Sur la traduction" (2004) ebenfalls diesem Thema gewidmet. Von der Bedeutung dieses Forschungsfeldes fr die philosophische Hermeneutik zeugt etwa das von Heidegger in der Vorlesung "Hlderlins Hymne Der Ister" vom Sommersemester 1942 geprgte Diktum: Sage mir, was du vom bersetzen hltst, und ich sage dir, wer du bist. Im Ausgang von der philosophischen Hermeneutik und insbesondere von den Schriften Gadamers entwickelte sich in den 70er Jahren in der bersetzungswissenchaft eine besondere Forschungsrichtung, die unter dem Namen hermeneutischer Ansatz bekannt wurde. Fritz Paepcke verdankt die bersetzungswissenschaft den Anschluss an diese von Heidegger durch seine frhen Freiburger Vorlesungen eingeleitete und von Gadamer und Ricoeur weiter entwickelte hermeneutische Wende im Denken des 20. Jahrhunderts. Paepcke hat das Verdienst, Grundthesen des hermeneutischen Denkens auf das bersetzen angewandt zu haben. Sein Ziel war die Erschlieung eines handlungsorientierten hermeneutischen Zugangs zum bersetzen, ohne jedoch dieses Vorhaben systematisch und methodisch ausgearbeitet zu haben. Seine bersetzungshermeneutische Sicht- und Arbeitsweise ist schwer in seinen Aufstzen zu verfolgen. Die Aufgabe einer systematischen Darstellung hermeneutischer Gedanken in ihrer Anwendung auf bersetzerische Fragestellungen hat seine Schlerin Radegundis Stolze insbesondere im 2003 erschienenen Band "Hermeneutik und Translation" auf sich genommen. Weitere Vertreter des hermeneutischen Ansatzes in der bersetzungswissenschaft Sigrid Kupsch-Losereit, Ortega E. Arjonilla, Bernd Stefanink und Ioana Blcescu vertiefen den einen oder anderen Aspekt des bersetzungshermeneutischen Denkens und versuchen neuerdings, es mit den neuesten Ergebnissen der kognitionswissenschaftlichen Forschungen ber das bersetzen in Verbindung zu bringen. Die Bedeutung der hermeneutischen bersetzungswissenschaft fr die philosophische Hermeneutik besteht darin, dass sie neue Dimensionen eines in der Philosophie initiierten Gesprchs ber das bersetzen aufschlieen knnte. Der dabei verwendete hermeneutische bersetzungsbegriff entstammt nicht dem Zusammenhang der konkreten bersetzungsarbeit, sondern wird vielmehr aus ontologischer Sicht thematisiert. Fr Autoren wie Heidegger oder Gadamer heit ja existieren, sich durch Verstehensentwrfe die Welt zu bersetzen. Das konkrete bersetzen stellt fr sie lediglich eine derivative Form des bersetzens dar.

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Die hermeneutische bersetzungswissenschaft stellt dagegen diese Diskussion unter Einbezug der wichtigsten philosophischen Gedanken und Begriffe auf eine konkrete Basis. Der vorliegende Beitrag mchte die wichtigsten bersetzungsbezogenen Begriffe wie Verstehen, Interpretieren, hermeneutische Intuition, hermeneutischen Zirkel, Wirkungsgeschichte, Horizontverschmelzung aus der philosophischen Hermeneutik auf ihrem Weg zur bersetzungswissenschaft und zurck begleiten. Mein Ziel ist es darzulegen, wie diese ursprnglich philosophischen Begriffe im hermeneutischen Ansatz bernommen und transformiert wurden und wie diese Transformation nun die gegenwrtige philosophische Diskussion ber das bersetzen bereichen kann. Das philosophische Interesse am bersetzen hat nicht mit den genannten Klassikern der philosophischen Hermeneutik aufgehrt, sondern es wird immer wieder in neueren Beitrgen siehe etwa die Aufstze von Jean Grondin, Axel Bhler, Hans-Dieter Gondek u.a. angesprochen. Die im bersetzungshermeneutischen Ansatz erzielten Forschungsergebnisse knnen den philosophischen berlegungen ber das bersetzen neue Perspektiven erffnen.

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Anna CETERA Institute of English Studies, Warsaw University, Poland a.cetera@uw.edu.pl

Translating the Translated The Evergreen Classics Storm the Publishing Market Again
The paper aims to discuss both the reasons and the corollaries of the newly emergent tendencies in the publishing market based on retranslations of well-acknowledged literary masterpieces. In particular, the paper points to the increasing number of publishing series and individual translations heralded as re-discovered classics, and associated phenomena such as: the advertising policies focused almost entirely on the properties of the new rewritings, the increasing focus on a literary translator whose novel and experimental propensity frequently overshadows the status of the original text, and the specificity of adopted (meta) translation strategies which ostensibly reveal the arbitrariness of the translation by e.g. deliberately subverting earlier translations, interpolating interpretive hints, and provokingly revealing the presence of a translator as a self-conscious agent and mediator of meaning. Such tendencies are to a certain extent resulting from the specificity of the advanced stages of literary reception (i.e. well-digested canons of foreign literature) where the translation strategy is influenced neither by the peripheral position of the author, nor by the strength of literary conventions of the hosting culture. On the contrary, it is the high status of the translated text, e.g. Shakespeares plays, which increases the temptation to tamper with the acknowledged originals and reveal the linguistic riddles lingering in the Elizabethan playscript. Another reason is the unprecedented growth of the publishing market which allows for greater plurality of approaches, and frequently goes for controversy to enhance sale figures. Finally, the changes should be also ascribed to the overall emancipation of Translation Studies as a discipline which by intensifying critical debates has deepened the awareness of translation issues and incited interest and experiment. Due to the mixture of literary and economic reasons, the retranslations of the classics pertain in particular to drama, eminent works of prose featuring in the reading lists of educational institutions, and childrens literature. The urge to re-translate plays naturally coincides with theatrical tendencies where subversion has been a recurrent facet of contemporary productions of old masterpieces. Moreover, the specific communicative aspect of performances as if encourages constant efforts to update languages and strip it of superfluous or obscure rhetoric. In turn the tendency to retranslate major prose works (e.g. Joseph Conrad, Fyodor Dostoevsky) finds a sound justification both in the tempting prestige of the translators challenge, and in the plausibly high number of copies consistently devoured by the educational system. Finally, the frequent retranslation of childrens literature results both from the radical expectations of the small readers who cannot cope with outdated stylistics and vocabulary, as well as from the interest of the targeted mature audiences who eagerly discover the hidden ironies and paradoxes, habitually suppressed in the sweetened translations from the beginning of the 20th century (e.g. Winnie the Pooh, Peter and Wendy, Alices Adventures in Wonderland). The examples featuring in the paper refer specifically to the Polish publishing market at the turn of the millennium. However, they are also indicative of other countries where the share of translated literature is relatively high. The paper emphasizes also the role of Translation Studies in moderating the surprisingly heated debates stirred by the publication of new translations, often (mis)judged against arbitrarily chosen and inflexibly upheld equivalence criteria. Finally, special attention is given to the increasing necessity of inscribing the mercantile interests of publishers into literary translation theory.
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Papers

Ya-mei CHEN Department of English, National Taipei University of Technology mei227@yahoo.com.tw

Towards a Training Model for News Trans-Editing An Interdisciplinary Approach


This paper aims to propose a workable translation-oriented news discourse model with which translator trainers can systematically investigate ideology-related norms in news trans-editing and apply those norms to translator training. Translator trainers can also adopt this model as a bottom-up approach to teach trainees how to gain a better understanding of the ideological stances imprinted in the source news texts as well as the relationship between the ideologies and the text design, and then use the model again as a top-down approach to teach them how to produce suitable and acceptable trans-edited news texts. 'Trans-editing', as defined by Karen Stetting (1989: 371), is a combination of translating and editing. In trans-editing, the processes of editing and translating are not only equally important but also closely intertwined. It follows that news trans-editing is an interdisciplinary social practice, integrating both news translation and news production. News trans-editing is widely employed to incorporate into the target news texts the receiving perspective and the target audiences needs and interests to maximize communicative efficiency. Studies on news trans-editing started to emerge in the 1980s. Their research emphases are always on only one of the following aspects: practical strategies, contextual factors, or the gate-keeping function. Due to their own chosen focuses, all these existing studies have only partially explored news trans-editing, and no thorough account has yet been provided. To address such deficiency, this paper will bring together all the above research focuses and develop a translation-oriented news discourse model to offer translator trainers a more comprehensive and systematic tool. The translation-oriented news discourse model at issue will be particularly designed to investigate ideology-related norms and to explore the relationship between the news organizations ideologies and the text design. The main reason is as follows. News accounts are far from being pure and impartial reflections of reality and facts. Since news organizations are socially, economically, and politically situated, news items are inevitably produced from certain perspectives, that is, from news organizations own distinct ideologies, be they social, cultural, or political. It stands to reason that ideologies play a rather significant role in news trans-editing, which is embedded in the system of news production in general. In this paper, the ideologies held by the news organization are tripartite: (1) socio-cultural or socio-political ideologies towards the news event under consideration, (2) ideological assumptions about the audiences needs, interests and backgrounds, and (3) ideological presumptions regarding the acceptability of news texts. Given the multi-faceted nature of news trans-editing, an interdisciplinary approach will be adopted to develop the translation-oriented news discourse model, with insights drawn from discourse-oriented and functionalist approaches to translation-studies, and from research on news discourse within Critical Linguistics, Critical Discourse Analysis and journalism. It is hoped that the translation-oriented news discourse model to be formulated in this paper can assist translator trainers in familiarizing trainee translators with relevant ideology-related norms or ideological stances prevailing in a given target news organization. In this way, trainee translators who would like to embark upon a career as a news trans-editor may save much time on a trial and error process.

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Agnieszka CHMIEL Department of Translation Studies, Adam Mickiewicz University mol@poczta.icpnet.pl

Interpreting Studies and Psycholinguistics A Possible Synergy Effect


Cognitive information processing has long been an area of interest for Interpreting Studies scholars. The research by Gerver, Moser-Mercer, Gile and others has shed more light on the intricacies of cognitive processes in interpreting and led to new models (focusing on skills and efforts). This paper will discuss the interdisciplinary relation between Interpreting Studies and psycholinguistics as a source of a possible synergy effect. In other words, it will be shown that not only the former but also the latter can benefit from the cognition-oriented line of research within IS. First, the most crucial contributions of IS and psycholinguistics to interdisciplinary studies will be identified. This will be followed by an analysis of possible benefits and a review of the latest research results in the area (including Christoffels and de Groot 2006). Finally, a progress report on an ongoing longitudinal cognitive study of interpreter trainees will be presented. One of the most relevant contributions of psycholinguistics to cognitive IS is its methodology. An array of experimental tasks (including digit span, reading span and list recall for working memory research and a lexical decision task, verbal fluency, word completion and priming for mental lexicon studies) offers hard data comparable across populations. The results are measurable, reliable and devoid of subjective bias or ecological validity issues characteristic for some other IS research methods introspection-based interviews or field observations. Despite some limitations, this experimental methodology enables identification and manipulation of variables and lends itself easily to statistical analysis. Interpreting Studies offers very interesting subjects for psycholinguistic experiments. Conference interpreting is a unique case of bilingual/multilingual use of languages with more frequent code switching and greater inhibitory demands as compared to noninterpreting use of language. Additionally, interpreting trainees are interpreters in the making, which means that specific cognitive skills can be observed as gradually developed. The results of psycholinguistic studies focusing on working memory and mental lexicon with professional interpreters and trainees as subjects can provide more insight into cognitive skills and processes in interpreting and can have pedagogical applications. If such factors as verbal fluency, digit span and reading span serve as predictors of better interpreting performance they could be included in aptitude tests. Additionally, more precise information on the development and use of lexical and conceptual links in the mental lexicon of an interpreter could lead to better course design with increased contrastive vocabulary components in later stages of training. Not only interpreting trainers, but also psycholinguistics can benefit from interdisciplinary research. They can obtain information on effective activation and inhibition of languages by multilingual experts, which is applicable both to aphasia studies and to second language acquisition. The study of bidirectional (A to B, B to A) and unidirectional (B to A) interpreters can also shed more light on the strength of links in the mental lexicon with directionality as a factor.

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To leverage the synergy effect of psycholinguistics and IS, a longitudinal cognitive study with interpreter trainees was designed. The project is currently underway so the methodology and progress rather than final results will be reported. Conference interpreting trainees undergo the same experimental procedure three times: at the beginning of their training, after the first year and at the end of their two-year training programme. Digit span, word list recall and semantic verbal fluency are examined as potential predictors of success in conference interpreting. The mental lexicon structure and word retrieval processes are studied through word translation tasks and crosslanguage semantic priming. The longitudinal results of these tasks should provide more insight into the development of strengths of interlingual lexical links. Intuitively, direct lexical links should develop with interpreting practice although it is usually conceptual links that strengthen with increasing language proficiency.

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Tina Paulsen CHRISTENSEN Aarhus School of Business tpc@asb.dk

An All-Encompassing Study of an Authentic Court Setting What Do the Different Users Expect from the Interpreter and What Are the Expectations of the Interpreter Regarding the Different Users Expectations, and - Last But Not Least Do They Get What They Expect?
Most professional interpreters and interpreting researchers probably see quality or professionalism as the main goal of interpreting in general, but still there is no agreement within the interpreting community of how to define interpreting quality. Facing the fact that interpreting can not only be seen as a text-processing task, this study will focus on interpreting as a process of communicative interaction where quality means successful communication in a particular communicative situation. The consequence of focusing on interpreting as a service is that the degree of success must necessarily be judged from a particular (subjective) perspective on the communicative event. In this paper I shall address the issue of interpreting quality in an all-encompassing perspective on an authentic Danish courtroom setting. The aim of the empirical casebased survey is unlike that of most existing studies which generally have taken either one particular perspective - that of interpreters, clients or users - or been experimental in nature to investigate to which extent different users (judge, defence counsel, prosecutor and non-majority-language speaking user) in a specific courtroom setting share the same expectations about courtroom interpreting. Thus, this paper discusses the practicability of user expectations as quality criteria which generally have been regarded as being of less practical use due to the fact that user expectations generally have been determined as everything else but homogeneous. Several empirical studies, which have been carried out on this subject, have shown that different user groups have different expectations about the interpreted communicative event, which ceteris paribus means that user expectations are heterogeneous. The question is, whether the heterogeneity of user expectations is also predominant in court interpreting characterized by courtroom settings for which in most jurisdictions so-called interpreting guidelines exist which in one form or another define the expected role of the court interpreter. It is my hypothesis that the expectations of both professional users (judges and lawyers) and non-majority-language-speaking users (e.g. the defendant or the witness) and, not least, the court interpreters own expectations regarding the expectations towards the interpreter by different users are influenced and to some extent homogenized by these guidelines, which are to be considered as expectancy norms projected and recommended by the specific legal system. In order to be able to answer this question, a questionnaire-based survey on specific quality criteria has been conducted within an authentic interpreter-mediated court setting, because, according to Angelelli (2004: 83), the setting is the key component in defining the role of the interpreter.

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The survey includes a questionnaire for the end-users and a questionnaire for the participating court interpreter which means that the conducted survey combines user expectations and interpreter perception of role including the notion of interpreter expectations about end-user expectations in a specific legal encounter. An ulterior object of the study is to introduce an evaluative perspective according to which it is possible to measure actually obtained interpreting quality in the specific court setting. This means that the questionnaire used also deals with the question if and to which extent the expectations of both the professional and the non-professional users were actually met. Finally, the study investigates to which extent the prescriptive expectancy norms projected and recommended by the Danish legal system in the shape of Guidelines for interpreting in Danish court proceedings correspond with the user and interpreter expectations in courtroom practice. The article should be seen as an attempt to improve the quality of the services rendered by professional interpreters as well as students of court interpreting by offering an empirical framework on which to base their daily interpreting choices rather than on intuition.

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Isabel CHUMBO Polytechnic Institute Bragana Portugal ischumbo@ipb.pt

Translators Censoring Propaganda A Case Study on the Translation of Salazars Speeches into English
This paper aims at analyzing the role of translators in Portuguese external propaganda during the dictatorial regime of Antnio Oliveira Salazar (1932-68), with particular emphasis in the 1930s and 1940s when many of the foundations of the regime were laid down. Translation was viewed as a support for Propaganda, through a specific institution which housed translators and produced many of the works on the regime which came to be known outside Portugal. From tourism brochures to political intervention in the form of booklets and books of speeches, the Secretariado de Propaganda Nacional (SPN) produced translations with the main objective of improving the image of the country in Europe, mainly the United Kingdom and the U.S. The existence and role of the official Propaganda Office (SPN) is not ignored by Portuguese historians. Nevertheless their focus is mainly on the actions undertaken by the Office as an organ of control and repression and hardly ever on the Office as a center of production or industry of translation. Translation from within the regime was very important and constituted a real industry. Contact with other countries and the need to amplify international support originates several approaches. Different works on the guidelines and main objectives of the regime were therefore translated into English, French, Spanish, Italian and German. This paper will attempt to prove the relevance Salazars regime attributed to translation providing examples from relevant documents. Unfortunately not much research has been done on translation in periods of censorship from within the regime. This paper looks at this relationship and on how translators tried to overcome censorship, especially if they used specific translation procedures in certain situations while working for the state itself. The amount of translations produced in a time when censorship and dictatorship went hand in hand is also addressed and this apparently contradictory phenomenon exists to show that in periods of repression translation is of utmost importance. This paper focuses on a research developed in two parts. First it investigates the importance Salazars regime attributed to translation, mainly from Portuguese into English. Second it analyzes a set of translated speeches by Salazar in order to understand how translators influenced the image of the country abroad, due to the changes introduced mainly through omissions and additions. These translation procedures contributed to an ideological shift in the final text. Due to the constraints of living and working in a censorship, translators behaved like censors. Both activities monitor what comes in and goes out, creating specific norms in a specific context. Translators had to keep in mind that there was a double audience to please. On one hand Salazar, who wanted his speeches in good English, on the other the English reading audience in itself. As a result the notion of acceptability poses a problem which needs to be solved. For whom do the translations need to be acceptable? For the dictator or the final reader?

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Helosa CINTRO University of So Paulo, Brazil helocint@usp.br

Acercar la lupa, transcrear el mapa Los conocimientos declarativos y el desarrollo de la competencia traductora
En 2000, la tesis doctoral de Orozco, defendida en la Universidad Autnoma de Barcelona, Espaa, conclua que los datos de su estudio sobre el desarrollo de la competencia traductora (CT) no haban mostrado una correlacin necesaria entre los conocimientos tericos sobre traduccin, analizados en las respuestas de los sujetos a un cuestionario, y la calidad del producto alcanzada por esos mismos sujetos en las tareas de traduccin que haban realizado. Quiz ste haya sido un importante motivo para que, hasta su versin de 2003, los modelos de CT del grupo PACTE, desarrollados en aquella misma Universidad, resaltaran que la CT es un conocimiento predominantemente procedimental, aun presentndola como un tipo de conocimiento experto que, como tal, se caracteriza por reunir conocimientos declarativos (tericos?) y procedimentales (prcticos?). Dialogando con la investigadora lder del grupo PACTE durante el curso que imparti en la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil, en agosto de 2004, argument que, en vez de posicionarse en favor de una predominancia de los conocimientos procedimentales o de los declarativos dentro de este conocimiento experto que es la CT, podra ser ms relevante para la formacin de traductores concentrar esfuerzos en entender cmo diferentes tipos de conocimientos declarativos interactan con los conocimientos procedimentales en el proceso de desarrollo de la CT y, especialmente, tratar de alcanzar una mayor claridad sobre los posibles impactos que pueden tener los conocimientos declarativos sobre los procedimentales en la actuacin de un traductor y en el proceso de desarrollo de la CT. De hecho, el papel de la reflexin terica y de los Estudios de Traduccin en la formacin del traductor fue una preocupacin crucial de mi investigacin de doctorado, desde sus primeras versiones de proyecto redactadas en 2000 y 2002, hasta su conclusin en 2006, en la Universidad de So Paulo. En esta ponencia se presentarn algunas reflexiones y conclusiones al respecto de este tema, a las que llegu en dicha investigacin, un estudio terico y emprico-experimental sobre la CT y su desarrollo. La explicitacin de conceptos y principios de traduccin tomados principalmente de los enfoques funcionalistas, discursivos y cognitivos, y el procedimiento de vincular estos conceptos y principios a una actividad prctica que los mostrara en funcionamiento, evidenciando su relevancia, tuvieron efectos muy positivos en la capacidad de deteccin de problemas y en la calidad de soluciones dadas a problemas por sujetos sometidos a un curso-taller que se vali de este procedimiento, muy especialmente en lo que a problemas funcionales se refiere. Para discutir estos resultados, consideraremos las propuestas de Toury (1986; 1995), Chesterman (2000) y Shreve (1997) sobre el desarrollo de la CT. Partiendo de estos autores, sostendremos que una serie de factores importantes para la deteccin y la resolucin de problemas y para la toma de decisiones en traduccin pueden no ser captados espontneamente a partir de la pura experiencia prctica, si no se los hace ms evidentes a la percepcin consciente de un sujeto por medio de la explicitacin de conceptos, reglas y principios de traduccin y de la observacin de los procesos, criterios y recursos que uno pone en funcionamiento al traducir.

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As, la explicitacin conceptual, el conocimiento terico, el conocimiento declarativo y la metarreflexin pueden funcionar en el desarrollo de la CT como una especie de lupa que permitir al aprendiz ver lo que, sin un trabajo conceptual y metacognitivo, podra pasrsele inadvertido indefinidamente. A su vez, la percepcin de factores cruciales para la deteccin y la resolucin de problemas y para la toma de decisiones favorecer la transcreacin de mapas, o sea, que esquemas mentales simplistas sobre qu es traducir se conviertan en esquemas ms complejos, amplios y refinados, en una competencia ms flexible para enfrentar diferentes tipos de problemas y para encontrar soluciones ms adecuadas a las exigencias funcionales de variados encargos de traduccin.

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Georgina COLLINS Warwick University georgina.collins@warwick.ac.uk

The Role of Linguistic Heredity in Translation Studies Francophone Senegalese Womens Poetry and a Translation Methodology Steeped in the Source Culture and Study of the Native African Language of Wolof
Francophone African womens poetry is under-researched, and even more so, undertranslated. According to Nicki Hitchcott, the most commonly cited reason for this is the inferior quality of their work (Hitchcott 2), but this research will reveal that there is nothing inferior about their work, and the distinct nature of Francophone African womens poetry gives it a unique appeal that can survive the journey of translation. By making Senegalese womens poetry the focus of this paper, these formerly-snubbed female writers are becoming the subjects of current and future study, rather than the objects of past neglect. This paper will look at how the continually developing discipline of Translation Studies matters in the creative rewriting of Francophone African womens poetry. It will examine the role of the native African language in postcolonial translation and how this can assist in translating the Francophone text, also demonstrating how the interdisciplinary nature of Translation Studies can ease the complexity of poetry translation and contribute to research into African languages. By stretching the boundaries of culture, this paper will examine the native African language of Wolof, spoken by over 40 % of the population in Senegal, to see how the language of the people may have influenced the language of the colonisers. According to Christopher Miller, Senegal is dominated culturally by the Wolof, and he describes the impact of history, social structure, and the traditional caste system (252). Of course, these are significant areas for analysis during the interdisciplinary study of translation but what about language? Womens use of native African languages is very different to that of men. Pushed aside within the colonial education system, often at home with friends and relatives, women were more inclined to use the language of their ancestors rather than that of the colonisers. This paper will look at traditional Wolof literature and the distinct areas of orature that were dominated by women, examining the linguistic qualities that may have influenced the postcolonial text and therefore French to English translation methodologies. Using Senegalese poets such as Annette Mbaye DErneville and Mame Seck Mback as case studies, my research will analyse the advantages and limitations of the Western poem, and whether it is better than prose at representing African culture and native languages due to its association with orature and its rhythmic qualities. A comparative analysis of poets will be made, contrasting those women who choose to write in French with others who use Wolof. I will show how translation studies is a key element in the analysis of Francophone African Womens poetry, highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of this field of study, where religious and traditional gender barriers merge with colonial ideology, linguistic and cultural hurdles (Hitchcott 154). This research will make an original contribution to knowledge by demonstrating the importance of continued interdisciplinary development in Translation Studies. By considering the native and pre-colonial language of Wolof, the remit of translation studies is taken beyond the basics of skopos and text type theory and even the more recent cultural turn, to analyse the domain of linguistic heredity and its role in translation studies.

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Anne Adams Graves reflected that it is vital to correct the faulty vision through which African women in literature have been seen (xi), but are we doing these women justice by ignoring such a large part of their inheritance their native language? Translation Studies matters for those whose works we are translating, if we are to create honest and authentic translations that consider all cultural and linguistic elements of the source text. Constant development and metamorphosis of Translation Studies is therefore of great importance to African society at large, by showing what a large impact translation-related phenomena may have on the literature of a fast-developing country. Further, Translation Studies provides a framework for thorough and comprehensive study, by accentuating the depth to which research into translation should be taken. Translation Studies can affect the whole perception of a culture and a language, and I will argue that the analysis of the native language is a necessity in postcolonial translation. Translation Studies matters because it is willing to progress as quickly as the world around it.

References Adams Graves, Anne. Preface. Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature. Eds. Carole Boyce Davies and Anne Adams Grave. Trenton: Africa World Press, 1986. vii-xi. Hitchcott, Nicki. Women Writers in Francophone Africa. Oxford: Berg, 2000. Miller, Christopher L. Theories of Africans: Francophone Literature and Anthropology in Africa. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1990.

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Helle DAM, Karen KORNING ZETHSEN Aarhus School of Business hd@asb.dk kkz@asb.dk

The Status of the Professional Translator The Staff Translator


The past decades have seen an overwhelming increase in publications within the field of translation studies. Much has been written about translation though not so much about the translator and certainly next to nothing about translator status. At the same time translator status is often commented on implicitly or in stray sentences in the TS literature and in professional journals and always in a negative way. But is translator status as low as often implied and how do we measure status? Is it only a question of salary? In this paper we intend to explore the notion of status as well as the present status of the (non-literary) professional translator. By means of introduction, we shall discuss the concept of status and how to define it for our present purposes. Furthermore, we shall give a brief overview of what has been written explicitly on the subject and what is implied in translation literature and in a professional context. Central to our paper, we shall report on the first step of a comprehensive empirical project aimed at investigating the status of professional translators in the world of today. Clearly, translation is a diversified profession, and translators work in a number of different contexts (in public and private companies, international organisations, translation agencies, publishing houses, etc.), they translate a variety of texts and genres (ranging from literary to technical texts with numerous subdivisions), and they are employed in different ways (e.g. as freelance or staff translators). All these parameters along with several others, such as the country in which the translators work are likely to influence our object of study: translators status. However, in this first study we shall focus on a group of translators which we consider to be at the strong end of the translator-status continuum, namely full- time staff translators whose educational background is an MA in translation. At the time of writing, we are still in the process of collecting data, but the investigation is planned as a large-scale study involving as many private Danish companies with more than three full-time staff translators as possible. Our analysis is based on questionnaires aimed at charting out the status of the translators as perceived by different groups of employees in the companies. Respondents are the staff translators themselves, a group of HR employees and a group of the core employees of the companies in question (that is the type of employee which is central to the main purpose of the company, such as e.g. engineers in a technical production company). In our paper we shall elaborate on the nature of our study and the methods used, and we shall of course report specifically on the results obtained. Finally, we shall argue that this type of sociological study matters, because it sheds light on a real and much decried problem in translation: low translator status.

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Christophe DECLERCQ Imperial College London; University College Antwerp c.declercq@imperial.ac.uk

Translation Studies and Practical Idealism A Visit to Utopia?


With common welfare versus private interest as one of its main themes, Thomas Mores 1515 Utopia described an imaginary but ideal world. The key to the utopian society is whether or not one views this idealism in a positive or negative way, i.e. whether one views the efforts to create a better or perhaps perfect society as realistic or not. Efforts in trying to make translation studies matter for practitioners and the other way around, seeking practitioners contributions to academic communities, have not been easy. In a practical visit to a translational utopia, this paper covers some of the topics involved in bridging translation studies and translation practice and this because of the authors academic background and practical experience in both fields. The paper also holds at its main location focus both London and Antwerp, by coincidence the hometown of More and the setting of Utopia. Whether or not TS really adds value to practitioners is a question that requires further specification and this on a basis of a broad text type classification, because subfields of translation require different approaches. The literary field is definitely more in toch with TS than translation of technical documentation. A second line of thinking takes this even further as in an ideal translational world, electronic literacy would come by birth and TS departments could focus again on the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural aspects only. Related is the fact that TS in itself is very difficult to define in practice. Thirdly, a virtual world is being created in Antwerp again, nearly 500 years after Mores classic, as the city holds a peculiar situation on the level of translation education on the one hand and community and practice translation on the other hand. Finally, the most utopian part of the paper looks at sustainable translation and how an ideal translational world could add to a better and environmentally friendly world.

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Kathelijne DENTURCK, Sofie MNIEMEGEERS Hogeschool Gent - Departement Vertaalkunde kathelijne.denturck@hogent.be, sofie.niemegeers@hogent.be

Modal Particles and Connectors in Translated Dutch and French A Translational and Linguistic Corpus Research
The present paper aims at showing work in progress, in which two sets of parallel and comparable corpora of different text types have been developed. The aim is to study the translational process, in particular, the choices the translator makes as to expressing modal and cohesive meanings. To investigate connector choices, a parallel corpus consisting of French and Dutch texts aligned in both translational directions and a comparable French corpus are used. The enquiry on modal particles will rely on the second corpus that consists of Dutch source texts aligned to their English translations, English source texts and their Dutch translations, and a comparable Dutch corpus. The corpora are balanced and representative: the quantitative distribution of texts reflects a large differentiation of both text types and writers/translators, whose gender and origin types have been taken into account. The texts have been given annotations on the textual as well as the linguistic level, including information regarding the authors, the translators and the publishers. The sentences containing modal particles and connectors get annotations regarding the type of speech act or whether they occur in a dialogue or a monologue. Both the modal particles and the connectors (and their translational equivalents) have also been given their own relevant annotations. A computer program, called Kwalitan, has been used to make all of this coding easy and usable. Through the translators' choices we arrive at a better insight into the translation process. To test the explicitation hypothesis (Olohan, 2004), a quantitative comparison is made between Dutch translations and their English source texts regarding the use of modal particles and between French translations and their Dutch source texts for the use of connectors. For this purpose, the parallel part of the corpora will be used, comparing the Dutch/French source texts to the Dutch/French translated texts. The paper will further indicate to what extent different variables influence translators' choices: text type, relational structures (of either the characters in the fictional texts or of speaker-hearer relations in the non-fictional texts), origin and gender of the author or translator, norms in Flemish publishing houses versus those from the Netherlands and others. In addition, the paper will illustrate the importance of the research on modal particles for both a contrastive linguistic and a translation studies point of view: modal particles are predominantly present in Dutch but underrepresented in English. Therefore, other (more lexical) means have to be used in English to express the pragmatic content of these particles, their function of intersubjective positioning or modification of the relationship between speaker and hearer. Finally, following Granger (2003a and 2003b), it will be pointed out how both corpora and research questions allow the combination of a contrastive linguistic approach with a translation study, two complementary and inseparable approaches.

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Louise DENVER Copenhagen Business School ld.first@cbs.dk

The Translation of the Tricky Danish Connector 'Ellers' ('Else') An Empirical Study of Product and Process
The Danish lexicon contains an item 'ellers' ('else') which can be tricky to translate. There is no one to one relation between 'ellers' and any of the equivalents in the Spanish lexicon. Danish-Spanish dictionaries offer an array of adverbial expressions which do not cover the various meanings of the logical-semantic relation signalled by 'ellers'. They typically contain items which can be used to translate 'ellers' when used in initial position after a full stop to signal alternate, disjunctive or conditional meaning. However, when found in Danish texts, not initially, but in the position of sentence adverbials, the interpretation of the relation can be less transparent and the equivalents proposed by the dictionaries may seen less appropriate, e.g. 'P skrivebordet findes ogs en bil-brochure fra BMW - det foretrukne transportmiddel for danske ministre. "Jeg cykler eller gerne", siger Pia Gjellerup.'('On the desk there is also a BMW car brochure - the means of transport preferred by Danish ministers. "I like ('ellers') to use my bike", says Pia Gjellerup'). The relation could be paraphrased as follows: You see a car brochure lying on my desk. Please do not draw the wrong conclusion. I don't go by car very often. I prefer to go by bike.' In the following sequence in Spanish, the semantic relation between the two sentences is not signalled by means of a connector: 'Los daneses rechazaron ayer integrar su moneda en el euro... Cuando el primer ministro Poul Nyrup convoc la consulta en marzo, el s pareca asegurado. ('Yesterday, the Danish population refused to integrate Danish currency into the euro zone... When, in March, Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen decided to hold a referendum, the outcome seemed to be a yes.'). While the Spanish lexicon offers no obvious cohesive device to mark the relation of contrast between the expected outcome (a yes) and the actual outcome (a no), the obvious choice of marking in Danish would be 'ellers'. This study focuses on the problems involved in the translation of the types of logical-semantic relations which can be marked by the Danish 'ellers' when found in the position of sentence adverbials. It is hypothesised that in translations from Danish into Spanish an explicit marking of the relation will sometimes be omitted due to the lack of a 'suitable' equivalent. Conversely, it is assumed that, in translations from Spanish into Danish, the semantic relation will far from always be made explicit. If it is, it is likely that it will be done by means of 'ellers'. These assumptions will be tested in an exploratory study of the translations of a number of Spanish and Danish source texts. The product analyses will be supplemented by studies of the translation process by means of think aloud-protocols and retrospective interviews to find out to what extent the unit is considered a problematical unit which requires conscious mental processing, and in order to shed light on the strategic decision-making involved in the translation of the relation.

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Lucile DESBLACHE, Jorge DAZ-CINTAS Roehampton University, London l.desblache@roehampton.ac.uk, j.diaz-cintas@roehampton.ac.uk

Accessibility and/in Translation Training


The notion of accessibility has become very prominent in recent years, in education in general as well as in the more specific area of Translation Studies. In this joint paper, we would like to explore accessibility both as a teaching topic and as a concept which is at the heart of our teaching practice. In the first half of the paper, we shall look at how our teaching ethos is driven by ways in which we can value and favour difference. How can we use the wide range of our students' social, cultural and linguistic backgrounds and abilities? How does a more acute awareness of diversity lead us to favour certain strategies? Student-centred approaches, non-prescriptive methods, the use of an interdisciplinary expertise network, both in our own institution and externally, and the development of strong links with the translation industry will be investigated as key features in answer to this question. The second half of the paper will be devoted to accessibility as a teaching subject. On our postgraduate course in audiovisual translation, audio description and subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing are increasingly offered on translation studies curricula. They are extremely popular with our students who frequently choose them in preference to more traditional translation modules such as dubbing and translation tools. Can we now consider accessibility to the media an essential part of Translation Studies? What impact does this new presence have on our visions of translation as a topic? We shall attempt to open the debate and propose some answers to these topical questions.

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Rodica DIMITRIU Universitatea "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi, Romania, Department of English rodica.dimi@gmail.com

The Translators Prefaces and Translation Studies A Mutually Enriching Relationship


The history of Translation Studies shows that, for a long time, the translators prefaces to canonic literary and philosophical works were an inextricable part of the theoretical corpus of writings on translation that formed the traditional translation theory. This state of affairs considerably changed with the emergence of Translation Studies, an interdiscipline that makes use of more complex, more refined and frequently more scientific tools of investigation. Translators prefaces have become rarer and their relative scarcity has contributed to the still widening gap between theorists and practitioners. As Jeremy Munday (2001) pertinently notices, because of this relative lack of prefaces, much of the work that goes into producing a translation, i. e. the translators own background and research as well as the actual process of translation composition, are lost. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to reconsider the functions that these meta-texts fulfil in the receiving culture. This reconsideration draws on the examination of a corpus of such materials, which came out in Romania between 1940 and 2002, and which, for reasons of conciseness, I refer to as prefaces. By investigating these texts from a Translation Studies perspective, I find that the main functions that they fulfil are explanatory, normative/prescriptive and informative/descriptive. The explanatory dimension of prefaces is achieved, on the one hand, through the translators attempts to describe the personal and/or the socio-cultural context that accounted for their choice of a particular text for translation. On the other hand, this function refers to the translators comments on the strategies they used when confronted with linguistic and cultural translation problems. Texts fulfilling an explanatory function are, therefore, related to the preliminary and operational norms (cf. Toury 1995) translators submit to. Normative/prescriptive prefaces act as guidelines to be followed by other practitioners. The crucial issue at this level is that of fidelity/loyalty that goes either to the source or to the target text, thus bringing Tourys initial norm into discussion. Other translation tips that occur in the corpus have in view the issue of what is called poetic synonymy (i. e. finding, in the target culture, a writer that stylistically shares in common with the source text author), or problems related to inter-textual cohesion, translating poetry, secondary translations, and the ideal translators profile. The informative/descriptive function refers to those translators prefaces that provide translation-oriented source text analyses, trying to highlight the authors originality and focusing on areas of translation difficulties. Sometimes the translators analyses comprise the description of the context of source text production and/or of target text reception, thus sharing in common with literary criticism. The second purpose of this paper derives from the first one. The analyses of the translators prefaces are ultimately meant to reveal, on the one hand, their potential as research resources for translation scholars, on the other, the ways in which the translators themselves could benefit from on-going research in Translation Studies. As such, the paper is an(other) attempt to narrow the gap between theorists and practitioners. Thus, it is suggested that translation scholars could use translators prefaces to a larger extent in order to check the validity of theories through the case studies that are presented in each preface, detect the ideology behind the translators prefaces (hence possible instances of manipulation), or make inferences about the translation process itself. Conversely, when writing prefaces translators could resort to acquisitions in Translation Studies and thus develop a more professional meta-language that would allow them to present their enterprise in a more precise and less impressionistic manner. This could also have a share in raising the translators status in society.
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Lise DUBOIS, Matthieu LEBLANC, Sonya MALABORZA Universit de Moncton duboisl@umoncton.ca, leblanmt@umoncton.ca, smalaborza@yahoo.ca

Translation Studies: A Gateway to Understanding Language Ideologies and Social Categorization


This paper concerns a study conducted in a large translation firm operating outside of the larger Canadian cities, in what is commonly called a minority setting. This firm uses the most recent technological tools, work flow systems, translation memories, integrated term banks, formatting systems, etc., and is currently seeking to branch out in international markets. The researchs perspective is an ethno-sociolinguistic one based on a constructivist and interpretive approach to language practices, which, in this case, encompass translation practices. Our three-pronged methodology includes ethnographic observation of translation processes, in-depth interviews with translators and managers, and analysis of various company documents. Translators and the translation processes are at the center of our investigation, based on the following questions: who translates? For whom? How? Who legitimizes the final result? Why do research projects on translation in a large firm matter? First, research reveals important information on the translators changing status within large globalized organizations. Indeed, the optimal use of modern-day tools and technology in translation is transforming the translator and his task. We have found that these tools have important consequences on work flow and rhythm; transform the relationship between translator and text because the work is divided up in small units with no beginning and no end; change the working relationship between translators who can now visualize each others work during the translation process; subordinate the translators creativity and autonomy to existing translations produced by others; and transform the relationship between translator and client whose expectations are immediate. Are these tools contributing to the deprofessionalization of the translator? How do translators perceive this? Secondly, these investigations matter because they also tell us about dominant language ideologies. In a world where languages are the gateway to expanding markets, it is important to understand how translation is viewed by the major players in the market, how it is being provided, and in what conditions. What effects on smaller languages will translation have when its quality is deemed good enough for the local markets? Who determines what is good enough and for what purpose? This brings us to another central question in our study: what role do linguistic skills play in globalized markets? What linguistic skills are required to be a translator? Who determines what they are and how they are evaluated? Finally, in the particular setting under study, a minority setting where minority speakers linguistic skills are a commodity for the first time in history, the translation company becomes a milieu for various intercultural contacts. Linguistic and translation practices become the terrain where social differences and barriers are (de) and (re)constructed. What role do translation skills play in social categorization processes? We will be looking at these three aspects of translation in a globalized market-driven world and attempting to provide answers to the questions asked. Furthermore, we will be broaching the question of methodology in translation studies as it relates to fieldwork.

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Friedel DUBSLAFF ,Bodil MARTINSEN Aarhus School of Business, Denmark fd@asb.dk, brm@asb.dk

Investigating Deviations from Norms in Court Interpreting


Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due to the flexibility of the concept of norms, it lends itself excellently to inquiries into interpreting, i.e. to an object of study which may be said to be characterized by an even higher degree of variability than translation. The present study forms part of a comprehensive research project on court interpreting in Denmark, which involves three researchers affiliated to the same institution (Aarhus School of Business), and includes French, German and Arabic. Apart from recordings of (parts of) authentic courtroom proceedings, the empirical data include questionnaires filled in by the interpreters and most and, in some cases, all professional users involved (judges, lawyers, prosecutors). As far as the non-Danish speaking users are concerned, it has, with one notable exception, unfortunately not been possible to obtain data from this group via questionnaires. As this type of data, however, is important for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to: - identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters - discuss signs of possible deviant behaviour - explore why the deviations in question occur - find out what happens if deviations are perceived as such by the other participants involved in the interpreted event. We will reconstruct the norms in question by examining interpreters and (mainly) professional users behaviour in the course of the interpreted events and by drawing on responses to the questionnaires and comments provided by these two groups. The explicit instructions issued by the Danish Court Administration (Guidelines for court interpreting) will serve as point of departure for the investigation of deviations from the prevailing norms. Depending on the character of the deviant behaviour, the potency of the norms in question, extratextual sociocultural factors such as the interpreters status in society, and many other factors, a broad range of sanctions is conceivable. However, we do not expect to find an obvious connection between deviations and sanctions in every case. By way of example: Several judges, who had given their consent to recordings of authentic data in connection with the research project, reported that they had experienced problems with insufficient language proficiency on the part of untrained interpreters speaking minority languages in Denmark, such as Arabic (comments in the questionnaires show, that this is a shared concern among the professional users). However, dissatisfaction with these interpreters does not necessarily lead to actual negative sanctions because there is a shortage of trained interpreters speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make a difference in the long run. We shall conclude this paper by discussing what makes us think so.

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Thrse ENG Vxj University therese.eng@vxu.se

La variation diastratique dans les sous-titres franais de films sudois


En 1989, Lambert a constat qu: Une des options bien connues du roman, la tendance individualiser les personnages par leur langage [] est assez systmatiquement sacrifie dautres objectifs: le sous-titreur recherche la standardisation plutt que lidiosyncrasie. Lopposition entre le langage du narrateur et le langage des personnages est ainsi souvent mouss, et limpact dune certaine langue crite standard redevient manifeste. [] Le langage conventionnel des sous-titres se donne des objectifs didactiques et moraux plutt quartistique et mimtiques, contrairement ce qui est le cas de la plupart des dialogues romanesques. (Lambert, 1989 : La traduction, les langues et la communication de masse : les ambiguts du discours international , Target 1989, 1 : 2, p. 233.). Environ dix ans plus tard, nous avons pu constater, partir de lanalyse dun corpus de long mtrages sudois, datant du dbut du XXIe sicle, sous-titrs en franais, que les sous-titreurs de ces films ne sont pas insensibles aux aspects dramatiques, notamment ceux rsultant de la confrontation de deux mondes sociaux opposs, voire en conflit. Nous avons remarqu quil y a une volution stylistique qui tend vers un usage plus systmatique des caractristiques orales dans la traduction sous-titrale des films sudois en France. Marquer les diffrences sociales propres la langue semble mme tre un devoir de ces traducteurs. Cest ainsi que les sous-titreurs, Duault et Sjberg, ont d, dans les films o les diffrences sociales sont marquantes entre les personnages principaux, renforcer ces diffrences par le truchement de procds linguistiques : en surchargeant le texte de signes visant rappeler une langue plus familire, voire vulgaire, chaque fois que cest un personnage dun niveau social plus bas qui parle, ou, inversement, en traduisant par une langue convenue, voire dnotant une forme de prciosit administrative, les rpliques des personnages mieux placs dans lchelle sociale. Dans nos tudes sur la variation diastratique des films, nous avons donc vu que les traducteurs cherchent tablir dans les sous-titres, un plus grand cart langagier entre les personnages principaux que celui qui existe dans leurs rpliques originales : ils emploient plus de renforcements stylistiques, et moins domissions, pour sous-titrer les expressions vulgaires et argotiques des interventions des personnages issus de la catgorie sociale dfavorise, quils ne le font pour celles des protagonistes de la catgorie sociale plutt bourgeoise. Ces baisses du niveau de style chez certains personnages, sont avant tout remarquables quant il sagit de traductions dexpressions argotiques. Il est galement relever quen gnral les sous-titreurs adaptent ses choix de traduction daprs la situation dans laquelle les personnages se trouvent : on tend omettre et attnuer plus dexpressions vulgaires dans les sous-titres des rpliques dun personnage qui sadresse une pu plusieurs personnes issue(s) dune catgorie sociale plus leve que dans les conversations runissant des personnages de la mme catgorie sociale. Cette intervention des sous-titreurs est peut-tre lie soit au fait quon considre quun public non sudois a besoin daide pour interprter et comprendre plus rapidement le systme hirarchique en place, et le jeu quil implique entre les personnages. Par les images, les spectateurs sudois saisissent tout de suite quel milieu appartiennent les personnages, en reprant par exemple les signes distinctifs de commodit de logement, ou inversement de gne ou de dnuement conomique.
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Comment loralit va-t-elle se dvelopper dans lavenir dans les sous-titres ? Verrons-nous plus de ces phnomnes ? Bien videmment, la rponse dpendra de la nature des films qui seront traduits. Il nest pas interdit de penser que de nouvelles formes intermdiaires dcrits influences par les conditions et dispositions de lchange oral (les constructions et enchanement plus simples, etc..) et affranchies des contraintes grammaticales et orthographiques sont appeles se dvelopper.

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Dorrit FABER, Mette HJORT-PEDERSEN Copenhagen Business School df.eng@cbs.dk, df.eng@cbs.dk

Explicitation and Implicitation in Legal Translation


Explicitation, i.e. instances where implicit information contained in a source text is made explicit in a target text, has been described by various scholars as a universal of translation. Others regard explicitation as a phenomenon occurring in translations produced by non-professional rather than professional translators, cf. e.g. Toury (1980), Laviosa-Braithwaite (1996) and Dimitrova (2005). Implicitation, i.e. the strategy of making explicit source text information implicit in a target text, is apparently a less frequent procedure (Dimitrova 2005). The focus of this paper is to explore aspects of explicitation and implicitation in a particular field of LSP translation, namely legal translation performed by LSP trainee translators. It is obvious that in legal translation explicitation and implicitation may follow from both syntactic and semantic differences between source and target language as well as from differences in culture- and system-bound entities, etc. However, from a legal point of view, adding or subtracting information is a high risk procedure because of the potential change of legal meaning or effect of the target text, and therefore it is reasonable to assume that explicitation and implication will be a relatively rare phenomenon in legal translation. From a cognitive point of view, on the other hand, the assumption may be quite the opposite. Legal texts are notoriously difficult to understand for non-legal experts because of their high complexity both at the linguistic and the conceptual levels. Thus, legal texts describe legal scenarios that are to a greater or lesser extent unfamiliar to lay readers, and the language used to describe these scenarios frequently contain various blurring features. These features may be nominal and passive constructions, script roles and specialised legal terminology, all of which may hamper the identification of who the actants are, what acts are performed, and the time and place of such acts. On this basis, it might therefore conversely be assumed that the effort involved in this kind of mental processing will leave traces in the target text in the form of linguistic explication and/or implicitation. In this paper, setting aside instances of explicitation and implicitation that are necessitated by syntactic and semantic differences between source and target language, we want to explore the extent to which explicitation and implicitation occur in legal translations produced by Danish LSP trainee translators and discuss potential reasons for the choices made. This analysis and discussion forms part of an on-going research product, where we want to compare legal translations produced by trainees and professional translators, respectively. The overall aim of this project is to shed light on differences, if any, in types of explicitation and implicitation chosen as strategies by trainees and professionals in legal translation. Using think-aloud protocols, computer logging, eye tracking and retrospective interviews as methodology, we further aim to investigate when in the understanding and translation process the decision to make any information explicit or implicit is taken, and the underlying reasons for the choices actually made.

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Ilse FEINAUER University of Stellenbosch aef@sun.ac.za

Novels as Culture-Bound Linguistic Signs The Application of Translation Studies


There is a growing tendency among Afrikaans writers to seek new readers and larger markets by rendering previously published work into English for both the Englishspeaking South African as the international reader. Nowadays it would happen quite often that the original Afrikaans version is launched together with the English version and that the latter would outsell the original by far. Without translation English first-language readers would have been deprived of South African classics by amongst others Marlene van Niekerk, Etienne van Heerden and Ingrid Winterbach. Translation from English into Afrikaans is mostly restricted to romantic novels, devotional literature, motivational literature, DIY-books, as well as childrens literature. Afrikaans readers interested in reading literary works would read the original English versions. Translators, authors and publishers did not until recently acknowledge or take heed of translation studies. Some literary translators are openly hostile to translation studies (and those who teach them). In this paper I would like to focus on how translation studies could enhance the translation skills of literary translators and perhaps even enhancing their status in society. Existing and aspiring literary translators trained in translation studies and translation products will be used as experimental subjects. In the first instance the work of a literary translator without any training will be compared to that of a literary translator with training in translation studies; the former translating mainly from Dutch into Afrikaans and the latter from Afrikaans into English and from English into Afrikaans. The reception of both their target products in South Africa will also be discussed. I would then like to discuss the work of two aspiring literary translators both trained in translation studies and their translations of respectively Alexander McCall Smiths The No.1 Ladies Detective Agency and Cornelia Funkes Tintenherz into Afrikaans. Both works are cultural minefields in that McCall Smith is a Scot situating his novel in Africa whereas Funkes text is not situated as such in a specific European country mainly to accommodate the translation process for the European market. How did translation studies enhance the skills of both South African translators in order to adapt these texts for the Afrikaans reader? The following problem statements will be addressed: - It is feasible to teach someone literary translation skills by means of translation studies in order to produce a superior product - Translation studies could help the translator to think systematically about the translation process in order to improve the translation product - Translation studies could help the translator take decisions and to consistently carry through these decisions - Translation studies could help the translator motivate her/his decision According to Schffner translation studies is not a homogeneous discipline: different approaches exist side by side, using specific concepts and methodologies. Each approach contributes valuable insight to the complex phenomenon of translation. The translator does not need to know all these approaches; for a literary translator the following would already be constructive: Skopos theory, Steiners hermeneutic movement and Schleiermachers/Venutis domesticating versus foreignising approaches.

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Literary translators should also be taught that all translation is in essence a culture-bound act and therefore determined by the communicative situation in which they serve to convey a message (Nord 1991). The translator should always recognize the cultural differences regarding behaviour and communicative situations to facilitate the reception of this foreign source text in the target culture. The problems that the translator will have to deal with depend inter alia upon the cultural and linguistic distance between the two language groups. The translator is always in the text, for the text always has to pass through the translator who is ever present as the constraining and enabling filter (Holman & Boase-Beier 1999:8-9). Translators in South Africa translating from Afrikaans into English has an even more challenging task: both English-speaking South Africans knowing the culture as well as international English readers who could find the South African situation totally alienating should consider the translated product adequate as a literary work. This sometimes results in producing two translated versions: one for the local and one for the international market.

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Darja FIER University of Ljubljana darja.fiser1@guest.arnes.si

CAT Tools in the Classroom and Beyond


In the recent past, the latest communication technologies, ever-faster turn-around times in documentation production cycles and highly competitive and global project bids have drastically changed the translation workflow. In addition to that, translation tools in its widest sense have become popular and reliable off-the-shelf products, accessible to most translation departments, translation companies, translation agencies as well as free-lance translators. The field of professional translation has had so much to gain from electronic dictionaries, translation memories, terminology management software and corpora, and giving them an important role in most large-scale translation projects that it is safe to say they are here to stay (cf. Fier, Vintar 2004). My previous study (Fier 2005) examined the translation job market in Slovenia where the needs and requirements of prospective employees were taken into account and compared against the competences of professional translators, pointing out the direction of development of the near-future translators working environments, therefore unveiling the needs of the job market for competent users of translation technologies. The results of the analysis show that university syllabi at translation departments need to be revised in terms of their employment prospects and relevance for the information society era, which is also at the core of the Bologna process. This paper is a follow-up of this study. In it, the previous findings are put in action by trying to secure translation tools a place in the translation curriculum in a modern and efficient way that is also appealing to the students. The one-semester course in translation tools has been taught to second-year students since the very beginning of our translation department but within this study blended learning techniques will be used and evaluated. The teaching scenario is going to be as follows: all second-year students will be given a 30-hour course in translation tools, ranging from basic ITC skills to topics on electronic dictionaries, corpora, machine translation, translation memories and terminology management software. The groups will be relatively small (20 students per group) and the work will be problem-oriented and hands-on (2 students per workstation). After each session, a group of volunteer students will complete an on-line course on the same topic on their own time and at their own speed. The on-line courses have been developed within an on-going international Leonardo da Vinci project called eCoLoTrain. Volunteer students will also fill out a questionnaire for each on-line course which will give us feedback about the quality and suitability of the course for this teaching mode. At the end of the semester, all students will be tested in the skills and competences obtained during the course, and the results of the group taking the university course only will be compared against the results of the group of volunteers taking on-line courses as well. It is expected that students will benefit from the blended learning approach, thus achieving better results and confirming the advantages of the adopted teaching method which has been successfully implemented in various teaching scenarios in the past but has not been extensively tested in the field of translation tools due to lack of available course materials as well as software accessibility issues.

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A side result of the study will be the data collected from the filled-out questionnaires which will give the developers of the on-line courses much needed feedback on their work. It is hoped that the insights obtained from the students opinions about the courses will be a valuable contribution towards improving the existing on-line courses as well as designing better ones in the future. All the courses will be made available to the public, accompanied by the didactic guidelines to course materials for teachers who might wish to use them in their courses.

References: Fier, Darja. Jezikovne tehnologije od tudija do zaposlitve. (Language tools from university to employment) Jezik in slovstvo, 50/I (Jan.-Feb. 2005), pp 101-116. Fier, Darja; Vintar, pela (2004): Uvajanje prevajalskega namizja Trados v delovno okolje prevajalske agencije. (Introduction of Trados workbench in the work environment of a translation agency) Proceedings of the 4th Slovenian conference on language technologies, LTC'04, 09th - 15th October 2004, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

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Sage FITZ-GERALD Universidad Pablo de Olavide sfitger@upo.es

Lost in Translation? Negotiating the Borders of Bilingual Creation from the Perspective of Linguistic Globalization
trying to be South in the South, North in the North, South in the North and North in the South. (Rubn Martinez, The Other Side: Fault Lines, Guerrilla Saints, and the True Heart of Rock n Roll) Academics and researchers immersed in new currents of translation theory have found in the border as metaphor, semiosphere and geo-linguistic reality a fluid, hybrid, multidisciplinary area for further research. The exploration of this liminal zone has inspired new incursions into old questions of identity and cultural transfer, alterity and subalternity, mestizaje and transculturalization, among others. For the inhabitants of this region, however, the border is not only a metaphor but a negotiated existence. In an interview just before her recent, premature death, the Chicano writer Gloria Anzalda reflected on the subject of negotiation between cultural transfer and the reception of her work Borderlands/La Frontera: "White critics and teachers often [...] take the passages in which I talk about mestizaje and borderlands because they can more easily apply them to their own experiences. The angrier parts of Borderlands are often ignored I think you could call this selective critical interpretation a kind of racism. If the work is not interesting or entertaining enough, forget it. So I have to keep all these different issues regarding the reception of my work in mind and try to compromise. If I had made Borderlands too inaccessible to you by putting in too many Chicano terms, too many Spanish words [...] you would have been very frustrated. There are different traditions in the different genres autobiography, fiction, poetry, theory, criticism certain standards you have to follow." (Borderlands/La Frontera, 175) Building from the premise that the translation, like the original, is subject to discourse substrates perceived or intuited ideological and social standards that determine what is admissible in the target culture, we will analyse how societal restrictions on discourse affect the selection of works to be translated. Ways in which such restrictions affect changes undergone by the source text during the decoding-recoding process as well as final reception by the readers will also be examined. Through studying the translation of fringe works into and from English we are afforded privileged insight as to how the foreign text is assimilated, allowing us to compare the original with its translation and thus reveal the modifications demanded by the target culture/market. The current historical moment in the United States is marked by a search on the part of Chicano creators for a socio-cultural identity of their own, in which the mixing or alternate use of English and Spanish (code switching) clearly mirrors the border experience, and ultimately leads to shared albeit conflictive relations confrontation and collaboration between the language of tradition and that of globalisation. These linguistic transgressors recreate themselves in a bilingual wordplay from which new ideology-discourse paradigms are born into handto-hand combat with both the model of national identities protected by unsurmountable borders on the one hand, and the homogenizing force of globalisation on the other. As a result of this move towards a celebration of transcultural realities based on sociolinguistic transgression, the thin red line between English and Spanish and therefore between creation and translation is becoming increasingly blurred.
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Anna FOCHI University of Glasgow anna.fochi@gmail.com

Chronicle of a Provocative Encounter Foretold The Examplary Case of the First Publication in English of G.G.Marquez's "Cronica De Una Muerte Anunciada"
Translation has always been relevant for comparative research, but its role is actually seen as central for cultural studies. Since translation implies establishing a contact between cultures, and thus leads to an experience of the other, the possibility of developing different types of encounters inevitably brings ideological implications with it (cultural hegemony and assimilation, or, on the other hand, dialogue between cultures and mutual interpretation). If the notion of translatability is in itself conceived as in opposition to cultural hegemony and as an instrument for mutual interpretation (Wolfang Iser), translation comes to be closely linked to the strategic distinction between multicultural communication (the mere meeting of cultures), intercultural dialogue ( the interaction of cultures) and transcultural discourse (a higher level of interaction, with the single cultures abandoning their specific frames of reference and creating new ones). It is a stimulating perspective for translation studies, and the aim of this paper is to apply it to a concrete context, to verify if and how it is relevant to translation analysis. Besides Lawrence Venutis well-known views and Dick Delabastitas contributions, a promising direction can be found in Peter Torops writings, and specifically in his invitation to focus on translatability parameters for cultural translation and to match them with a range of available translation strategies. Thus, by mostly referring to Torops table Cultural Translation, the paper focuses on the first publishing of the English translation of Gabriel Garci Mrquezs Crnica de una muerte anunciada in the pages of Vanity Fair. On the one hand, there is a complex source text, particularly rich in cultural components, like all the writings by the Colombian writer; on the other hand, there is a translator, Gregory Rabassa, whose precept is that, in order to preserve whatever slim shards of the culture, it is necessary to acculturate our English, and who therefore produces a target text which succeeds in not hiding the ST, through a creative manipulation of the target language, rather than through a more superficial attention to the macroscopic cultural elements of the ST, such as, for example the realia or the other terms referring to a specific geographic space. This is not all, however. There is also the unmistakable hand of Gabriel Garca Mrquezs fellow Colombian, Fernando Botero, whose illustrations accompany Rabassas translation and clearly ring a disquieting note of exaggeration and distortion in his renowned Botheromorth style, and immediately convey the message that what is offered is a striking text, and not just one of those quaint Latin American novels that were in vogue in the previous years (Dona M.Kercher). Finally, to make the case more relevant, there is the fact that Rabassas translation appears in the most improbable setting, the highly polished pages of Vanity Fair, with their note of quintessential Western consumerism, also because of obtrusive advertisements interrupting the flowing of narration, and alternating to Boteros illustrations. The contrast with the cultural atmosphere evoked by the TT could not be more emphasized. New tensions and dimensions are introduced by such an editorial operation, which sets a clear dynamics of mutual interaction going well beyond the normal link between a source and a target text, and including different semiotic codes and contexts. The question is therefore if this is a case which comes to confirm the view of those who advocate a widening of translation criticism crossing the borders of mere cross-linguistic translation.
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Isabel GARCA IZQUIERDO, Vicent MONTALT RESSURRRECCI, Pilar EZPELETA PIORNO Universitat Jaume I (Castelln, Spain) igarcia@trad.uji.es montalt@trad.uji.es ezpeleta@trad.uji.es

El desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa y textual a travs del concepto de gnero


En los ltimos aos, el concepto de competencia traductora ha ido tomando carta de naturaleza hasta convertirse en el centro del debate en torno a la formacin de traductores. Los trabajos de. Hurtado en el grupo PACTE (2001) o de Kelly (2002, 2005, 2006) son buena muestra de ello. La competencia traductora es un concepto complejo y polidrico en el que confluyen aspectos muy diferentes. Son muchos los trabajos que, tomando la tradicin de los estudios literarios centrada en el gnero, la han adaptado tanto al campo de la lingstica y la enseanza de lenguas (Swales, 1990 y Bhatia, 1993, entre otros) como al de la traduccin (Hatim y Mason, 1990; o los trabajos del equipo Gentt, en especial I. Garca Izquierdo, 2005, entre otros). En este trabajo retomamos la utilidad del concepto de gnero textual, entendido como forma convencionalizada de texto (Kress, 1985), dinmica e hbrida, que representa una interfaz entre el texto y el contexto y entre el texto original y el texto meta (Montalt, 2003; Gentt, 2005) en la formacin del traductor (y, por tanto, en la configuracin de la competencia traductora) y en la investigacin sobre traduccin. El presente trabajo pretende ir un paso ms all en la reflexin y ahondar en la relacin entre el gnero y la competencia traductora, en general, y la subcompetencia comunicativa y textual (Kelly, 2006), en particular. En efecto, en trabajos anteriores (Montalt, 2003; Montalt, Ezpeleta y Garca de Toro, 2005; Ezpeleta, 2005; o Garca Izquierdo, 2005) se ha abordado la utilidad del concepto de gnero textual en la adquisicin de la competencia traductora. Ahora bien, como decamos arriba, la competencia traductora es un concepto polidrico ya que son muchas las subcompetencias que la conforman y pensamos que es posible delimitar con mayor detalle cules de las subcompetencias traductoras podran adquirirse especficamente mediante el gnero textual como artefacto pedaggico. En concreto, la hiptesis principal que intentaremos ilustrar en este trabajo es que este concepto sera especialmente relevante para la adquisicin de la llamada competencia comunicativa y textual. La adquisicin de la competencia traductora es un proceso gradual, en el que influye de manera significativa el grado de complejidad de los textos/gneros objeto de trabajo. Cuanta mayor complejidad textual, mayor ser el nivel de competencia exigible. De ah que la relacin entre los gneros textuales y la subcompetencia comunicativa y textual est tambin mediada por el nivel de complejidad y/o especialidad de los textos a los que se enfrente el traductor. As pues, siguiendo la lnea del equipo de investigacin Gentt (www.gentt.uji.es), nos centraremos en el anlisis de algunos gneros de los mbitos de especialidad (gneros mdico-sanitarios y del mbito de la tcnica, fundamentalmente) para intentar mostrar que la relacin entre gnero textual y subcompetencia comunicativa y textual puede resultar muy productiva.

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Laura GAVIOLI, Claudio BARALDI University of Modena and Reggio Emilia lgavioli@unimore.it, cbaraldi@unimore.it

Interpreters as Talk Coordinators Different Spaces, Different Opportunities


Studies in dialogue interpreting have shown that interpreters are active participants in the interaction. Wadensj, in particular, suggested that interpreters contributions can be observed as activity-oriented (1998: 21-3) in the interaction. Interpreters activityoriented contributions focus on the achievement of turn-taking and, in this way, interpreters can play a role of coordinators of talk. A possibly interesting development of this approach concerns the different ways in which interpreters choices can influence the achievement of interactional turn-taking. We looked at a series of recorded and transcribed interpreter-mediated conversations involving Italian and English as an international language and taking place in three main settings, healthcare settings, immigration offices and business exhibitions. We suggest that there are three main forms of actions contributed by interpreters which influence the achievement of interactions: a. providing zero translation or minimum linguistic help, b. providing translation on a rough turn-by-turn basis, c. providing summarized or expanded translation of stretches of talk by one or the other participant. The choice of the one or the other of these actions involves different systems of turntaking and may have different consequences on distributions and forms of participation in the interaction. Providing zero translation or minimal linguistic help provides turn slots for the main participants and reduces those of the interpreter, a turn-by turn translation provides all the participants with short turn slots, and summarized translation provides some participants with longer turn-slots. The different slots that are achieved through these different turn-taking organizations provide the participants with different spaces and opportunities to express their personal positions and cultural views, and interpreters can act in order to promote space for themselves and other participants. On the basis of this observation, we look at the intercultural consequences of interpreters different forms of action and the interpreters responsibility in promoting either intercultural dialogue and/or cultural filters. Reference: Wadensj, C. 1998. Interpreting as interaction. London: Longman.

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Cristina GMEZ University of Leon dfmcgc@unileon.es

The Study Of Translation-Related Activities During Francos Dictatorship Translation Studies Matters
During the almost forty years spanned by Francos dictatorship (1939-1975) Spain exercised a policy of cultural protectionism that implied the adaptation of all native and foreign information to the cultural requirements of the dominant regime. A system of official censorship was installed with the task of looking after the ideological uniformity of the nation. Translations were subjected to the book-controlling system in the same way as native productions: the censorship boards reviewed all types of narrative material submitted for publication on the Spanish market and gave their verdict concerning the advisability of the work in question. Using a descriptive methodology to study the production of translations in this context, I have been able to identify the different translation and publishing policies operative in the last years of the dictatorship and the first years of democracy. This has been done by reconstructing the map of what actually got translated in Spain () from empirical evidence drawn systematically from rich documentation sources (Merino 2005: 87). The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of the way in which the censorship mechanism worked and how it affected the translation of foreign novels, focusing on those works originally written in English. After having set the main lines of work of this mechanism of control, I will provide examples of the different approaches taken by the official administration regarding particular works, illustrating the various ways of manipulating texts that were exerted at the time and accepted by publishers and translators alike: from the banning of a work to the erasures and changes some texts had to suffer before publication. Finally, I will focus in more detail on the kind of changes suffered by some novels categorizing them according to the taboo topics of the time mainly sex, religion, politics and bad language and I will finish by showing how the publishing practices of that time are still operative today: some of those translated novels published with cuts and changes during the dictatorship continue to be sold in the same version in a market where the economic norms of profit-making seem to be the top priority. It is thanks to the discipline of Translation Studies that we can trace the behaviour of translators in a specific time span and in a very particular social and political context, thus legitimizing the impact that translation and publishing practices have had on the Spanish community of readers, translators and publishers of yesterday and today.

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Jean-Marc GOUANVIC Universit Concordia jmgouan@alcor.concordia.ca

Sociologie de la traduction originale en Franais de l'auteur amricain de romans policiers Chester Himes dans la Srie Noire (Gallimard)
Nous allons envisager la traduction d'un point de vue sociologique, en analysant le cas d'un auteur amricain de romans policiers, Chester Himes. Jusqu' sa rencontre avec Marcel Duhamel, aprs la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Chester Himes avait essentiellement publi aux tats-Unis des romans lus par un public restreint. Son oeuvre semblait condamne une rception mdiocre dans l'espace culturel amricain. Marcel Duhamel, dont le succs de la collection la Srie Noire (Gallimard) dranait vers lui ce que l'anglophonie pouvait compter d'auteurs prometteurs ou consacrs, conseilla Himes d'crire des romans policiers, ce qu'il fit avec brio. Ce furent en particulier La Reine des pommes et Il pleut des coups durs, qui mettaient en scne des policiers noirs Ed Cercueil et Fossoyeur Jones. C. Himes devait se faire un nom comme crivain noir de roman policier avec ces romans. Si l'on tudie les textes publis en franais dans la Srie Noire, on s'aperoit que ce sont des traductions dont les originaux n'ont t publis qu'aprs la publication des versions franaises. Effectues partir des manuscrits non encore publis en amricain, les traductions auraient-elles influ de quelque faon sur les originaux? En tous cas, il n'est pas possible de parler des textes originaux sans tenir compte de la ralisation ou de l'actualisation des habitus de Duhamel/Himes, la source des oeuvres. Nous examinerons dans quelles conditions l'oeuvre de Himes a merg dans les annes de l'aprs-guerre, stimule par Marcel Duhamel, puis, partir d'une analyse contrastive, nous verrons dans quelle mesure l'oeuvre en franais et l'oeuvre en amricain ne constitueraient pas deux originaux. La situation de Himes s'apparente-t-elle celle des expatriates d'avant-guerre? Quel est le rle exactement de Marcel Duhamel et de sa collection de la Srie Noire dans la production des oeuvres policires de Himes? Cette collection bien franaise a-t-elle t un modle pour Himes? C'est ce type de questions que nous nous poserons en situant l'oeuvre de l'auteur amricain dans le champ de la littrature policire franaise et en analysant les textes de faon contrastive pour faire apparatre les manires de traduire de l'quipe de Marcel Duhamel. Nous tenterons en particulier de voir si les traducteurs de la Srie Noire vernacularisent systmatiquement leur traduction, adaptant le sociolecte des Noirs de Harlem aux usages du roman policier franais de l'poque. La mthodologie que nous appliquerons cette tude est hrite de la sociologie des biens symboliques de Pierre Bourdieu, notions de champ, d'habitus et d'illusio, qui ont montr leur efficacit appliques d'autres corpus de traduction (la science-fiction, le roman raliste traduit de l'amricain).

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Simos GRAMMENIDIS ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITYOF THESSALONIKI simgram@frl.auth.gr

Translating Menus in Greece A Matter of Language or a Matter of Function?


This paper presents the preliminary conclusions of an ongoing research project, on the subject of the translation of menus available in Greek restaurants, undertaken by the Department of Translation of the School of French at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. In the course of the last two years, three hundred menus gathered from restaurants across various regions of Greece or found on tourist websites on the Internet were recorded and analysed from the perspective of translation strategies by student research groups. The goal here is not only the evaluation of the quality of the final product but the deciphering of the main problems posed by the translation as well as the analysis of the issues that arise beyond these texts and concerns the translation practice in a broader sense. The main points which will be considered are the following: a. the linguistic and functional characteristics of menus, b. the languages which are involved in translation activity, (i.e. into which languages are the menus translated, which factors justify, or even dictate, the transfer to certain languages and not to others?) c. the connection between the adopted strategies and the translation event, (i.e. to what extent are these strategies influenced by parameters such as the commissioner of the translation, the quality of the restaurant etc. which condition the translation event?) d. the type and function of the text to be translated as factors of translation choices, (i.e. how does the text type influence the translators decisions?) e. finally, which are the principles that should guide the translator in his choices in order to improve the role played by menu translations towards satisfying tourist demand for better service?

Bibliography Baker, Mona. (1992). In other words. A coursebook on translation. London / New York: Routledge. Nord, Christiane. (1991a). Text analysis in Translation. Theory, Methodology and Didactic applications for translation-oriented text analysis. Amsterdam: Rodopi. (1991b). Scopos, Loyalty and Translational Conventions. Target, 3:1, 91 109. (1992). Text Analysis in Translator Training. In C. Dollerup, A. Lindegaard (ed), Teaching Translation and Interpreting. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 39 48. (1997). A Functional Typology of Translations. In A. Trosborg (ed), Text Typology and Translation. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 43 66. Reiss, Katharina. (1977/2002). La critique des traductions, ses possibilits et ses limites. Traduit de lallemand par C. Bocquet. Artois : Presses Universit. Toury, Gideon. (1995). Descriptive Translation Studies and beyond. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

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Nadja GRBIC, Sonja POELLABAUER University of Graz nadja.grbic@uni-graz.at sonja.poellabauer@uni-graz.at

Why It Matters: Scientometrics as a Methodological Tool for Investigating Research on Translation and Interpreting
It has long been accepted in translation studies that interdisciplinarity has become an important characteristic of the discipline; translation studies have even been referred to as an interdiscipline (cf. Snell-Hornby et al. 1994) and obviously view themselves as such (cf. the Call for Papers for the 2007 EST Congress). In this paper we would like to focus on one specific interdisciplinary method of the field of social studies of science which has been used in a small number of papers in translation/interpreting studies (see below) but which, to our mind, does not appear to be widely known and/or accepted within the discipline: scientometrics. As Stock (2001:8) pointed out, publishing is ein sozialer Akt [...], der aus der Lebens- wie Forschungssituation des Wissenschaftlers, der Struktur der Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft sowie der gesellschaftlichen Struktur erwchst (Stock 2001: 8). Social studies of science, an interdisciplinary field with methodological approaches taken from sociology, anthropology, history, philosophy, political science, economics, psychology, etc., focus on different aspects of scholarly research, the scientific community as a system, and on individual researchers as members of such systems. One empirical branch of this field is scientometrics or bibliometrics, which can be defined as the science of measuring and analysing scientific output. Since the early 1970s, scientometrics have become an accepted field of social studies of science (especially in the natural sciences and in technology) and offer a wealth of quantitative methods for the analysis of science (e.g. publication analyses, (co-)citation analyses, co-word and keyword analyses). Such analyses have proved valuable for the investigation of the development of emerging disciplines and for tracing current trends and potentials in research. Bibliometric analyses are based on different empirical data such as publication and/or citation databases, but also other parameters like the foundation of scientific journals, the frequency of conferences, the counting of patents, etc. The measuring and evaluation of scientific production have become and will continue to be an important factor in any discipline. In some disciplines, the allocation of funds and/or positions may be influenced by the results of such analyses. We therefore think that translation and interpreting studies should not ignore this important field of research and prepare themselves for future developments where translation and interpreting studies might become the subject of scrutiny of bibliometry-based evaluations. In this paper, we would like to show how different methods and tools of scientometrics and/or bibliometrics may be used in translation and interpreting studies and in which way translation and interpreting studies may benefit from such an interdisciplinary approach. We also intend to focus on the advantages and disadvantages of such an approach, on different (potential) subjects of scientometric/bibliometric analyses, as well as the potentials and pitfalls of such studies. Based on a small corpus of bibliometric analyses in translation and interpreting studies (e.g. Pchhacker 1995a, 1995b, Gile 2000, 2005, van Doorslaer 2005, Grbi/Pllabauer 2006, Pllabauer 2006, Grbic 2007) we will provide examples for such an approach and point out topics/subjects which have not yet been studied but may prove worthwhile. We will also critically discuss the use (and abuse) of scientometric methods and focus on the degree of "interdisciplinarity" (multidisciplinarity vs. interdisciplinarity vs. transdisciplinarity, cf. e.g. Kaindl 1999) such studies allow and the relationship between translation/interpreting studies and scientometrics.
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We will also briefly discuss how such methods may be combined with other (related) methods of social studies of science such as content analysis or network analysis. It has often been lamented that scientometrics/bibliometrics have been lacking a sound theoretical basis (cf. Borgman 1990:13, Pierce 1990). Many scientometric/bibliometric studies are only quantitative in nature and do not claim to be integrated within a wider theoretical framework. In our view, scientometrics/bibliometrics offer valuable heuristic tools for descriptive meta-theoretical research, they should, however, be integrated within a wider theoretical framework. As writing and (doing) research can be regarded as a social practice, empirical scientometric/bibliometric research could for instance be interlinked with translation sociology which has proved valuable for the description of social practices in translation and interpreting. References: Borgman, Christine L. (1990) Editors Introduction, in: Borgman, Christine L. (ed.) (1990) Scholarly Communication and bibliometrics. Newbury Park/London/New Delhi: Sage, 10-27. Gile, Daniel (2000) The history of research into conference interpreting: A scientometric approach, in: Target 12:2, 297-321. Gile, Daniel (2005) Citation patterns in the T&I didactics literature, in: Forum 3:2, 85103. Grbic, Nadja (2007) Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? A Bibliometrical Analysis of Writings and Research on Sign Language Interpreting, in: The Sign Language Translator & Interpreter 1:1 [in press] Grbic, Nadja/Pllabauer, Sonja (2006) Forschung zum Community Interpreting im deutschsprachigen Raum: Entwicklung, Themen und Trends, in: Grbi, Nadja/Pllabauer, Sonja (eds.) Ich habe mich ganz peinlich gefhlt. Forschung zum Kommunaldolmetschen in sterreich: Problemstellungen, Perspektiven und Potenziale. Graz: Institut fr Translationswissenschaft (Graz Translation Studies 10), 11-36. Kaindl, Klaus (1999) Interdisziplinaritt in der Translationswissenschaft. Theoretische und methodische Implikationen, in: Gil, Alberto/Haller, Johann/Steiner, Erich/GerzymischArbogast, Heidrun (eds.) Modelle der Translation. Grundlagen fr Methodik, Bewertung, Computermodellierung. Frankfurt a. Main/Berlin/Bern/Bruxelles/New York/Wien: Lang (SABEST Saarbrcker Beitrge zur Sprach- und Translationswissenschaft 1), 137-155. Pierce, Sydney J. (1990) Disciplinary Work and Interdisciplinary Areas: Sociology and Bibliometrics, in: Borgman, Christine L. (ed.) Scholarly Communication and bibliometrics. Newbury Park/London/New Delhi: Sage, 46-58. Pchhacker, Franz (1995a) Those who do...: A Profile of Research(ers) in Interpreting, in: Target 7:1, 47-64. Pchhacker, Franz (1995b) Writings and research on interpretation: a bibliographic analysis, in: The Interpreters Newsletter 6, 17-31. Pllabauer, Sonja (2006) During the interview, the interpreter will provide a faithful translation. The potentials and pitfalls of researching interpreting in immigration, asylum, and police settings: methodology and research paradigms, in: Linguistica Antverpiensia LA NS5 [in press] Snell-Hornby, Mary/Pchhacker, Franz/Kaindl, Klaus (1994) (eds.) Translation Studies an interdiscipline. Selected papers from the Translation Studies Congress, Vienna, 9-12 September 1992. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. Stock, Wolfgang G. (2001) Publikation und Zitat. Die problematische Basis empirischer Wissenschaftsforschung. Kln: FH Kln (Klner Arbeitspapiere zur Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft 29). van Doorslaer, Luc (2005) The indicative power of a key word system: A quantitative analysis of the key words in the translation studies bibliography, in: Meta 50:4, n.p.
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Ewa GUMUL University of Silesia, Poland ewagumul@gmail.com

Creating and Disambiguating Grammatical Metaphors in Simultaneous Interpreting


The present paper aims to address the notion of grammatical metaphor in simultaneous interpreting in an attempt to strengthen the links of translation studies with linguistics and social sciences as well as to suggest implications for the process of interpreters training. Grammatical metaphor, the concept propounded by Halliday (1985/1994) within his framework of Systemic Functional Grammar, is perceived as variation in the expression of a given meaning. The situation described in a sentence might be realized in two different ways on the level of syntax: by a semantically congruent construction, when semantic functions fulfil primary syntactic roles, and by a semantically non-congruent construction, i.e. grammatical metaphors, when semantic functions play secondary syntactic roles. Thus, the process of grammatical metaphorisation should be seen as the shift in the semantic function, and the unit undergoing such a transformation, referred to as a grammatical metaphor, as an alternative lexicogrammatical realization of a semantic choice. It is worth noting that metaphorical constructions and their congruent equivalents should never be perceived in terms of a mere variance in syntactic form, since different structuralisations might be referring to the same entities but do not communicate the same (Jdrzejko 1993). Variation in a lexicogrammatical realization is generally associated with differences in interpretation and different discourse and stylistic effects. According to Halliday (1985/1994), the most powerful resource for creating grammatical metaphor is nominalisation, i.e. substituting verbal constructions with nominal ones. By means of such a transformation, processes and properties (congruently worded as verbs and adjectives respectively), are reworded metaphorically as nouns, which makes the resulting construction more abstract, impersonal and increases its lexical density. The notion of grammatical metaphor has attracted considerable interest in various sub-fields of linguistics (e.g. Ravelli 1988, Simon-Vandenbergen et al. 2003, Steiner 2004, Suinskiene 2004, etc.). However, relatively little research has been conducted so far into this phenomenon in translation (Puurtinen 2000, 2003). In view of the above-mentioned differences between congruent and metaphorical constructions, such shifts between source and target texts appear to be particularly interesting. Whereas Puurtinens (2000, 2003) research focuses on potential ideological implications of creating or disambiguating grammatical metaphors in press translation, this paper also aims to investigate other causes that trigger this type of translational shifts, taking into account the specificity of the analysed medium, i.e. simultaneous interpreting. Given the major differences between written and oral translation as well as the intrinsic constraints impeding the simultaneous interpreting task, such as substantial temporal pressure, limited short-term memory capacity, virtual simultaneity of the input reception and output production, lack of revision phase, and the linearity constraint, grammatical metaphor might be expected to acquire a different dimension in this mode of interpreting. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine which type of shift prevails in SI. Which is more frequent in this mode: creating grammatical metaphors (i.e. substituting verbal constructions with nominal ones) or disambiguating them (i.e. translating nominal constructions as verbal ones)? The paper also undertakes to investigate the causes triggering both types of translational shifts, which in SI might be brought about not only by a conscious attempt at discourse manipulation, but also engendered by various constraints affecting the process of simultaneous interpreting.
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Aykut GURCAGLAR Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University gurcagla@msu.edu.tr

The Potential Brought by Interactions between Art History and Translation Studies
I am an art historian by training and practice. I mainly study Ottoman westernization and the artistic interactions between the Ottoman Empire and the West and the Far East. As I studied representations of the Ottoman world by western painters, I gradually became intrigued by the way they depicted a specific professional group operating in the Ottoman capital: dragomans, i.e. interpreters. There were two specific reasons why these representations attracted my attention. First of all, there seemed to be strong cliches dominating the visual representation of dragomans in terms of their attire, their positioning in the paintings and their spatial relations with other figures in the paintings. There are three main genres within which dragoman paintings can be found: audience scenes, portraits and costume albums. It occurred to me that dragomans had to have considerable presence and influence in the Ottoman Empire to have made their way into the audience scenes, usually featuring such notable figures as the Ottoman sultan, the grand viziers and foreign ambassadors. On the other hand, the existence of dragoman portraits proved that these individuals were rich and powerful enough to commission portraits to western artists working in Constantinople. This offers some clues about the self-image of the dragomans. It was uncommon to see Ottoman officers, even as high ranking as ministers or generals, commission western-style portraits in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The dragoman presence in costume albums is an indication that they were visible to foreign travelers and painters who found their special dragomans costumes striking and saw them as one of the components of the rich and exotic Empire. The second reason why I was attracted to the issue had to do with the historical roles of dragomans. Dragomans served as channels of communication between the Ottoman Empire and the western powers. A preliminary look at the available, yet scarce, sources on the subject reveals interesting information about their problematic and critical position in the dealings between the Empire and the western world. Unlike todays interpreters, dragomans enjoyed a high status, often being promoted to various positions such as the post of the governor or ambassador which indicates that their sole occupation was not interpretation. On the other hand, they were never fully trusted by either of the parties and many a dragoman fell prey to political conspiracies. A scholarly study of the visual representations of dragomans needs to borrow its tools of analysis not only from the realm of art history but translation and interpreting studies as well. For instance, the positioning of the interpreters in the audience scenes can only be explained by including a discussion of the historical role of interpreters and their visibility. The in-betweenness of interpreters in these scenes becomes more meaningful when one becomes aware of the current literature in translation studies regarding the liminality of the translating/interpreting subject. The dragoman portraits, likewise, gain a new dimension when one regards them through the growing emphasis on the issue of agency in translation studies. My paper will draw on examples of how translation studies can nourish itself by turning to art history for visual sources to unearth more of the relatively hidden history of the profession of translation and interpreting. The paper will also provide room for a discussion on how the theoretical and historical foundations of translation studies can shed new light on other disciplines, as exemplified by art history.

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Gyde HANSEN Copenhagen Business School gh.first@cbs.dk

bersetzungsprozesse im Studium und in der Praxis von Experten (From Student To Expert) Eine empirische Langzeitstudie der Zusammenhnge zwischen Profilen, Prozessen und Produkten in verschiedenen Stadien der Kompetenz
Fr das Gelingen von bersetzungsprozessen sind Aufmerksamkeit und Kontrolle, d.h. auch Selbstaufmerksamkeit und Selbstkontrolle wichtige Voraussetzungen. Dies zeigt eine interdisziplinre, empirische Untersuchung von bersetzungsprozessen an der Copenhagen Business School (CBS), bei der weniger das Produkt als vielmehr der mentale bersetzungsprozess mit seinen vielfltigen Einflssen im Mittelpunkt stand. Weil im bersetzungsunterricht immer viele Fehler angestrichen werden, war die Frage, die anfnglich gestellt wurde: Was kann am bersetzen denn so schwer sein?. Die Annahme war, dass die vielen Probleme nicht immer nur auf Fremdsprachendefizite oder fehlendes fachliches Wissen und Knnen zurckgefhrt werden knnen. Durch Experimente mit einer Population von 47 Versuchsteilnehmern im letzten Jahr ihres Diplombersetzerstudiums wurden andere Ursachen, Strquellen, entdeckt. Es handelt sich dabei z. B. um Detailfixiertheit, Absicherungsmanie, berheblichkeit, Unsicherheit, Bequemlichkeit, Blockaden und Vorlieben. Das Erkennen und Bewusstmachen solcher Strquellen zeigte sich als eine Voraussetzung fr ein wirkungsvolles didaktisches Eingreifen. Es wurden auch einige Gewohnheiten im Hinblick auf das Zeitmanagement whrend der bersetzungsprozesse beobachtet. Um einem besseren Verstehen der Komplexitt des bersetzungsprozesses nher zu kommen, wurden Erkenntnisse der Psychologie, Soziologie, Kognition und methodische Anstze anderer Disziplinen einbezogen. Es handelte sich also um ein interdisziplinres Projekt, bei dem Methodenpluralitt, d.h. Kombination und/oder Triangulierung von qualitativen und quantitativen Methoden und Daten, verwirklicht wurde. Durch die Vernetzung bei der Analyse der einzelnen Datenkategorien aus Profilen, Prozessen und Produkten und durch einige Kontrollversuche wurde trotz aller subjektiven Einflsse ein hoher Grad an Sicherheit der Analyseergebnisse erreicht. Bei einigen der Versuchsteilnehmer hatten die Forschungsergebnisse durch Feed-back und Dialog sofort einen positiven Effekt, was sich in ihren bersetzungen zeigte. Aber wie ist die Situation heute, 10 Jahre nach den ersten Versuchen, die in mehreren Versuchsrunden von 1996 bis 2004 durchgefhrt wurden? Knnen wir feststellen, dass Translation Studies matters - and why? In dem Vortrag wird ber erste Ergebnisse einer Langzeitstudie berichtet, an der die Gruppe der damaligen Versuchsteilnehmer 2006 wieder teilgenommen hat. Heute sind sie in Organisationen, Institutionen und Unternehmen, in Dnemark, Schweden und Deutschland, als Expertinnen und Experten ttig, und jetzt wurden ihre bersetzungsprozesse und bersetzungsprodukte sowie ihre Expertenprofile in engem Kontakt mit ihren aktuellen Arbeitspltzen neu untersucht. Die Frage ist: Haben der damalige, auf Forschung basierte Unterricht und die Experimente einen Effekt gehabt? Was ist davon hngen geblieben? Was ist hinzugekommen? Sind die Gewohnheiten und Strquellen die alten, oder gibt es neue?

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Nicht alle Versuchsteilnehmer arbeiten heute als bersetzerinnen oder bersetzer, aber bei denen, die vom bersetzen leben, wurde untersucht, was bersetzungswissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fr sie bedeutet haben, und welche neuen Aspekte aufgrund ihrer Erfahrungen aus oft verschiedenen Arbeitssituationen und aufgrund von Weiterbildung hinzugekommen sind. Besonderer Wert wird bei dem Projekt aber auf die Entwicklung und Vernderungen in der bersetzungskompetenz gelegt, und die Hypothese der Untersuchung ist, dass aufgrund von Erfahrung und aufgrund der Zeitspanne, die nach dem Studienabschluss vergangen ist, sowohl Verschlechterungen als auch Verbesserungen der bersetzungskompetenz vorkommen werden.

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Gernot HEBENSTREIT Universitt Graz gernot.hebenstreit@uni-graz.at

Coming To Terms With CI


Over the last decade community interpreting (CI) has increasingly drawn attention upon itself. The growing importance of CI manifests itself in different ways. On an institutional level there seems to be an increasing awareness for the need for CI resulting from regional and global migration processes. Professional organizations as well as individual translators/interpreters discover CI as a new field of activity, explicitely integrating it into the traditional scope of services. In the field of translator/interpreter training CI has been integrated into core curricula and/or been made object of special training programs for professional and/or non-professional translators. Last, but not least CI occupies a growing space within translation and interpreting studies. Given the variety of settings and cultural contexts in which CI takes place, it is not surprising that the range of activities covered by the concept of community interpreting in different countries or even communities varies as much as the multitude of terms and definitions to be found in academic writing on the matter. These definitions do not only reflect the characteristics of local varieties of CI but also researchers disciplinary background and interests. Consequently the term community interpreting and its synonyms and quasisynonyms are used to denominate a great variety of concepts. In fact this variety of terms and concepts may cause confusion not only amonng outsiders. The question arises whether it is possible to describe a prototypical concept of CI, or whether cultural and academic background of the concept interfere with such an endeavor. This studys aim is tot work out a typology of characteristics as found in definitions of CI that can serve as a tool of comparision of the various concepts and to distinguish prototypical core characteristics as well as culture or theory bound elements.

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Pl HELTAI University of Pannonia, Veszprm heltai.pal@fibermail.hu

Collocations in Specialized Translation


Research on translationese has shown that one major reason for quasi-correctness (Klaudy 1987) is differences in the thematic structure of translated and non-translated texts. Differences in collocational patterns may prove a close second: there is reason to suppose that the cumulative effect of collocational violations will contribute to the difficulty of processing a translated text. We could say, in relevance theoretic terms, that gratuitous collocational violations make processing more difficult without providing additional contextual effects, and thereby violate the principle of relevance. However, when evaluating a translation from the collocational point of view, it is very difficult to say what exactly is acceptable or not acceptable. First, there are no impossible collocations: in the appropriate context even deviant collocations can be easily interpreted. Second, of all the subcompetences of communicative competence it is perhaps collocational competence that is the least stable and shows the widest variation across a speech community. Collocational restrictions are often violated, especially under time pressure, even in native language communication. Third, we do not know enough about the effects of collocational violations. We have little information on whether collocational patterns in translated texts are really different from those in non-translated texts, and we have no data on whether increased difficulty of processing of deviant collocations will actually happen. The use of habitual collocations seems to be especially important in translating specialized texts, where it is the habitual rather than the novel that is expected. Yet in translating habitual collocations may give way to less habitual word combinations. This may be due to the inadequacies and uncertainties of the translators collocational competence in the TL (even if it is her native language), pressure of time, cross-linguistic differences (no parallel collocations existing in the TL) and direct interference from the SL. Since collocations cannot be right or wrong, only more or less felicitous, there is less resistance to transfer. This paper will report on ongoing research undertaken to explore the role of collocations in translationese by using tests measuring ease of processing in collocationally appropriate and inappropriate texts, following Chestermans recommendation that prescriptive statements should be treated as hypotheses to be tested. It will also report on a study comparing novice and experienced translators use of collocations in translating specialized texts from English into Hungarian, based on a bilingual corpus of English and Hungarian specialized texts which is being developed in Szent Istvn University, Gdll. Thus, analysis of use of collocations corresponding to collocations with delexical verbs in English (perform an operation, carry out an analysis) as against simple verbs might reveal differences in translated and non-translated Hungarian texts and between expert and novice translators. By finding out more about the features of translated texts and by checking the effects of those features we can provide a more solid basis for evaluating collocational appropriacy in translator training. References Chesterman, A. 1999. The empirical status of prescriptivism. Folia Translatologica 6, 9-19. Klaudy, K. 1987. Fordts s aktulis tagols. Nyelvtudomnyi rtekezsek. 123. Budapest: Akadmiai Kiad.

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Nataa HIRCI University of Ljubljana natasa.hirci@guest.arnes.si

Bridging the Gap between Acceptability and Unacceptability of Translations into a Non-Mother Tongue through the Application of Modern Translation Tools
In the age of information society it seems almost impossible to imagine anyone undertaking translations without the use of modern translation tools such as computers, electronic resources, the Internet with online electronic dictionaries, glossaries, encyclopaedias, translation corpora, translators forums and similar. Translation tools are now available which may have a positive impact on the translation process, resulting in a final product whose translation quality is acceptable to its target audience. The present paper addresses the question of the acceptability of translations into a nonmother tongue. It involves a case study looking at two translation tasks from Slovene into English, which were undertaken by two groups of third-year undergraduate students of translation at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, all of whom have had at least three years of experience in translating into a non-mother tongue, including English, and had also taken part in the course on Translation of Promotional Texts from Slovene into English in Year 3. The students were asked to translate two fairly short promotional tourist texts from Slovene, their mother tongue, into English. For Text One, Group 1 was allowed to complete their translations only with the aid of paper resources, while for Text Two, both paper and electronic resources were made available. Reverse conditions applied to Group 2: the group was allowed to make use of all resources for Text One, and was restricted to the use of only those in paper form for Text Two. The main premise of the paper is that the application of modern translation tools has a positive impact on the translation process as far as the trainee translators speed and efficiency is concerned, and that the translations where no restriction on the translation tools was made for the student translators are more acceptable to the target audience than those where such restriction was imposed. Competent native speakers of English, all engaged in the teaching of translation and/or linguistics, were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing the benefits of the application of modern resources in translation. By applying this method, problems concerning the application of modern translation tools could be ascertained and the acceptability of the given translation tasks from the mother tongue into the foreign language established, with the main objective being to identify the impact of the application of modern tools on the translation process, i.e. whether or not the use of electronic translation tools helped trainee translators to translate out of their mother tongue and aided in the verification process of their intuitive translation choices providing the reassurance often necessary for translating into a foreign language. The aim of the present study is to establish how the use of electronic tools affects the quality and acceptability of translations into a non-mother tongue, with native speakers of English assessing the acceptability of eight selected student translations of Text One and Text Two, evaluating their acceptability to the target language and target culture community.

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Minna HJORT University of Helsinki minna.hjort@helsinki.fi

An Example of a Multi-Methodological Approach to Studying Translation


In my presentation I will argue, by means of an example, for a multi-methodological and multi-disciplinary approach to studying translation. The example I will refer to is my study on Finnish swearwords and the translation of swearwords in contemporary US fiction into Finnish. The study takes two main approaches to translation research: first, it looks at translated language on its own, in contrast to texts written originally in the language of the translations. Secondly, it examines the translations in contrast to the source texts, thus providing more ground for explaining the differences found between original and translated language. The findings from the material, which comprises three relatively large but manually collected corpora of fictional texts, is also discussed in light of a questionnaire study conducted on the subject of the translation of swearwords. In my presentation I will argue that sometimes, instead of engaging in arguments over whether to choose between, for example, a quantitative and a qualitative approach, a corpus study and a case study, or a mechanical and a manual method, the best solution can be to combine all of these. There are, for example, aspects of linguistic and translational phenomena that are best observed by looking at tendencies in a large data set. Some even remain undiscovered if such an approach is not taken. A quantitative corpus study is also an excellent way to avoid the presentation of assumptions and impressions as hard fact. Similarly to other fields of research, translation studies has witnessed claims as to the frequency of certain phenomena (for example the overrepresentation of certain forms and expressions in translated language or the censorship of certain words in translation) that have not been proven with reliable data. On the other hand, there are linguistic and translational phenomena that surface only when closely examining individual cases, and they may be interesting in other respects than in their frequency. Likewise, while the use of large ready-made corpora facilitates the study of many aspects of translated language, there are research subjects that cannot be studied by means of a ready-made corpus because certain variations would never be found, and thus manual analysis is required or a corpus has to be created manually, which can lead to comprises in the size of the data as compared to the ready-made corpora. Also, as translation scholars are well aware, it is also often profitable to apply a multi-disciplinary approach in addition to a multi-methodological one. There translation studies and linguistics are combined with other fields of research such as, say, sociology, literary studies or political sciences. This is discussed briefly also in light of the exemplary case. Thus, to achieve the big picture, both of two opposite viewpoints are often needed. To conclude, I discuss the applicability of the results of such a multi-methodological and multi-disciplinary study to the practice of translation, and briefly debate the related argument of whether translation research should be prescriptive or merely descriptive.

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Severine HUBSCHER-DAVIDSON University of Salford s.hubscher-davidson@salford.ac.uk

How TS Benefits Students by Providing New Training Methods Such as TAPS


As Lung and Yan (2004) suggest, "a translation curriculum is always a field of (uneasy) compromises". Indeed, academics and professionals are in constant war on the issue of theory vs. practice in translator training, and whether students can really learn from the increasing literature in Translation Studies. According to Gambier (2004: 67), publications in TS have been repetitive in their choice of subject and conclusions drawn, and that although the emerging identity of translators and the new demands made on their skills and behaviours certainly make it necessary to renew our efforts at description and explanation, research in translation should be more than just an academic pursuit. I agree and believe that the real impact of TS can be gauged through the analysis of its influence on translator training, and hence by focusing on and tackling learners needs, and by adopting an individualistic approach which encourages each student to engage in the theory. In this paper, I will aim to demonstrate that Translation Studies matters because it provides a useful forum for trainers to draw on and find inspiration for their teaching. One of the key findings in my research is that a great majority of translation students enjoy experimenting with innovative approaches from TS such as TAPS, which are deemed to be helpful and to have a positive impact on student work. It seems to me that students acceptance of a training method is of paramount importance to its potential success; indeed, in recent years universities have been increasingly aware of both student and professional needs, and much of this awareness has been generated by teachers who actively seek to realign their teaching so that it opens its doors to new ideas from outside the university (Sewell and Higgins 1996: 9). Students constantly need to be motivated and their curiosity aroused if they are to do well. I believe putting them in new and different translating situations is the way forward, and that they are more likely to enjoy being taught if it presents new experiences and new challenges. I will aim to show that a constant change of learning methods can enrich the student experience, and that this is an area where I believe theory successfully meets practice, and Translation Studies benefits Translation Training. Having recently obtained a grant to fund a project investigating innovative methods of training translators, I am currently working on methods such as TAPS and other computer-assisted methodology which focus on the student and on his behaviour. My aim is to monitor students performances, and detect the effects of this student-focused technology on target text quality. The place of technologies in both theory and practice is increasingly significant and something which students generally relate well to. As TS has recently been suggesting, the voices of both students and trainers need to be a feature of the training process for the theory to succeed. This new direction in translator training will, I believe, give new breadth and strength to the interdisciplinary field of Translation Studies.

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Dr. JUREWICZ, Magdalena University of Pozna, Poland magdalena-jurewicz@wp.pl

Wie Missverstndnis in Nichtverstehen bergeht Analyse eines kommunikativen Unfalls beim Verhandlungsdolmetschen
Sowohl bei Missverstndnissen als auch bei Nichtverstehen liegt eine Kommunikationsstrung vor. Bei Nichtverstehen wird das Problem beiden Parteien sofort bewusst, weil keine plausible Interpretation des lautlichen Ereignisses mglich ist, bei einem Missverstndnis dagegen nimmt der Hrer zunchst keine Strung wahr. Nichtverstehen resultiert normalerweise in einer sofortigen Rckfrage, ein Missverstndnis nicht. (vgl. Falkner 1997, 161) . Das heit also, dass der Hrer nicht versteht, wenn das lautliche Ereignis nach seiner eigener Einschtzung nicht sinnvoll interpretierbar ist, whrend ein Missverstndnis das Ergebnis eines Interpretationsvorgangs ist, den er als erfolgreich in dem Sinn empfindet, dass er die Intention von dem Produzenten des Textes erkannt zu haben glaubt. (vgl. ebenda, 162) Beim Gesprchsdolmetschen ist die Situation umso komplizierter, als fr das Verstehen noch eine dritte Person verantwortlich ist, die manchmal ber kein ausreichendes Fachwissen verfgt. In dem Beitrag mchte ich an einem Beispiel veranschaulichen, wie ein Missverstndnis, das durch ein mangelhaftes Wissen der Dolmetscherin im Bereich Logistik verursacht wird, zu einem kommunikativen Unfall fhrt. Das Missverstndnis auf propositionaler Ebene, also das Verwenden eines falschen Wortes in der Dolmetschung, wird zuerst von den beiden Parteien nicht gemerkt. Erst wenn die Verwendung des Wortes im Kontext nicht passt, ruft das die Reaktion einer Partei, die zuerst meint, dass die andere Seite sie nicht verstanden hat, was explizite zum Ausdruck gebracht wird. Erst in dem Moment merkt die Dolmetscherin, dass die Schuld an dem Nichtverstehen vielleicht an ihr liegt. Wie sie mit diesem Problem umgeht, wird in der Analyse gezeigt.

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Klaus KAINDL Universitt Wien klaus.kaindl@univie.ac.at

Elvis singt Deutsch Die bersetzung von Elvis Presley-Songs im deutschen Sprachraum
Populares Liedgut ist in allen Kulturen verbreitet. Seine Prsenz und Verankerung in der Alltagswelt machen allerdings eine wissenschaftlich-definitorische Erfassung des Phnomens uerst schwierig, da es einerseits als nicht weiter zu hinterfragender Teil des Lebens wahrgenommen wird, der uns in den unterschiedlichsten Zusammenhngen und Situationen begegnet (von der Berieselung im Restaurant und Supermarkt ber die Massenmedien Radio, Fernsehen, Internet, im Rahmen von Konzerten bis hin zum privaten Hren von Musik); andererseits tritt es in den unterschiedlichsten Erscheinungsformen auf. Diese Vielgestaltigkeit wird noch akzentuiert, wenn man populares Liedgut in einem interkulturellen Kontext betrachtet. Jede Kultur hat ihre eigenen Genres und Subgenres, mit jeweils unterschiedlichen soziologischen Wurzeln, unterschiedlichen Bewertungen und Positionierungen innerhalb des musikalischen Feldes sowie unterschiedlichen textuellen Merkmalen sowohl was Musik, Gesang, Sprache als auch die visuelle Prsentation betrifft. Eine umfassende bersetzungswissenschaftliche Analyse dieses Bereichs muss daher einerseits die soziologische Dimension in den Blick nehmen, andererseits die semiotische Komplexitt des Materials bercksichtigen. Ausgehend von einer Definition gesungener Popularmusik als semiotisch komplexe Form sthetischer Kommunikation, die als Teil der Popularkultur gesehen wird und aus sprachlichen, musikalischen und visuellen Elementen besteht, die durch eine interpretierende Person oder Gruppe entweder audio-visuell oder rein auditiv in Form von kurzen (meist einige Minuten langen) narrativ eigenstndigen Stcken vermittelt wird, soll in diesem Beitrag das Liedgut eines Sngers, Elvis Presley, mit seinen deutschen bersetzungen in Form von Schlagern miteinander verglichen. Die Basis hierfr bilden ungefhr 200 deutschsprachige Fassungen von Presley-Songs. Zunchst werden die Popularmusiksysteme der USA und Deutschlands miteinander verglichen. Dabei werden Konzepte aus der Translationswissenschaft (Polysystem) mit dem popularmusikwissenschaftlichen Konzept mediation in Verbindung gesetzt. Mediation umfasst nicht nur die technischen Verbreitungsmittel, sondern auch die Vermittlungsttigkeiten der in den Prozess der Produktion, Distribution und Rezeption involvierten Akteure sowie die sozialen Beziehungen zwischen diesen. Die Mediation, also die Vermittlung durch die in den kulturellen Transfer des Liedguts involvierten Akteure und Medien, bestimmt auch den Wert und die Bedeutung popularmusikalischer Erzeugnisse im musikalischen Feld, was wiederum einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die bersetzung hat, sowohl auf die Frage, ob als auch wie bersetzt wird. Diese Hypothese soll im Anschluss anhand des Corpus von Presley-Songs untersucht werden, die im US-amerikanischen Sprachraum in anderen medialen Zusammenhngen stehen als die deutschen Fassungen, die meist als Schlager wahrgenommen werden. Es wird analysiert inwieweit die Gattungsspezifik des Schlagers, das Image der jeweiligen InterpretInnen und die Mediationszusammenhnge die Gestalt der bersetzungen beeinflussten. Die dabei festgestellten nderungen betreffen vor allem die Darstellung von Sexualitt, Liebe und Beziehung und bewirken, dass Elvis Presley-Songs im Deutschen weitaus harmloser und sauberer wirken als im Amerikanischen.

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Krisztina KROLY School of English and American Studies, Etvs Lornd University, Budapest karolyk@ludens.elte.hu

The Role of Genre Transfer Strategies and Genre Transfer Competence in Translation
Text typology and genre analysis aid the study of translation by revealing ways in which the generic identity of the source text may be retained in translation. Difficulty may arise in translation when the source language (SL) genre has no equivalent in the target language (TL), or, if it does, it portrays different structural and/or rhetorical characteristics as a result of the differing norms and conventions according to which TL genres are constructed. This paper addresses this problem and has a dual focus: first, it proposes a taxonomy of genre transfer strategies and then it specifies the kinds of competences that translators need to be able to select the appropriate translation strategy and apply it successfully to produce a translation that may be regarded as a generic equivalent of the SL text. It is argued that many translation problems resulting from differing generic conventions across languages and genres may be avoided or solved by integrating the development of generic competence into translator training. Analyses of various genres across disciplines, fields, languages and cultures have provided ample evidence for the assumption that because of the distinct nature and functions of the texts, translators make use of different genre-specific translation strategies to ensure that the target text fulfils its function in the target context and meets the expectations of the target audience. Building upon the principles of functional translation (Nord, 1991, 1995; Reiss Vermeer, 1984), this paper argues that the creation of a communicatively and functionally equivalent target language text requires the application of a special set of strategies that is referred to here as genre transfer strategies. These strategies are claimed to be the results of the (mostly conscious) decisions of translators and affect discourse-level phenomena. On the basis of the study of a wide variety genres (from the fields of academic, media, political, economic, technical discourse, etc.) and building upon the results of a number of language-pair-specific empirical investigations (e.g., Adab, 2000; Bhatia, 1997; Hansen, 1997; Kussmaul, 1997; Trosborg, 1997; Schffner, 1995; Schffner Adab, 2001; Sidiropoulou, 1995; Vamentine Preston, 2002), the paper discusses a number of genre-related translation problems and proposes a taxonomy of genre transfer strategies. The taxonomy touches upon the relevant aspects of discourse (e.g., discoursal norms and conventions, genre- and text-type-specific norms and conventions, information structuring, logical/rhetorical structuring, cultural, stylistic and tactic aspects) and offers solutions to the translational problems related to these. The successful application of these strategies presupposes a number of special competences that translators need besides their general language and communicative competence (Hymes, 1971; Canale Swain, 1980). Therefore, the second aim of this paper is to highlight these competences, grouped under the umbrella term genre transfer competence. Genre transfer competence differs from the notion of genre competence in that it presupposes not only the knowledge of and the ability to use the genre conventions of one particular culture or language, but it also involves the knowledge of two or more cultures or languages conventions, as well as the ability to transform these from one language to another in a functionally adequate manner.

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Finally, the paper will show that the development of genre transfer competence is a crucial component of translator training, as novice translators usually disregard the differences between genres in different languages and fields. Raising trainees awareness to these may contribute not only to the improvement of the quality of translations, but also to bringing conscious decisions when opting for a particular translation strategy. Genre analysis yields particularly useful results for translator training, as it identifies and describes linguistically and communicatively similar texts that share similar translation problems. Thus, during the course of training, these texts may be dealt with together, in a systematic manner.

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Dorothy KELLY Universidad de Granada dkelly@ugr.es

Needs Analysis for Translator Trainer Training and an Outline of Trainer Competence
One of the major reforms associated with the European Higher Education Area is a move from teacher-centred to student-centred education, a major change in higher education teaching paradigm. Although TS as a university discipline is possibly one of the most advanced in training approaches, the need for trainer training has become an important issue in recent years as the Bologna debate has spread across Europe and beyond. The TS literature on the issue deals mostly with the need for translator trainers to be professional translators. This concern, although important, seems reductionist. This paper will submit that the different areas of competence or expertise required in order to be a competent translator trainer are: professional translation practice; Translation Studies as an academic discipline; teaching skills. Although the first two are essential for overall translator trainer competence, they are a little like the language competence one expects of a professional translator, in that they constitute prerequisites rather than the central competence itself. Training courses for trainers will, therefore, vary depending on the needs of the particular group of trainees: language teachers, professional translators and Translation Studies academics do not require the same kind of training in order to become efficient translator trainers. Needs analysis is thus an essential first step in the design of any trainer training. After a review of different profiles and training needs for future trainers in different contexts, the paper will examine some of the existing resources in the field. It will then attempt to develop a model of trainer competence, covering all three areas above, but centring especially on the third, that of teaching skills. An initial attempt to describe these teaching skills (Kelly 2005), on which this paper will build, subdivides these into at least the following subcompetences or areas of competence: - Organizational: - the ability to design courses and appropriate teaching and learning activities - the ability to apply and manage these - the ability to design, apply and manage appropriate assessment activities - Interpersonal: - the ability to work collaboratively with trainees towards their learning goals - the ability to work in a training team - the ability to act as a mentor for trainees - Instructional: - the ability to present content and explain clearly - the ability to stimulate discussion and reflective thinking - the ability to arouse interest and enthusiasm - Contextual or professional: - understanding of the educational context in which training takes place (local, national, international) - understanding of the teaching profession - Instrumental: - knowledge of training resources of all kinds and ability to apply them appropriately and usefully to the training process.

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Kinga KLAUDY, Krizstina KAROLY ELTE (Etvs Lornd) University of Budapest, Dept of T/I kklaudy@ludens.elte.hu, karolyk@ludens.elte.hu

The Asymmetry Hypothesis Further Developed The Asymmetry of Upgrading and Downgrading in Translation
The asymmetry hypothesis postulates that explicitations carried out in the L1L2 direction do not necessarily entail implicitations in the reverse, L2L1 direction, because translators if they have a choice prefer to use operations involving explicitation, and often do not perform optional implicitation (Klaudy 2001). The terms explicitation and implicitation are used as defined by Klaudy (1998, 2003) as cover terms including a number of obligatory and optional transfer operations. Explicitation takes place in the following cases: when a SL unit with a general meaning is replaced by a TL unit with a more specific meaning; when the meaning of a SL unit is distributed over several units in the TL; when new meaningful elements appear in the TL text; when one sentence in the ST is divided into two or several sentences in the TT; or, when SL phrases are extended or upgraded to clause level in the TT, etc. Implicitation on the other hand occurs: when a SL unit with a specific meaning is replaced by a TL unit with a more general meaning; when translators combine the meanings of several SL words in one TL word; when meaningful lexical elements of the SL text are dropped in the TL text; when two or more sentences in the ST are conjoined into one sentence in the TT; or, when ST clauses are "downgraded" or reduced to phrases in the TT, etc. Klaudy and Kroly (2005) in a study focusing on the bidirectional analysis of translation of reporting verbs (from English into Hungarian and from Hungarian into English) provided empirical evidence for the validity of the asymmetry hypothesis. The present paper is an attempt to provide further justification supporting the validity of the asymmetry hypothesis by exploring upgrading of English participial, infinitival and nominal phrases into clause level in English-Hungarian translation on one hand, and downgrading of the Hungarian clauses into phrase level in Hungarian-English translation on the other hand. The upgrading of participial, infinitival and nominal phrases into independent sentence units is a standard transfer operation that depends on the language pair and on the direction of translation, and is characteristic of the English-Hungarian translation. The reason for upgrading can be explained by the differing complementability of English and Hungarian participial phrases, infinitival phrases and noun phrases, i.e. by systemic differences between the languages. Translators, however, frequently use upgrading even when there is no need to do so, and the original sentence could be translated easily, without upgrading. In these cases they follow a language pair specific translation strategy, that is, information packaging, typical of Hungarian. To increase the amount of information per sentence Hungarian prefers an accumulation of independent clauses rather than the use of syntactic compression.

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The elevation of phrases may be explained not only by language pair specific translation strategies but also by one of the universal translation strategies, that is, explicitation, which means that translators faced with a choice among several synonymous target language solutions are inclined to favour the more explicit ones. If downgrading is compared with upgrading an interesting case of operational asymmetry can be detected between upgrading in the E-H direction and downgrading in the H-E direction. Based on analysing the literary subcorpus of Hungarian National Corpus, it may be argued that translators tend to prefer upgrading (more clauses in the TL) to downgrading (fewer clauses in TL). The fact that translators faced with a choice of several synonymous target language solutions are inclined to favour the more explicit ones, may be a proof for the universal character of explicitation strategies.

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Nike KOCIJANI POKORN University of Ljubljana nike.kocijancic@guest.arnes.si

A World Without God Translation of Childrens Literature in a Socialist Country


The aim of the proposed paper is to show that a childrens literature used to be and still remains in many cultures the genre where manipulations through translation seem to be permissible and acceptable. This acceptance of censorship (often self-imposed by the translators) most probably stems from the conviction that childrens literature, including the works that are not openly didactic, should not be harmful to the development of children into ideal citizens and since the concept of an ideal citizen changes throughout the history, also translations change according to the ideology of a particular TL culture. The hypothesis was checked against the situation in Slovenia in two periods, the first one extending from the end of the Second World War to 1992, i.e. the Socialist period, the second one from 1992 onwards, i.e. the post-Socialist period. A search through the most exhaustive Slovene electronic bibliographic source (COBISS) and the printed Slovene bibliography for the period from 1945 to 1963 showed that in the first five years after the war translations of childrens literature were scarce (there were none in 1945, and in the following four years only one published per each year). From 1950 to 1958 approximately 6 translations for children were published annually, and from 1959 to 1963 up to 10. Of these, only those translations that have been reprinted and also re-translated in later periods were selected (with the exception of Andersens and Grimms tales that have already been subjects of other studies (see Orel Kos 2001)). Those are Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher-Stowe, The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, Treasure Island by R. L. Stevenson, Pippi Longstocking by Astrid Lindgren, Heidi by Johanna Spyri, and Bambi by Felix Salten. The translations of those works were compared to the originals, reprints and later translations with the aim of establishing whether any anti-religious censorship was applied to them. The editors for children literature at the three state publishing houses that published childrens literature in Socialist times and at the five publishing houses that publish childrens literature now in Slovenia were interviewed. Following van Doorslaers suggestion (van Doorslaer 1995: 265), the originals and the translations were read independently and all potentially relevant passages were marked and compared. Due to limited space, only the most prominent examples will be quoted here. It has been established that since the status of Christian religion changed considerably after the Second World War, religious elements were most often subject to translational censorship. In the first period, in particular in the translations for children that were produced in the 50s and 60s, the censorship was directed against any mentioning of Christian religion. In the period from 1992 onwards, in accordance with expectations, more religious elements were present in translation, however, they were often attenuated. It will be argued that the most important reason for this partial or complete religious censorship that still persists nowadays is in part ideological (religion is still often considered as obsolete, but even more frequently, more explicitly Christian passages are omitted in order to make the translation closer to children growing up in a different religious environment) and in part commercial (by making the translations religiously neutral they could be sold to members of different religious environments). In both periods children were not allowed the access to the original and religious were omitted or attenuated the reasons for the censorship, however, were different, in the first period they were ideological, in the second mainly commercial.
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Kaisa KOSKINEN University of Tampere, Finland kaisa.a.koskinen@uta.fi

What Matters to Translation Studies?


In my presentation, I would like to turn the conference theme the other way round: instead of asking why or where Translation Studies (TS) might matter to others, I will discuss whether developments in the professional field and cultural contacts matter, or should matter, to TS. Since the 1980s, Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS) has been a if not the dominant paradigm in TS. It has undoubtedly contributed greatly to the development of the discipline into a serious academic discipline, with a perspective reaching beyond the immediate needs of translator training. The scientific ethos of DTS that the task of the scholar is to describe, not to prescribe is to be understood against the then perhaps typical way of approaching translation through a prescriptive analysis of anecdotal examples. The question I will pose in my presentation is: has this emphasis on being descriptive prevented the discipline from fully exploiting its critical potential, within the academia or in the society at large? Is it the moral responsibility of scholars to actively get involved, or are we there to witness and analyze the developments? This issue can be divided in three parts: First, is DTS in practice as neutral as its ethos implies? Second, what is the role and status of other, more critical approaches in TS, and are they as critical as their ethos implies? Third, does the future of TS seem more descriptive or critical, and what is the relation between the two? The question is closely related to ethics. Mary Snell-Hornby (2006) argues that the ethical turn is still to be taken in TS. I will explore the field from this point of view, and discuss the role of ethics, commitment and social relevance in TS. These also have a bearing in translator training: how uncritically can we, for example, accept work-related course contents and promote particular technical tools? And what is the stance towards ethical issues we cultivate in the students, and how? In the end, these questions are personal. Maria Tymozcko (2000) has talked about activist translation; do we have a need for activist translation research, too? References: Snell-Hornby, Mary (2006). The Turns of Translation Studies. Benjamins. Tymoczko, Maria (2000). Translation and political engagement: Activism, social change and the role of translation in geopolitical shifts. The translator 6:1, pp. 2347.

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Katja KREBS University of Glamorgan, Wales, U.K. kkrebs@glam.ac.uk

Reinforcements and Challenges Translation Studies, Interdisciplinarity and Notions of Hybridity


Translation Studies, by its very nature, is an area of scholarship reliant upon interdisciplinarity and dependent on a close engagement with other academic fields. While Translation Studies has embraced the enriching and engendering factors of such interdisciplinary approaches, other fields of study, more often than not, neglect to engage with translation as an important cultural and creative phenomenon. A case in point are the fields of Translation Studies and Theatre Studies which, until very recently, have seldom come together a surprising state of play if we consider the number of theoretical concerns and positionings which are shared by these two areas of scholarship and research. The tension between reinforcement of domestic cultural and political assumptions on the one hand and the possibility of challenging those assumptions by providing alternatives on the other is typical of both the discussion and analysis of acts of translation as well as of acts of performance (e.g. Carlson 1996; Phelan 1996; Johnston 2000; Tymoczko 2003). Furthermore, both acts can be characterized as a conscious struggle to become the unobtainable Other and the realization of the impossibility of such an endeavour is an experience both the translator and the performer, rather than the reader or the audience, encounter repeatedly throughout their respective creative processes. Such similar experiences and concerns should be seen as an already existing common base which can contribute to a meaningful conversation between the two practices and areas of scholarship. Arguably, both translation studies and theatre histories - unlikely bedfellows as they may be can offer a fresh perspective on methodological concerns, such as the elusive relationship between text and performance and the motives behind groups of translators and their programmes of activities. The focus of this paper, however, is not necessarily such subject specific implications. Instead, it concentrates on the fact that relationship between these two areas is of political importance. It suggests an alternative to the construction of national(ist) stories of tradition and development that we can find both within theatre and translation studies. This paper argues that, by considering the processes involved in two diverse yet related forms of manipulation and creation of meaning translation and theatre an alternative to the construction of national(ist) cultural narratives dependent on the articulation of exotic difference (see Bhabha 1994) can be developed. Rather than reinforcing assumptions of separate cultures, an examination of hybrid texts will allow a better understanding of constructions of international cultural histories. Reflecting the notion of hybridity, such a methodology is conceivable only as a result of an embrace of and engagement with interdisciplinarity where the apparently separate modes of cultural practice and modes of study translation and theatre merge into one. By concentrating on the relationship between Translation Studies and the construction of theatre histories, this paper concludes by arguing that Translation Studies matters because it can force a related field of enquiry to examine its assumptions about cultural processes in general and constructions of history in particular by making visible hybridity.

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Works cited: Bhabha, Homi (1994) The Location of Culture, London & New York: Routledge. Carlson, Marvin (1996) Performance A Critical Introduction, London: Routledge. Johnston, David (2000) Theatre as Intercultural Exchange, in Christopher Shorley and Maeve McCusker (eds) Reading Across the Lines, Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 11-23. Phelan, Peggy (1996) Unmarked The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge. Tymoczko, Maria (2003) Ideology and the Position of the Translator: In What Sense is a Translator In Between?, in Maria Calzada Prez (ed) Apropos of Ideology Translation Studies on Ideology Ideologies in Translation Studies, Manchester: St. Jerome, 181-201.

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Jan Christoph KUNOLD Saarland Universtity j.kunold@mx.uni-saarland.de

Translating Music The Lost Gestalt


Translation Studies matters because it investigates phenomena and regularities in translation and its processes in an effort to make them transparent and repeatable for others. While outstanding translations have been produced for hundreds of years, today the controversy of whether it is an art or skill still hinders the acceptance of translation as an academic discipline with concepts and methodologies of its own which may be attractive and fruitful to other academic disciplines as well. The following paper proceeds from this understanding of why translation studies matters and is presented with the aim of showing an option for systematizing the translation of musical texts. The paper is theoretically anchored in the differentiation of text perspectives and holistic translation approach as proposed by GerzymischArbogast/Mudersbach (1998). Within this concept, it is assumed that musical texts involve two sign systems, i.e. language (langue) and music, and they are actualized as potentially simultaneous manifestations (concretizations) in an individual musical text. This paper suggests that the mutual interrelationship of the two sign systems and their simultaneous interaction in the translation process can be made transparent and systematized in a sequence of methodological steps which support the translators decision-making processes in an effort to make these translation decisions repeatable for others. The methodological sequence includes: 1) establishing the simultaneous co-occurrence of musical and verbal text categories as concretizations of the two sign systems underlying the musical text to be translated. This is done by isolating constitutive aspects that co-occur in the written and musical form of the text (by Aspectra analysis), 2) The identified aspect(s) are then structured as constitutive elements (holemes) of the separate sign systems (holons) of which they are part of and which underlie the musical text in both its written and music form (Holontra analyses). 3) The identified holemes that co-occur simultaneously in both systems are then related back to the actual musical text as (potentially simultaneous) concretizations of the two sign systems language and music. 4) The concretized simultaneous elements are now presentable as transparent instances of a simultaneous co-occurrence of music and verbal text which can then be translated as an operationalized musical Gestalt following the methodological sequence presented in Gerzymisch-Arbogast/Mudersbach 1998. The methodology is exemplified in this paper with the aspect of Focussing as it applies to the English translation of Franz Schuberts Die Schne Mllerin.

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References: Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun/Mudersbach, Klaus (1998): Methoden des wissenschaftlichen bersetzens. Tbingen: Francke. UTB Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun/Kunold, Jan Christoph/Rothfu-Bastian, Dorothee (2006): Coherence, Theme/Rheme, Isotopy: Complementary concepts in text and translation. In: Heine, Carmen/Schubert, Klaus/Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun (Hrsg.): Text and translation. Theory and methodology of translation. Jahrbuch 6, 2005/2006 bersetzen und Dolmetschen. Tbingen: Narr. 357-378. Kaindl, Klaus (1995): Die Oper als Textgestalt. Tbingen: Stauffenburg. Kunold, Jan (2006): Die Problematik der Musikbersetzung am Beispiel der englischen bersetzung von Schuberts Die schne Mllerin. In: Das sterreichische Lied und seine Ausstrahlung in Europa. Schneider, Herbert/Bhar, Pierre (Eds). Hildesheim: Olms. 157177.

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Kerstin KUNZ***, Carme COLOMINAS*, Sara CASTAGNOLI**, Natalie KBLER****, Stella NEUMANN*** * *** University Pompeu Fabra, Spain Saarland University, Germany carme.colominas@upf.edu {k.kunz}{st.neumann}@mx.uni-saarland.de ** **** University of Bologna, Italy Paris Diderot University, France scastagnoli@sslmit.unibo.it natalie.kubler@eila.jussieu.fr

Corpora in Translator Training A Program for an E-learning Course


This paper presents ongoing work in MeLLANGE, a European project whose main objective consists in the development of a European Masters in translation technology. Studies report that it is a constantly growing challenge for translators to adapt to the new competences and skills required at the labour market. We therefore focus on the creation of a course program which aims at training student and professional translators in the use of new technology and resources in the process of translation. This involves the integration of contents gained from new insights in theoretical and practical aspects of translation studies. Our courses are implemented in an eLearning platform in order to provide a learning environment which is innovative and efficient at the same time: It offers dynamic and collaborative teaching and learning strategies for free and allows course participants to learn at their own computer at their own pace and time. This paper deals with an eLearning course designed for the application of corpora in translation. A recent MeLLANGE survey reflects considerable interest of translators in integrating corpora and results from corpuslinguistic research in their translation workflow. Moreover, the survey shows that there is a growing need for translators to be trained in how this can be done. The MeLLANGE project addresses this demand by providing an elaborate course program online which is implemented in Moodle, an open source eLearning platform. The course is structured into several sections. The sections treat topics which are relevant for student and professional translators as they get an idea of the ways in which plain and encoded corpora can assist them in different steps of the translation process. For example, participants learn constructing their own corpora for particular translation projects, encoding corpora with different types of information, making useful queries on plain and encoded corpora and identifying terminology in corpora. In addition, they gain an insight into recent advances from translation studies based on results from the corpuslinguistic analysis of translations and originals, e.g. with respect to characteristic features of translation. They also learn how to adopt this knowledge when translating. The sections are separated into smaller eLearning units in order not to overstrain the participants. They combine teaching activities with learning activities and make use of a variety of interactive functionalities offered in Moodle. On the one hand, we impart knowledge and skills by providing theoretical background, introductions in the application of corpus tools, links, references and glossaries. On the other hand, we also test this knowledge and skills by including exercises such as knowledge tests, assignments, the application of tools, etc. At every point in the course, participants are informed about their position in the structural hierarchy and about the subjects and activities to be treated. The MeLLANGE eLearning course on corpora for translation has already undergone intensive assessment by external testers from Eastern European universities. It has proven to be of high quality and relevance for translators as it integrates resources and contents from translation studies and corpuslinguistic research in an innovative and dynamic program for initial and continuing translator training.

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Anna KUZNIK Departament de Traducci i d'Interpretaci, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona annakuznik@catalonia.net

El contenido de los puestos de trabajo de traductores e intrpretes visto desde la Traductologa y la Sociologa del Trabajo
La comunicacin que nos proponemos presentar versa sobre el contenido de los puestos de trabajo, tanto de los traductores como de los intrpretes, analizado desde dos disciplinas distintas: desde la Traductologa y la Sociologa del Trabajo. La primera proporciona elementos esenciales sobre la especificidad profesional de estos puestos y la segunda ofrece conceptos vlidos para investigar y describir las relaciones de tipo laboral. La actividad profesional del traductor e intrprete, independientemente si se realiza en una empresa, en un organismo pblico o en una entidad de tipo autnomo, no consiste solamente en realizar procesos de traduccin o interpretacin. En muchas ocasiones, los traductores hacen mucho ms que traducir o efectuar una interpretacin: actualizan bases de datos con uso de un idioma extranjero, editan textos redactados o traducidos, buscan nuevos proveedores en otros pases, se encargan de seleccionar personal traductor para sus empresas, se vuelven asesores de temas culturales y de publicidad, organizan misiones comerciales en el extranjero, etc., en general combinan su actividad de traduccin y/o interpretacin con funciones hasta ahora reservadas para distintas profesiones (especialista en mrketing, editor, informtico, redactor y corrector de estilo, etc.). Observando el tipo de oferta de servicios de traduccin y/o interpretacin accesible en el Internet o en las Pginas Amarillas, nos damos cuenta de que, a parte de un sector muy representativo de entidades que se dedican exclusivamente a la traduccin y/o interpretacin, cada vez con mayor frecuencia encontramos servicios combinados que requieren de competencias de varias profesiones a la vez. La impresin que podemos hacernos en base a esta observacin, es que la profesin del traductor y/o intrprete tenga unos lmites muy fluidos, borrosos, y que la neta distincin entre la actividad traductora y la actividad otra es cada ao menos posible, o menos deseable. Para poder identificar la actividad profesional propia de un traductor y/o intrprete y discernirla de la que no le pertenece, necesitamos disponer, en nuestro campo de estudio, de herramientas conceptuales y metodolgicas que nos permitan describir, de una manera objetiva, en qu consiste la actividad profesional del traductor. Una posible respuesta a este vaco es nuestra propuesta de concepto de tarea traductora, con sus caractersticas especficas, opuesta a tareas provisionalmente definidas por nosotros como no traductoras, ajenas a la traduccin y/o interpretacin. Ya que nuestro planteamiento se encuentra en el cruzamiento de dos disciplinas distintas, creemos oportuno empezar la presentacin con algunas observaciones introductorias. En un primer momento (Parte I.), situaremos en un mapa conceptual general varias disciplinas a las cuales haremos referencia, a saber: 1) la Traductologa, por un lado (llamada por nosotros indistintamente los Estudios de Traduccin); 2) y las Ciencias Sociales (CCSS), por otro lado, y sus disciplinas particulares, o sea la Sociologa, la Sociologa del Trabajo, las Ciencias Empresariales (CCEE), las Ciencias del Trabajo (CCTT) y Organizacin de Empresas, las Relaciones Laborales (RRLL), la Gestin de Recursos Humanos (RRHH), la Psicologa Social, la Psicologa del Trabajo y la Metodologa de las Ciencias del Comportamiento. En este intento de sistematizacin de los distintos campos de estudio, definiremos en cada caso el objeto de estudio principal y posibles conexiones entre ellos.

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En lo que se refiere al objeto de estudio de la Traductologa, nos parece pertinente darle el mismo tratamiento a la modalidad escrita (la traduccin) y a la modalidad oral (la interpretacin). Luego, situaremos, dentro del objeto de estudio general de la Traductologa, un objeto especfico, o sea los aspectos laborales del desempeo profesional de los traductores e intrpretes en el sitio de su trabajo. Igualmente, en esta primera parte introductoria, explicaremos cul es el objeto de estudio especfico de la Sociologa del Trabajo y en qu consiste la Gestin de Recursos Humanos; los temas ms tratados por estas disciplinas y la metodologa de investigacin ms usada. Para terminar esta primera parte, definiremos qu significa para nosotros el concepto de profesin, ocupacin y de puesto de trabajo. En la Parte II. nos centraremos en estos aspectos de la Sociologa del Trabajo y de la Gestin de Recursos Humanos que nos parecen pertinentes para la descripcin de la actividad del traductor y/o intrprete en el mbito laboral. Presentaremos la tipologa de estructuras organizacionales clsicas (la burocracia, la forma divisional, la estructura simple) y las estructuras flexibles. Luego nos detendremos en la clasificacin general de la actividad laboral en: 1) trabajos de repeticin; 2) trabajos de atencin personal; 3) trabajos analticos-simblicos. Para terminar este bloque temtico, presentaremos dos conceptos clave para la descripcin de los contenidos de puestos de trabajo: las tareas y las funciones. La Parte III. de nuestra comunicacin se referir a la problemtica especfica tratada por la Traductologa. Se definir el concepto de traductor, intrprete, traduccin, e interpretacin. Se darn a conocer caractersticas de los distintos sitios fsicos y mbitos organizacionales en las cuales se desarrolla la actividad de traduccin. Se comentarn estudios de caso en torno al funcionamiento de la actividad traductora en las organizaciones (en los organismos pblicos, agencias internacionales, fundaciones, empresas de traduccin, etc.) En esta misma Parte, presentaremos los modelos de gestin y ejecucin de las traducciones, elaborados en el campo de la localizacin del software y de la traduccin general, subrayando la importancia de los procesos y la concepcin de la Traductologa en trminos de una disciplina tecnolgica. Se evidenciar la fluidez de los lmites de la profesin del traductor y su constante contacto por contagio con profesiones parecidas (terminlogo, redactor, editor, etc.) La Parte IV. de la comunicacin tendr como objetivo la presentacin del concepto de tarea traductora y la discusin de su aplicabilidad para los Estudios de Traduccin. Los temas principales de este bloque sern: la tipologa de las tareas traductoras segn el mbito (tareas didcticas, experimentales, profesionales); los antecedentes directos del concepto de tarea traductora; la definicin de tarea traductora, sus caractersticas, la clasificacin y la ejemplificacin; el problema de la estandarizacin de la tarea y de su visibilidad para un observador externo. Y para terminar propondremos la metodologa ms idnea, segn nuestro entender, para investigar los contenidos de los puestos de trabajo de traductores e intrpretes, mediante el concepto de tarea traductora, basndonos tanto en los mtodos cualitativos como cuantitativos.

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Sigmund KVAM University of Oslo, Norway/stfold University College, Halden, Norway sigmund.kvam@iln.uio.no

Zur Notwendigkeit einer linguistischen Perspektive in der bersetzungstheorie Warum die Sprachwissenschaft fr die Beschreibung von linguistischen Phnomenen notwendig ist
1. Ausgangslage: bersetzen als sprachlich-kulturelles Produkt bersetzen kann kurz beschrieben werden als eine konventionalisierte Reproduktion eines durch sprachliche Zeichen konstituierten geschriebenen Textes aus einem spezifischen sprachlich-kulturellen Raum in einen ebenfalls durch sprachliche Zeichen konstituierten und soziokulturell konventionalisierten Text aus einem anderen sprachlich-kulturellen Raum. Ausgehend von dieser recht allgemeinen Abgrenzung ist jeder bersetzungsfall durch mindestens folgende genera proxima gekennzeichnet: - Jede bersetzung besteht aus Sprache in der Form eines Textes und wird somit auch als Vertreter einer mehr oder weniger bestimmten Textsorte interpretiert. - Jede bersetzung ist eingebettet in eine kulturspezifische Situation, verstanden als spezifische Produktions- und Rezeptionsbedingungen fr den Text als Vertreter einer spezifischen Textsorte einerseits sowie als Vertreter fr den besonderen Intertexttypus bersetzen andererseits. Textsortenkonventionen und bersetzungskonventionen knnen wiederum zwischen den ausgangssprachlichen und zielsprachlichen Diskursgemeinschaften variieren. 2. Problemstellung Im folgenden Beitrag werde ich mich auf die Relevanz der Sprachwissenschaft als einer von mehreren notwendigen Analyseperspektiven zur Beschreibung des sprachlichkommunikativen Phnomens bersetzen beschrnken. Auf die relevante Frage nach einer systematischen Einbeziehung der Sozialwissenschaften in die bersetzungswissenschaft sowie auf die noch interessantere systematische Verknpfung von Sprach- und Sozialwissenschaft kann aus Zeitgrnden hier nicht systematisch eingegangen werden. Bei der vorliegenden Analyse wird Sprache wie eingangs durch die Definition von bersetzen deutlich wurde - als sozial konventionalisiertes Verstndigungsmittel in menschlicher Interaktion gesehen. Sprache und der sprachliche Spezialfall bersetzen werden im folgenden in diesem instrumentellen Kontext gesehen und nicht etwa aus der Perspektive der Systemlinguistik, wo Sprache als eigenstndiges, von der Kommunikation getrenntes System betrachtet wird. In der vorliegenden Arbeit ist am Beispiel der drei linguistischen Teildisziplinen pragmatische Textlinguistik, Transphrastik und Syntax zu zeigen, dass diese fr die Beschreibung von bersetzungen notwendig sind: Zunchst ist der Gegenstand der jeweiligen linguistischen Disziplinen und dadurch auch die Grenzen ihrer Beschreibungsdomnen kurz zu skizzieren (3), anschlieend erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund des oben positionierten bersetzungsbegriffs und der Analyse des Gegenstandsbereichs der drei genannten linguistischen Teildisziplinen ein kritischer Durchgang der Grenzen und Mglichkeiten dieser Disziplinen fr die Beschreibung von bersetzungen (4).

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Dabei wird zu zeigen sein, dass trotz verschiedener Beschreibungsdomnen alle drei fr eine methodisch angemessene Beschreibung vom bersetzen als sprachlichkommunikativem Phnomen unentbehrlich sind: Erklren und beschreiben kann man das Textphnomen bersetzen nur ber eine pragmatisch orientierte Textlinguistik, da hier Text als sozio-kulturell festgelegte Einheit der sprachlichen Kommunikation und nicht nur als eine Struktur von formell definierten Gren gesehen wird. Die Syntax und Transphrastik sind eben dafr nicht geeignet, weil der Gegenstand dieser Teildisziplinen erstens ausschlielich struktureller Art ist, zweitens, weil sie nicht auf den Text als kommunikative Einheit, sondern lediglich auf Teile von Texten beschrnkt sind: im Falle der Syntax handelt es sich um Strukturen innerhalb des Satzes, bei der Transphrastik um strukturelle Verknpfungen zwischen Stzen. Trotzdem sind sie fr die Beschreibung von bersetzungen nicht wegzudenken: Syntax und die Transphrastik liefern notwendige Beschreibungskategorien fr eine Analyse von bersetzungsproblemen, die auf der Satzoder Satzverknpfungsebene lokalisiert sind sei es im Rahmen von Analysen von einzelnen bersetzungsfllen oder auch generell durch korpusbasierte Analysen von vergleichbaren bersetzungstypen. Nach einer kurzen Beispieldiskussion (5) erfolgt eine Schlussfolgerung in der Form einer Hypothese zur besonderen Rolle der pragmatischen Textlinguistik fr die bersetzungswissenschaft (6): Diese Textlinguistik ist zwar immer noch linguistisch fundiert, aber durch ihre Positionierung von Text als grundstzlich soziokulturell determinierter Kategorie bildet sie eine interessante methodische Schaltstelle zwischen Sprach- und Sozialwissenschaften. Denn durch die systematische Ausarbeitung von sprachwissenschaftlich und sozialwissenschaftlich fundierten Beschreibungskategorien wrden wir einem sehr wichtigen Aspekt des vielseitigen Phnomens bersetzen einen Schritt nher kommen - selbstverstndlich ohne dabei den Anspruch einer ganzheitlichen Translationstheorie stellen zu wollen bzw. zu knnen.

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Krisztina LAJOSI University of Amsterdam klajosi@hotmail.com

Interferences of Musicology and Translation Studies Nineteenth-Century National Canon Formation as a Form of Translation
Nineteenth-Century national canon formation as a form of translation Translation studies and musicology are not directly related disciplines, however, musicology can draw a lot on the methods and contributions of translation studies. Piano transcriptions, romantic lied, opera, symphonic poems are just a few examples where the question of translation/transfer would be a plausible startup to approach these genres because they all experiment with transposing one media or genre into another. Nineteenth-century Western art music was consciously exploring the limits of its possibilities. Interference between the different media has always been in the focus of art, but in the nineteenth century the signs of explorations are visible not only in the content or form of a work of art, but also on the meta-level. Self-referenciality and reflection about the nature of art belong to the main stream artistic discourses of the age. There was a growth of industry in writing about music, about the relationship of music and text and experiments to transpose one cultural artifact in another cultural context. Appropriation of pieces from a different cultural heritage has a long tradition in European art music, which is a storehouse of the European popular and folk dances. The Baroque period favoured the allemande, the pavane, the gavotte. Bach for example encorporated these dances in the classical style composing them even in his church music and passions. The trend continued in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with other folk-dances like ungaresca, mazurka, polka or the waltz. The Orientalism of the eighteenth century encouraged this kind of appropriation. One of the most well-known musical pieces of this trend is the third movement of Mozarts Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, K. 331, known as Rondo alla turca, which was in fact inspired by Hungarian verbunkos music. All these trends call for an approach from the field of translation studies since the interchange of two different semiotic systems is involved in the process of creation. The paper aims to raise some theoretical questions about the affinity between the disciplines of translation studies and musicology while interpreting the nineteenth-century concept of national music as a form of translation. The case study is going to focus on the Hungarian and Romanian musical culture. Analyzing, comparing and contrasting Hungarian and Romanian canon formation processes, the paper intends to show how the whole idea of authentic national music is in fact a matter of appropriation and translation from other cultures, especially from the western art music. It is also going to take under close scrutiny the question of how traditional western art music contributed to the identity construction as an imagined cultural community of the newly emerging national schools and national canons. The investigation is going to use the methods of EvanZohars polysystemic approach to translation. The conclusion of the paper will resume around the question of what image musicians, musical critics and the listeners of the nineteenth-century did convey about their own national cultural identity and how this image was influenced by other cultural impacts.

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Heike LAMBERGER-FELBER, Julia SCHNEIDER Institut fr Theoretische und Angewandte Translationswissenschaft, Universitt Graz, Austria heike.lamberger@uni-graz.at, julia.schneider@uni-graz.at

Interferences in Simultaneous Interpreting with Text A Case Study and Its Impact on Teaching and Practice
Linguistic interferences have been the subject of research in contrastive linguistics, bilingualism studies and foreign language learning since the 1950s. In translation studies, interference is defined more widely as a projection of characteristics of the source text into the target text resulting in a violation of parole-related target text norms and can as such be lexical, thematic, micro- and macrotextual, situative and cultural (Kupsch-Losereit 1998). Many texts about interferences in translation are of a didactic nature, and interference typologies are less frequent than in linguistics and are often based on rather unsystematic descriptions of personal observations. The same is true in interpretings studies: Linguistic interferences are mentioned mostly in didactic texts as a problem to be avoided, e.g. through deverbalisation (Thorie du sens, Selekovitch/Lederer). It is only in recent years that empirical case studies begin to investigate the actual occurrence of interferences in simultaneous interpreting (SI) and the influence of different parameters (e.g. language pairs, A-B versus B-A, beginners vs. professionals etc.) on the frequency and type of interferences (e.g. Garzone/Cardinaletti 2004, Russo/Sandrelli 2003). The aim of the proposed paper is twofold: Firstly, different interference typologies (e.g. Schmidt 1989) will be discussed with respect to their relevance and practical usability as parameters in empirical SI research (pilot study carried out at the University of Graz by Schneider, M.A. thesis). Secondly, a hypothesis that is mentioned by various authors in the context of SI with text will be tested empirically: It is suggested that due to the double input (visual + auditive), the danger of interferences might be greater when interpreters use the written manuscript while interpreting a read-out speech (cf. Daniel Gile in his effort models on SI with text). A limited number of interference parameters will be applied to a corpus of interpreted texts in order to find out whether SI with text does indeed result in an increased occurrence of interferences: In the case study, 12 professional conference interpreters interpreted 3 read-out speeches from English into German (their A language) under 3 different working conditions: with the speakers manuscript given to them a week in advance for individual preparation, with the text given to them just seconds prior to the interpretation , and without text. Results will show whether: - The chosen parameters have proven sensitive enough to show interferences in SI - Interferences found are more frequent when interpreters work with the written text in the booth - The possibility of preparation reduces the danger of interferences when working with text - The overall frequency of interferences varies among the subjects of the study - The occurrence of interferences can be linked to other investigated parameters (e.g. errors, omissions)
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Finally, the results will serve as a starting point to discuss the possible relevance and impact if any of case studies in SI research on interpreting practice and teaching.

References: Garzone, Giuliana/Cardinaletti, Anna (eds.) (2004) Lingua, mediazione linguistica e interferenza. Mailand: Franco Angeli (Lingua, traduzione, didattica) Kupsch-Losereit, Sigrid (21999) Interferenzen, in: Snell-Hornby, Mary et al. (ed.) Handbuch Translation. Tbingen: Stauffenburg, 167-170 Russo, Mariachiara/Sandrelli, Annalisa (2003) La direccionalidad en interpretacin simultnea: un estudio sistemtico sobre el tratamiento del verbo, in: Kelly, Dorothy et al. (eds.) La direccionalidad en traduccin e interpretacin: perspectivas tericas, profesionales y didcticas. Granada: Atrio, 407-425 Schmidt, Heide (1989) bersetzungsdidaktik und Interferenz, in: Schmidt, Heide (ed.) (1989) Interferenz in der Translation. Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopdie (bersetzungswissenschaftliche Beitrge 12), 29-38

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Caroline LEHR Universit de Genve lehrcar3@etu.unige.ch

Semantic Priming-Effects in Translators


In the context of an interdisciplinary research project between the Translation School of the University of Geneva and the Neuropsychological Department of the Geneva University Hospital a psycholinguistic experiment was conducted to test the semantic priming effect in translators. This effect consists in a more rapid processing of two semantically related words due to an activation of the same semantic net in the brain and provides information about the representation of two languages in the mind, their processing and especially about the question if and where the two languages share representations. Semantic priming can be observed for two words of one language but also for words of different languages. The inter-lingual existence of this effect leads to the assumption that conceptual information about the meaning of words is stored in a representation shared by both languages. In experiments conducted before an asymmetric effect was found in bilinguals: in the inter-lingual L2-condition (language order L1-L2: first and second language) the effect was more distinctive than in the inter-lingual L1-condition. A symmetric effect was observed, however, in an experiment with translators and raised the question if this symmetry can be attributed to the high language proficiency of the subjects. In the aim to make further presumptions about the symmetric priming effect and its particular development in translators we conducted an experiment with twenty translation students from the University of Geneva. The results of our experiment show a symmetric priming-effect in both inter-lingual conditions, providing further evidence that the symmetry of the effect reflects a particular language processing related to the high proficiency of the subjects. Moreover the results of our experiment, using psycholinguistic experimental methods, indicate further particular language processing that is automated in translators and gives an insight into the partial processes that form the whole complex translation process.

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Chia-hui LIAO University of Warwick, England, UK chiahuiliao@yahoo.com.tw

Classical Chinese Poetry Translation Problems and Strategies in Translating Wang Weis Lu Zhai
This paper discusses what problems emerge and what priorities translators of different cultural backgrounds consider while rendering the classical poem Lu Zhai (Deer Grove) by Wang Wei (701-761), the archetypal landscape poet of the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618907). The poet Wang Weis status in the West is partly associated with Zen, a branch of Buddhism. His pastoral poetry, believed to brim with the connotation of Zen, constitutes imagery of peace and serenity. In the late 1950s, a group of young American literary men, in search of spiritual freedom, were attracted by the philosophy of Zen for its urge to be able to adapt oneself to different circumstances. Western philosophies tend to be logic and organised, whereas Eastern philosophies, like Zen, are inclined to reflect on matters with their intuition. Western literary men interested in Zen started to explore the imagery of worldlessness, emptiness and serenity presented in the nature poetry of Wang Wei. The translators were asked to complete a Think-Aloud Protocols (TAPs) (Toury, 1995 ; William and Chesterman, 2002). Translations into English done by two groups of the translators (one Chinese-speaking and one English-speaking) based on the source text (ST), a transliteration of the ST, and a character-by-character translation of the ST will be analysed (cf. Weinberger and Paz, Nineteen Ways of Looking at Wang Wei, 1987, pp. 2, 4, 6). Based on the case-study of TAPs, the following issues will be addressed: (1) illustration of the translation process, (2) identification of translation problems, and (3) analysis and evaluation of factors which may affect translators strategic decisions. The analysis reveals a three-stage process of translation: understanding, synthesis and evaluation; translation problems relating to comprehension and production; as well as the influence of the translators cultural background, intuition and intratextuality on the choice of translation strategies. Such examination of the translating process can help us understand the priorities in decision-making and how translators handle the intercultural tasks of representing the source culture. Therefore, this pilot study is of great significance as it shows how the translators cultural background has an immediate impact on his selection of poetic diction, which may produce different incarnations of the original poem. This leads to questions of a wider scope: (1) What imagery of the source culture is projected via translation to the target readers? (2) What is the interaction between the original text and the translated text? In addition, this pilot study can lead to future research examining the interplay between text and reader through the aesthetic of reception. There have been many scholars and/or translators devoting much time and energy to making a poem survive through the proliferation of translation (Chan, 2003: 19). This paper seeks to provide a fresh perspective on contemporary English poetry and culture through the introduction of the diverse and rich poetic traditions of classical Chinese verse. The poetry and culture of the English speaking world, in turn, will also influence translated poems in a variety of aspects. Although this case study focuses on translation into English, the issues discussed apply to the translation from the relatively distant
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Chinese language and culture into any European language and general conclusions can be drawn. Chan, Leo Tak-hung, ed. (2003). One into Many: Translation and the Dissemination of Classical Chinese Literature. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Toury, Gideon. (1995). Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Weinberger, Eliot and Paz, Octavio, eds. (1987). Nineteen Ways of Looking At Wang Wei. N.Y.: Moyer Bell. William, Jenny and Chesterman, Andrew. (2002). The Map: A Beginners Guide to Doing Research in Translation Studies. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.

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David LIMON University of Ljubljana limon@siol.net

Translators as Cultural Mediators Goal or Reality?


It has become a commonplace within Translation Studies to describe translators as "cultural mediators", but to what extent does translation practice actually conform to the cultural mediation model? How much of the translation work carried out in any particular cultural environment is concerned with cultural adaptation or approximation rather than a less ambitious linguistic transfer? Do most working translators see themselves as cultural mediators and are they viewed as such by those who employ or commission them? Does the relative status of the translator within a particular society make it more or less likely that he or she is going to function as a genuine cultural mediator or is this more dependent on institutional attitudes to translation or even to the type of translation being carried out? Is it usual for the exact role of the translator to be adequately specified in the translation brief or is that role something that happens by default, in accordance with the specific circumstances of the particular translation project or task? An attempt will be made to answer these questions, or at the very least to indicate how answers these questions might be found, in relation to Slovenia a relatively new country, as well as a recent EU member, and the home to a "less widely used" language spoken by only about 2 million people, where most translation takes place from or into English. Most of the translation carried out between Slovene and English is non-literary, mainly in the political and economic spheres, and many of the genres now being dealt with are new to the Slovene environment. In order to limit the scale of our discussion a particular functional type of text will be considered, i.e. promotional texts, and within this category the two broad sub-types of tourism texts focusing on cultural heritage and company web sites. The analysis will be further limited to the discussion of translation from Slovene into English, which for a range of reasons is largely carried out by translators working away from their mother tongue. Within this context, we shall discuss to what extent translators can be seen to be striving for functional equivalence, conveying both what is made explicit and what is implied in the text to an extent judged to be relevant for the target audience. Moreover, we shall try to identify how much use the translator makes, in manipulating the source text, of a "cultural filter" (House 2001) that takes into account shared conventions of communication, preferred rhetorical styles, expectation norms and so on. Where genuine cultural mediation is taking place one would expect to find more translation shifts occurring than in a less interventionist linguistic transfer. More specifically, such translations would be marked by the presence of explicitation, in particular of aspects of the source culture that are likely to be unfamiliar to target readers (with translation from English, the default assumption is often that explicitation is not required due to the new global role of the language and its apparent "universality"): by analysing a range of texts we shall identify how much explicitation is actually taking place. This results of this analysis will be compared with the results of earlier research into the work of EU translators (Limon 2004) that identified a common preference for a strategy based on "prudence" and "capitulation" rather than "risk-taking" and "persistence" (cf. Campbell 1998). The degree of mediation (Hatim and Mason 1997), i.e. the extent to which translators intervene in the transfer process, is very low with regard to EU texts, the majority have which have a legal or legislative function: does this also apply to translations of other texts, such as those written for promotional purposes?

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We shall also briefly consider the relevance of the current status of translators in Slovenia based largely on a research project carried out in 2005 among 87 translators into their educational profile, social and legal status, training and work experience, and views on translation in order to decide whether this might influence the kind of translation strategy they use. In particular, we ask whether there are pressures on translators to conform to prevailing norms (i.e. to follow an ethics of sameness, cf. Venuti 1998) and adopt a low-mediation approach, as well as a lack of interaction between them and others in the communicative process, leading to a failure to consider the generic or textual appropriateness of SL texts written specifically for translation. Due to processes of internationalisation and European integration, many Central and Eastern European countries such as Slovenia are having to accommodate a broad range of new textual genres that are often introduced via translation. The special factors relating to the dominance of Anglo-Saxon cultural values within many fields of communication and the growing status of English as a lingua franca, should not be overlooked here if nothing else, they raise difficult questions of cultural hegemony and the desirability of conforming to a increasingly globalised model. Thus we shall raise the issue of how far translators should go in emulating an Anglo-Saxon model when translating into English. Finally, in answer to the question posed by the title: we can hypothesise that cultural mediation is in most instances, at least in the environment examined, still a goal rather than a reality much still needs to be done to raise the status of translators, especially those involved in non-literary translation, so that they are in a better position to take on the mantle of experts in cultural mediation. Part of the solution undoubtedly lies in the kind of translator education currently being implemented in Slovenia as well as elsewhere in Europe.

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Aage LIND Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration (NHH) age.lind@nhh.no

Avoiding the Minefields On the Translation of Legal Terminology


The transposition of legal terminology is perhaps one of the most difficult areas of translation, since there will rarely be complete or direct equivalence between concepts in two languages. A number of factors such as statutory law, common law, legal precedent and consuetude, in addition to court practice and procedure, contribute to setting them apart. Even in countries where the legal traditions and the language are the same, like England and Australia, we find considerable differences also in respect of terminology and the legal interpretation of apparently identical concepts. These dissimilarities also exist between English and Scottish (and to a lesser extent Northern Irish) law, especially common law, although much modern statutory law is passed (with minor, necessary variations) for the whole of the UK. This also applies to the USA, where each state constitutes a separate jurisdiction with its own system of law, in addition to the federal judicial system, and there may be considerable disparities in legal terminology and legal practice between states. There is, for instance, no common American definition of concepts like felony or misdemeanor. It is thus hardly surprising that a number of terms have no equivalents in another language, and will have to be "constructed". As a linguist and translator of legal material, as well as an author of several dictionaries on legal terminology, I shall in this paper look at some of the lexicographic and lexicological as well as translational problems involved, and by drawing comparisons between English (to some extent also American) and Norwegian terminology, indicate ways in which to try and solve these problems. The paper will also look at ways in which a dictionary may assist the user in navigating through the maze of legal concepts to find the information he or she seeks, in terms of semantic information, conceptual discrimination, collocations, definitions, factual (enclyclopedic) and syntactical information, equivalence, register, etc. This paper will also look at the problems involving terminology that does not have any (acceptable) equivalents in the target language, and by drawing on examples from my dictionary, discuss the principles involved in the construction of terms. Should one, for instance, adopt partly equivalent terms in the target language that would be readily identifiable or recognisable, if not strictly speaking "correct"? Or should one "coin" new terminology that would not convey any unwanted source language connotations, at the possible expense of transparency? The paper will also try and address the problem of what, in a technical sense, constitutes a legal term, to be included in a bilingual dictionary of law, and what would be regarded as a non-technical word/term, and perhaps better excluded. What about register? How do you treat terms which are not, strictly speaking, legal concepts as such, but which in everyday, non-technical or colloquial usage cover the same reality as legally defined terms of art, frequently used by laymen as well as legal professionals? The Norwegian concept, "blotter", may, for instance, variously be called "exhibitionist" by the medical profession, "flasher" by most people, including legal professionals, whereas the indictment may refer to "(the person) charged with the offence of indecent exposure". The paper will also examine the concept of collocations and the use of illustrative, explanatory sentences or definitions, which may be variously considered an indispensable guide and assistance to the dictionary user, or perhaps a rather unnecessary addition?

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How do you treat changes in target-language terminology? In English law a number of terms (eg misdemeanour, felony, receiving stolen goods, etc have been removed as statutory concepts or replaced by other terms. I have chosen to include the terms, not only because they are still used in US law, for instance, but also because they are part of the general body of language. They will, moreover, be met in past law reports, in prior cases or legal decisions used as precedent or authority for cases under consideration today, etc.

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Yvonne LINDQVIST Stockholm University yvonne.lindqvist@tolk.su.se

Metatranslation in Translation A Comparison of Metatextual Elements in the Swedish, English and French translations of the Spanish novel La caverna de las ideas by Jos Calros Somoza
The paper examines three translations of the Spanish novel La caverna de las ideas by Jos Carlos Somoza (2000), namely the Swedish, English and French translations performed by Karin Sjstrand (2004), Sonia Soto (2002) and Marianne Millon (2003) respectively. The novel La caverna de las ideas is particularly interesting for Translation Studies scholars since a fictive translator is one of the main characters in the plot of the novel. The novel is in fact a meta-translation, i.e. a translated text commenting on its own genesis. The multi layer narrative of the novel on the one hand the plot of the ancient Greek manuscript the translator is working on, and on the other hand the alternative plot taking place in the footnotes are constantly interplaying and eventually dissolved in the novel leaving the reader somehow surprised. The fictional meta textual elements in the novel of the three translations i.e. the way the fictional translator communicates with the reader by literally occupying the footnote space of the real translator (as an integrated part of the fiction ) are in a first step compared to the source text and then eventually to each other in order to discover differences in translation solutions. The study presented draw on the polysystem theory approach (Even-Zohar 1990, Toury 1996 & 1998) and the cultural sociology of Pierre Bourdieu (Bourdieu 1986, Gouvanic 2002 & 2005) in forwarding the hypotheses that the metatextual elements in the novel will be translated in different ways depending on the overall makeup of the cultural system within which the translators perform their task. The Swedish, the British and the French cultural systems differing substantially with reference to their overall translation policy, and hence to the position of translated literature within those cultures (cf. Venuti 1996). The crucial importance of the cultural environment to translators might in fact provide a possible explanation and a deeper insight into understanding the translators habitus, i.e. the structuring and structured structures by which the translator understand and act in the socio-cultural environment (Bourdieu 1992:51, Simeoni 1998, Sela-Sheffy 2005) particularly on the literary translation field in question the translator habitus presenting a fundamental clue to translation behaviour.

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LOUPAKI, Elpida Aristotle University of Thessaloniki eloupaki@frl.auth.gr

News Translation Investigating Translators Strategies in Rendering Ideological Conflict


The intensified circulation of human, cultural and economic capital along with the expansion of digital technologies have resulted in a new, globalized era in mass communication. Distances have diminished, as the information is transmitted all over the planet almost instantly, transforming local news into global. In this multicultural environment, the role of translation in moving beyond linguistic boundaries is crucial, although it is not always acknowledged as so. For instance, in Greece different newspapers regularly publish translated articles taken from the French, German or British press, without however indicating that these articles constitute a translation neither mentioning the name of the translator. Despite the fact that the significance of news translation has lately been underlined by Translation Studies scholars, such as Gunilla Anderman (2004), Michael Cronin (2005) and Christina Schaeffner (2005), in the context of an AHRB funded research project entitled Translation in Global News, I believe that this kind of translation and its impact on the formation of public opinion invites further discussion. The aim of this paper is to examine the strategies used by the translator when he/ she deals with ideological conflict in the source text. The word conflict is here used as described by Mona Baker (2006:1): a state of hostility between groups of people, usually belonging to different races, religions or nation states. In this definition conflict has a clear political and ideological connotation. Some of the questions that this paper will try to answer are the following: Could the translator always reproduce the conflict embedded in the original? If not, which are the factors influencing his/ her translational choices? Which are the techniques the translator uses in order to recreate or not the conflict found at the original? The answers to these questions will be based on the study of a selection of articles originally written in English and their translations into Greek found in newspapers of different political orientation. Bibliographical References - ANDERMAN, Gunilla. 2004. Reflections of the day. In the Programme of the International Symposium: The Language of Global News. http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/ctccs/research/tgn/events/2004/pro/ - BAKER, Mona. 2006. Translation and Conflict. A Narrative Account. London/ New York: Routledge. - CRONIN, Michael. 2005. Burning the House Down: Translation in a Global Setting. In Susan Bssnett (ed). Language and Intercultural Communication, 5:2, 108-119. - SCHAEFFNER, Christina. 2005. Bringing a German Voice to English-speaking Readers: Spiegel International. In Susan Bassnett (ed). Language and Intercultural Communication, 5:2, 154-167.

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Josep MARCO Universitat Jaume I (Castelln, Spain) jmarco@trad.uji.es

The Case for Corpus-Based Translation Studies With Special Reference to the Translation of Phraseology
Is it really necessary to argue the case for Corpus-based Translation Studies (CBTS, from now on)? CBTS, as a distinct approach, has been around for over a decade now. It was launched by a series of seminal articles by Mona Baker which in many respects have guided its course up to the present. However, the initial seed has germinated into a variety of interests, or research lines, not at all incompatible with each other but with quite distinctive flavours. 1. What might be referred to as the canonical line is the one initiated by Baker herself, which focuses on the main features of translated language vis--vis nontranslated language. It is strongly indebted to Descriptive Translation Studies. Source texts do not come into the picture at all, research is typically based on comparable corpora and what scholars ultimately search for is translation universals. 2. But there alternative lines. Bernardini (2005), for instance, argues that corpusbased translation research has been biased in favour of comparable corpora and the balance needs to be redressed. That kind of research has thrown light on a number of interesting aspects of translation behaviour, but it is the very nature of translation as a mediated communicative event (Baker 1993) that makes an exclusively target-oriented approach to translation analysis methodologically questionable (Bernardini 2005). It is argued that parallel and reference corpora need to be used to complement the data yielded by comparable corpora (as in Teich 2003). All these different growths are well documented in Laviosa (2002) and Olohan (2004). In fact, the existence of such textbooks it might be argued bears witness to the fact that CBTS is well established as a discernible approach within our discipline. However, not enough attention has been paid to the fact that corpora and corpus analysis tools represent a revolutionary step, a qualitative leap as far as research methods are concerned. Translation Studies research just like research in many other language-centred disciplines used to be anecdotic until very recently, and remains so in many cases. The reason for this lies in that the amount of data an individual scholar, or even a research group, could handle was very limited and, as a result, they felt obliged to end many of their scholarly contributions on an apologetic note, along these familiar lines: our conclusions are such and such, but further research should be carried out in order for them to be generalizable. Now that difficulty is partly overcome, as the results yielded by such large amounts of data as corpus-based translation scholars are often able to handle have more general validity. In fact, the amount of data that can be analysed by electronic means is virtually limitless. That does not mean that the output of such research is the truth, in any philosophical sense, but it is certainly less (fatally) limited than the output of manual analysis. The kind of analysis performed by the computer is not comparable, of course, to human analysis, in terms of quality; but even so, if selectively applied, automated or semiautomated analysis can throw light on new areas of research by virtue of its sheer bulk. All this can be illustrated by reference to the pervasive phenomenon of phraseology, which, under such various terminological guises as idioms, fixed expressions, clichs, etc., has drawn translation scholars attention for several decades now.

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Vinay and Darbelnet, for instance, illustrate the technical procedure they call equivalence by reference to the translation of phraseological units. And phraseological units including collocations are part and parcel of such textually oriented translation works as Baker (1992) and Neubert and Shreve (1992). More recently, they have been presented (Molina 2001) as items at the interface between language and culture. Only in the Spanish context several monographs (e.g. Corpas 2000; Van Lawick 2006) have broached the subject of the translation of phraseology. All this bears witness to the interest aroused by the subject; but the studies mentioned are seldom empirical, and when they are, they move within the narrow limits of manual analysis. In order to show that CBTS matters in general and as applied to the translation of phraseology this paper focuses on the study of a number of phraseological units extracted from the English-Catalan section of COVALT (Valencian Corpus of Translated Literature), a multilingual corpus still under construction made up of the translations into Catalan of narrative works originally written in English, French and German published in the autonomous region of Valencia from 1990 to 2000. The English-Catalan sub-corpus currently includes 30 pairs of source text + target text which amount to 1,641,251 words (829,503 English, 811,748 Catalan). Corpus analysis is carried out by means of AlfraCOVALT, a bilingual concordancing programme developed within the COVALT research group by Josep Guzman (see Guzman, forthcoming). The overall study of phraseology in COVALT is still in progress, but it has already thrown the following aspects into relief: a) the controversial nature of the sameness / difference distinction as regards translation solutions to the problem of phraseology; b) the key role of expressivity as a factor guiding translation solutions; c) the role played by isomorphism and opacity as elements conditioning satisfactory or even acceptable solutions. The results yielded by our study are expected to bear implications for knowledge proper as well as for translator training.

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Cristina MARINETTI University of Warwick c.marinetti@warwick.ac.uk

Translation Studies and the Theatre Dialogue or Monologue?


The concept of translation in its broadest sense of cross-cultural communication is at the forefront of contemporary theatre practice. From the arts councils to the director and the actor, the interest in the encounter between cultures, languages and beliefs permeates European theatre in the 21st century. Theatre festivals become every year more international, theatre companies and their ethos are increasingly multicultural and the interest in exploring cultural otherness is a driving force in the development of new writing for the stage. Doing theatre on the European stage today, means getting involved in an act of translation. And yet the theatre is the place where the practice of translation, in its narrow sense of transferring a text from source to target language, is at its most invisible. In Britain, where the distinction between translation as a craft and translation as an art is still widely accepted by the non-specialist, the knowledge of the source language is optional for a theatre translator. Most theatre translators (often called adaptors) work from existing translations or from literal translations produced for the occasion by bilingual translators whose work is poorly paid and virtually unrecognised. What I intend to argue in this paper is that beyond the invisibility of the theatre translator emerges a more complex picture of the relationship between translation studies and the theatre. By analysing the writing of a selection of translation scholars who have looked at translation and the theatre (Bassnett, Anderman, Aaltonen) I will explore the way in which these writers position their work in relation to affiliated disciplines (theatre studies, performance studies, cultural studies and theatre semiotics) and consider the consequences that this positioning has had on the exchange of ideas between these fields. I will then extend the analysis to writing by theatre translators and consider what impact (if any) translation studies has had on the practice of theatre translation and on the status and function of the translator in the theatre. I will then suggest that the relationship between translation scholars and the theatre is characterised by a one-way dialogue. This one-directional communication occurs both at the level of the relationship between translation scholars and practitioners and in terms of the impact of translation studies research on related fields. Translation studies long and historical involvement with debates around plurality, crosscultural communication and the exploration of cultural otherness make it a discipline that is perfectly positioned to contribute to the investigation of contemporary theatre practice. If the function of a theory of translation is, as Rosmary Arrojo and Andrew Chesterman suggest, to empower translators-to-be and raise their conscience as writers concerning the responsibility they will face in the seminal role they will play in the establishment of all sorts of relationships between cultures (Chesterman and Arrojo 2000: 159), then the discipline of translation studies should encourage work aimed at exporting its expertise and make it accessible, relevant and conversant with the concerns of related disciplines and those of theatre practitioners. Chesterman, A. & Arrojo, R. (2000) 'Shared Ground in Translation Studies'. Target 12 (1), 151-160.

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Iwona MAZUR Department of Translation Studies, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland iwona.paskal@interia.pl

Translating Culture-Bound Texts Can Theory Help Practice?


Despite the increasing globalization and the associated cultural homogenization (e.g. Giddens 1990, Ritzer 1993), most of the cultures around the world continue to remain distinct (Barber 1992, Robertson 1994). In this interconnected world the translator plays an increasingly important role, not just as an interlingual, but also, if not primarily, as an intercultural mediator (e.g. Katan 1999). Culture-bound texts can be a great challenge even to professional translators, as they require profound knowledge of the two cultures in question. But even such good knowledge does not guarantee a successful translation, as cultural concepts usually do not overlap and ready-made equivalents are few and far between. This is where translation theory could possibly come to the rescue. Starting from general translation strategies along the domestication-foreignization continuum (e.g. Venuti 1995), through translation procedures along the exoticism-assimilation spectrum (e.g. Newmark 1988, Ivir 1997, Malone 1988, Aixela 1996), the translator has a range of useful tools at their disposal that, in theory, should help them deal with culture-specific items. In the paper the author sets out to determine whether the theory does in fact translate into practice. For that purpose a study has been conducted at the School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, involving eight beginner translation and interpretation students, with no background in translation theory whatsoever. The students were asked to translate a culture-bound text, with no further instructions given. Then, they were asked to translate the same text again, but this time the assignment was preceded by a detailed and extensive discussion of the major theoretical approaches to translating texts in general and culture-bound texts in particular. The former approaches included, for example, Reisss text typology (1977/1989), the Skopos theory (Reiss and Vermeer 1984) and HolzMnttris theory of translational action (1984), whereas the latter ones involved, for example, the above mentioned domestication vs. foreignization approach, as well as other similar dichotomies, e.g. covert vs. overt translation (cultural filter) (House 1977, 1997), dynamic vs. formal equivalence (Nida 1964), or instrumental vs. documentary translation (Nord 1997). Additionally, the students were presented with a detailed breakdown of the major translation procedures along the exoticism-assimilation spectrum (e.g. importation, calque, extra information, normalization, compensation, substitution), along with the relevant examples. Before translating the culture-bound text for the second time, the students were also given detailed instructions as regards the skopos of the text, its commissioner, target audience, etc. The primary aim of the study was to test, based on selected culture-specific items, whether and to what extent in the second translation the students solutions have been affected by the relevant theoretical considerations. The results, coupled with the students introspective comments, help determine whether more emphasis should be placed on teaching theory in practical translation courses and whether and how the knowledge of such theory can add value to translators work.

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Reine MEYLAERTS KU Leuven reine.meylaerts@arts.kuleuven.be

The Impact of Translation Policies on Minorities The Struggle for Who Is In and Who Is Out
Translation has a strategic role in the (social, political, cultural, technological) planning and organization of multilingual societies. Among other things, it conditions and regulates the presence of the minority languages in the public sphere. Although there is an underlying political dimension to all translations, a dimension that is heightened in contemporary multilingual, globalized contexts which are by definition hierarchical, research on language policies in multilingual societies remains surprisingly silent about the key role of translation. Translation is inherently part of language ideological battles and research on (the historiography of) translation policies and strategies forms an essential contribution to the understanding of language policies, of language ideologies and their link with nations, minorities, migration, globalisation etc. Not only which language(s) can/cannot/must/ be used, but also, and necessarily, what can/cannot/must be translated by whom and how in a certain geo-temporal, institutional framework: these matters are never left to chance, but form part of multilingual societies fundamental legal options and regulations. Therefore, whoever wants to understand multilingual societies (and are there any other?) has to have insight in the history and dynamics of their language and translation policies, as Siamese twins allied with each other. Struggles on language and translation policies are settled in an intricate web of institutional settings and legal dispositions, of competing discursive practices, of various and variable interiorizations of and resistances to these institutional and discursive structures by the actors involved. All these parameters evolve by their own rhythm, within dynamic and complex power relations. However, within this intriguing network of parameters, one thing seems undeniable. If, as often is the case in multilingual societies, socio-political power is linked to language domination of one group over the other(s), among other things by institutional monolingualism, then translation forms an integral part of multilingual societies ideological debates. This is no innocent conclusion: it means that an essential part of our societies history remains to be discovered and (re)written. The paper will try to illustrate these issues with examples from past and present American (e.g. English only) and European language and translation policies.

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Tamara MIKOLI JUNI Dept. of Translation, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia tamara.mikolic@guest.arnes.si

Towards Better Italian-to-Slovene Translations Nominalization Issues


Presently, virtually no didactic materials are available for Slovene-to-Italian or Italian-toSlovene translation, which means that when educating future translators, we have to rely only on our personal experience as translators, and of course this is not an ideal solution. Some interesting studies regarding translation between Slovene and Italian have been carried out recently (e.g. a number of works by Martina Obot), but they are mostly restricted to particular texts or kinds of texts and normally do not deal with more general, recurring translations problems. Such studies can therefore hardly be presented to translation students as examples or study material. We believe that it would be of great help if researchers provided studies on more general issues in Italian-to-Slovene and Slovene-to-Italian translation. Practicing translators are often able to pinpoint particular problems but rarely take the time to locate principles and propose consistent solutions. Their knowledge, which may indeed be considerable, remains thus useless to young aspiring translators. With the intent of offering consistent solutions, or at least useful guidelines, for solving one particular translation problem, a study of Italian nominalization and its translation equivalents in Slovene was undertaken. It has been noted several times (cf. for example Klinar, S. 1996. Samostalnikost angleine v primeri s slovenino. In Klinar, S. (ed.), K tehniki prevajanja iz slovenine v angleino. Radovljica: Didakta; and also Plemenita, K. 2004. Posamostaljenja v angleini in slovenini na primeru dveh besedilnih vrst: Doctoral dissertation. Ljubljana: Faculty of Arts.) that the Slovene language seems to be rather more verb-oriented in comparison with other languages such as English or, we might add, Italian. In other words, grammatical metaphors of the ideational type, as defined by Halliday and Matthiessen (2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Third Edition. London: Arnold; pp. 636-658), seem to be more frequent in certain languages than in others. This study concentrates on Italian-to-Slovene translations: with the use of Italian (La Repubblica Corpus, CORIS/CODIS) and Slovene corpora (FIDA, Naa Beseda), and especially with the help of a collection of parallel Italian-to-Slovene translations (approximately 1 million words per each side of roughly 50% fiction and 50% non-fiction texts), we have analysed the frequency of nominalizations in both languages and looked for possible translations of nominalized processes. Apart from the most expected version with a congruent translation (i.e. using a verb to realize a process) of a metaphorically worded process in Italian, there are several other possibilities that seem to occur regularly, such as, for instance, adjectival or adverbial metaphorical realizations. Other issues that are taken into account are the influence of the genre of the text, the immediate context of a chosen nominalization, and the effect this context has on the realization found in the Slovene translation. Because of its structure, the Italian-Slovene parallel corpus allows us to observe the differences between the occurrence of nominalization in fiction (novels and short stories) and in non-fiction (academic prose, scientific texts etc.) and verify the validity of the notions proposed by Halliday and Martin (1993, Writing Science. Literacy and Discursive Power. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press) for English, according to which grammatical metaphors of the nominalizing kind were used for the first time to reach a certain communicative effect in scientific writing, and from there they spread into other types of texts. We believe that a very similar development took place in Italian, while in Slovene the process is yet to develop its full potential.
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Natasa MILIVOJEVIC University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of English zinger@ns.sbb.co.yu

On Interpreting and Translating Contemporary Linguistic Terminology from English into Serbian Should We Internationalize, Transliterate or Translate?
It is a well established fact in translation studies that words carry contexts with them. Furthermore, a good translation should strive not only at transferring knowledge across cultures, but also at conveying its original cultural (at times also linguistic) background. This paper aims at explaining and exemplifying one instance of such cross-cultural sharing, namely the case of translating linguistic terminology. The issue is approached from the viewpoint of translating for linguistic purposes where various translation techniques (borrowing, reformulation, adaptation, compensation, etc.) are employed to both ensure the accuracy of the shared linguistic facts as well as to preserve the features of the target language academic discourse. Translation techniques within the scope of TS for English and Serbian have so far been taken up by Popovi,1980; Hlebec,1989; Stojni,1989; Sibinovi,1983,1990; Bell,1991; Jovanovi,1991; Newmark,1991; Baker,1992; Alvarez,1996, Fawcett 1997, and others. This may, at first glance, seem like an easy task since scientific vocabulary is in general supposed to be accurate, precise and clear-cut. The contextual setting for the life of such words is academic discourse which is, by definition, formal and exact, therefore also lacking colloquialisms, wordplay or figures of speech. Yet, these characteristics frequently do not prevail in real life of science, especially in humanities and some social sciences where the main aim of writing may not be parsimony and clarity, but richness and nuance. (Eriksen 2005). When it comes to contemporary linguistic models and frameworks (e.g. generative grammar, cognitive linguistics, computational semantics, functional discourse grammar, etc.), most of the terminology and literature, not surprisingly, is in English. What is more, these linguistic texts abound in polysemies, linguistic metaphors even puns which are frequently fully non-transparent to a non-English speaking person. Certain English linguistic concepts may sound too informal or imprecise when translated, their associations may be off in an academic discussion conducted in Serbian, while it may be at the same time impossible to simply borrow them or translate them literally. On top of that, while English and Serbian academic discourse do in some aspects coexist peacefully, the evident dominance of the former shapes and conditions all the newly added dimensions of the latter. Translating contemporary linguistic literature therefore means building a local context for the target language which is a gradual step by step process, since prior knowledge cannot be taken for granted. (Eriksen 2005). So the translator is faced with the task of multi-layered complexity: not only should he ensure the information exchange, but he should also create a brand new academic context to embed this information into (i.e. linguistic facts, frameworks, tools and terminology) taking into account the specific requirements of the language specific discourse, while also managing to preserve what is local in terms of a culture-based academic setting. The approach taken up in the paper is to go about such problematic situations by reformulating, adapting and compensating, rather than by simply borrowing and internationalizing. This strategy should result in bridging the existing lexical gaps and transferring incompatible worldviews across the language divide (Bennet 2006).
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Ideally, such approach should also ensure a significant degree of autonomy for the academic discourse of the target language, which may in turn contribute to sustaining the worldwide plurality of linguistic academic discourse. The results presented were obtained through the research originally conducted in 2005 at the English Department (Faculty of Philosophy), in Novi Sad, within the scope of the project no 1386 of The Ministry of Science and Technology of Serbia, entitled Interpreting Contemporary Linguistic Terminology and Transferring it into Serbian. The corpus of 250 English and Serbian equivalent linguistics terms used for the analysis initially represented an appendix to the MA thesis of the author of this paper, entitled Predicate Transfer in English and Serbian A Generative Approach, which was defended in December 2005. Keywords: linguistic terminology, translation techniques, academic discourse, linguistic metaphor

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John MILTON Universidade de So Paulo jmilton60@yahoo.com

The Link between Economic Policy and the Publication of Translated Works A Case Study
Universidade de So Paulo This paper will examine the importance of economic factors in the production of translated works in Brazil, concentrating on the period from 1930 to 1945 but also making reference to the 1945 to 1950 and the period following the military coup of 1954. This is an area which has been almost totally ignored by scholars in the area of Translation Studies. In his Introduction to Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting (ed. Pym et alli. 2006), Anthony Pym laments the lack of studies in this area: It is surprising, in this respect, to see how rarely economic factors are cited in our studies [] (ed. Pym et alli. 2006: 12). A number of the papers in the volume tangentially mention economic factors but fail to develop this point. This study will initially pay close attention to tariff barrier in the 1930 to 1945 period and propose that high tariff barriers in a developing economy, such as that of Brazil in this period, will lead to industrial growth in general, of which publishing is part, and within publishing translations of classic and popular works will normally be a safe bet for publishing companies which are starting out and which do not have huge financial backing. Added to this, lax copyright procedures and censorship of domestic material also pushed publishers towards concentrating on translations. Indeed, due to the enormous translation activity, in this period has been called the Golden Age of translation in Brazil. I also look at other periods of considerable growth in the Brazilian economy, firstly, the developmentalist period of President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1961), whose programme of rapid industrialization and construction of infrastructure resulted in enormous growth in the publication of technical works, many of which were translations. In this period US-sponsored translations became increasingly important, and after the 1964 military coup the USAiD programme supplied texts, translators and finance for a large number of technical works, especially in the areas of engineering, medicine, business and economics. Indeed, this programme was important both as a stimulus to the Brazilian publishing and translation market, but also to win the hearts and minds of educated Brazilians and instill the American way of thinking in the Brazilian middleclasses. And although in this period the press was censored after the 1964 coup, very severely in the 1969-1973 period, and books on the USSR or socialist themes could not be published, it was a period during which the publishing industry developed at a rapid rate, experiencing its own miracle. In 1960 0.5 books per inhabitant were published; and in 1980 this figure had risen to two books per inhabitant, a 400% growth in the space of 20 years, a rate higher than that of the rest of the economy, which tripled in size. We can thus see the link between economic and political factors and I attempt to extend Tourys concept of norms to economic factors. And following Even-Zohar, (2000), we can see that translations helped to maintain the pro-American position of the Brazilian government in this period. For EvenZohar, translations generally occupy a conservative position in the literary system, though, interestingly, in addition the enormous number of translations of popular and technical works, protesters against the Brazil of the early 1970s, unable to voice their protest, resorted to translating the Beat poets.

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References: Even-Zohar, Itamar (2000). The Position of Translated Literature within the Literary Polysystem, in Venuti, Lawrence, The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge. 192-197. eds. Pym, Anthony, Miriam Schlesinger and Zuzana Jettmarov (2006). Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting. Amsterdam: John Benjamins

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Anthony MITZEL, *Michela GIORGIO-MARRANO, **Linda ROSSATO anthony.mitzel@gmail.com *University of Modena and Reggio Emilia michela.giorgio@unibo.it **University of Naples Federico II lrossato@sslmit.unibo.it

Italian, Short, Sweet and Dubbed A Relevant Experiment in Perception


The present paper sets out to report the results of a large-scale empirical study aimed at assessing the audience perception of two Italian short films (Bbobbolone, Daniele Cascella, IT 2002 and Tutto Brilla, Massimo Cappelli, IT 2005) dubbed into English for the Anglo-American market. The study is based on the project Italian, Short, Sweet & Dubbed, which was recently presented at the 63rd Venice Film Festival under the auspices of AIDAC (The Italian Association of Dubbing Script Writers), the Universities of Bologna, Trieste (Italy) and Durham (UK), SIAE (Italian Association of Authors and Publishers), Voci nellOmbra (a yearly dubbing festival), SAI (Italian Actors Union) and aSinc, an online journal on dubbing policy and critique. Based on the premise that contemporary Italian cinema has so far been unable to find an audience outside national borders, the project aims at promoting the use of good-quality dubbing as a means to improve the international circulation of Italian audiovisual products. In particular, the proponents of the project aim to achieve circulation in Anglophone countries in which, traditionally and for a number of different reasons, foreign cinema is usually subtitled. This, in turn, usually leads to foreign films being considered as niche products that do not enjoy box-office success or even exposure to viewers outside the context of film festivals. The empirical study presented here derives from the assumption that audience enjoyment and appreciation of films and other products dubbed into English could be considerably facilitated by this specific form of audiovisual translation. Our ongoing research has gathered data from native English speakers in the USA and the UK by means of a purpose built online questionnaire. Respondents are being asked to view the two short films mentioned above and answer the relative questions concerning both specific aspects of the translation/adaptation into English and more general issues on dubbing as a form of audiovisual translation. Typical questions concern for instance the appreciation of specific examples of humour, the rendering of linguistic variation and of references to the Italian lingua-cultural context, in an attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies used (Antonini et al. 2003; Antonini and Chiaro, 2005; Bucaria 2006). Also, more general questions are concerned with the viewers attitude towards watching dubbed foreign films and with their acceptance levels of this form of audiovisual translation. The answers will be compared with those of a control group of Italian viewers who will have watched the two films in Italian. The collected data will be statistically analyzed and variables such as age, sex, level of education, and socioeconomic background will be taken into consideration. The results of the study will show the significance of Translation Studies from at least two points of view. On the one hand, the survey will contribute to shed light on the possibility to export contemporary Italian culture via film translation and adaptation and on the most efficient strategies to do so. From a more commercial, but nonetheless essential, perspective, a survey on the appreciation of dubbed products in countries where dubbing is not the preferred form of audiovisual translation will show the economic viability of the undertaking and possibly encourage commissioners to invest in an untapped market.

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References: Antonini, R., Bucaria, C. and Senzani, A. (2003). Its a Priests Thing, You Wouldnt Understand: Father Ted Goes to Italy Antares 6: 26-30. Antonini, R. and Chiaro, D. (2005). The Quality of Dubbed Television Programmes in Italy: the experimental design of an empirical study. Cross-Cultural Encounters: Linguistic Perspectives, M. Bondi and N. Maxwell (eds.). 33-44. Rome: Officina Edizioni. Bucaria, C. (2006). The Perception of Humour in Dubbing vs. Subtitling: The Case of Six Feet Under ESP Across Cultures 2: 36-48.

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Brian MOSSOP York University brmossop@yorku.ca

Use and Non-Use of Translations by Choral Singers and Concert-Goers


In the English-speaking world, the choral classics of Bach, Mozart etc. are almost always performed in Latin or German, rather than in English translation, by both professional and amateur choirs. Folk songs and works in other genres are also often sung in the original language. Translations are provided in several forms: the scores used by the singers may contain translations; conductors or choir members who know the language in question may provide translations orally during rehearsals; audiences may be handed program notes that contain translations. A broad range of issues arise here: - the relative importance attached by conductors, singers and audiences to the linguistic aspect of choral music (as opposed to instrumental sounds, voice quality, emotional tone); - the relative importance attached by these groups to the phonetic as opposed to the semantic aspect of the words; - the relative importance of the meaning of the text as a whole, individual sentences, and individual words; - assumptions about the linguistic knowledge of the audience for classical choral music (e.g. that they already know the meanings of a phrase like agnus dei qui tollis peccata mundi in the Latin mass; or that it doesnt matter to them what it means). - when (and whether) program notes are used by audiences: before the concert or during intermission? during performance? - how (and whether) singers refer to the translations printed in the scores during rehearsals and performances; - how translations are set out in scores (on a separate page? directly under the musical notation and source-language text?); - and how they are set out in program notes (with or without the source text? one above the other? side-by-side?) A questionnaire and interview study on these matters will be conducted with concertgoers, choral conductors and amateur choral singers. It is anticipated that it will take considerable time to organize the interviews, prepare and distribute the three questionnaires to choirs, receive replies and compile the findings. It may be possible to report only partial results at the Congress, along with presentation of the questionnaires. In keeping with the Congress theme, I will consider the question of whether concepts from Translation Studies could be useful in solving problems identified in the questionnaire and interviews. Obviously this depends on the findings, but being a longtime amateur choral singer myself, I can anticipate that one issue will be the different levels of language which singers and conductors may or may not attend to: text level (a young womans lover has gone off to war and died), sentence level (when will he return to me?), word level (death), and phonetic level (the vowel of German Tod versus the vowel of English death). Another possible issue is what might be called simultaneity: do the singers know the meaning of a word or phrase at the moment of singing it, as they do when singing in their own language? Translations in the score may not be helpful in this regard since the translation of a word may be positioned under a different note (death will not be right under Tod), or the translation may be a free one (He has gone from this world).
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Also, attempting to glance at the translation while singing could create cognitive overload, since there are so many other things to attend to while singing (pitch, dynamics, breathing, rhythm, pronunciation of the foreign-language word). In music, phonetics is very important because composers may attend to the sounds of individual words when setting them to music. As a result, the question arises whether singers have a sense of the phonetics of the language in which they are singing, given that the phonetics is not always apparent from the orthographya problem which may lead to literal pronunciations. In my experience conductors, who are trained in music rather than languages, tend to gloss over interlingual matters. Translation theory may be able to help, for example by recommending the use of multiple representations of a choral work: textual, sentential, word-level and phonetic transcription. This raises the practical question of how these representations could be positioned in the score so as to be useable during rehearsals and performance. On the other hand, the usefulness for singers of Translation Studies in its current state is hampered by the fact that while much attention has been paid to the cultural effects of translations on target societies, little attention has been paid to the immediate reception process of the users of translations. There is a considerable difference, for audiences, between viewing surtitles at the opera (which match what is happening on stage) and trying to use translations in printed program notes or CD inserts: How do you match up the noises coming from the stage or from your stereo set with the relevant bit of translation? Also, little thought has been given to the question of where people are and what they are doing when reading translations: walking down the street, standing near a machine doing repairs, or in our case, listening to a choral concert or standing on a stage singing.

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Birthe MOUSTEN Aarhus School of Business bmo@asb.dk

CCVT Editing and Revision of Texts


Cross-cultural virtual teams (CCVTs) are now everyday realities of the workplace. Some companies have given up their organizational division based on geography and work instead in organizational teams across borders. The resulting change in workflow patterns worldwide creates new challenges for the language work across borders when a work team is suddenly positioned, maybe not only on a trans-border basis, but also on a transcontinental basis. A solution to some of the cooperation challenges may to some extent be an increased awareness of mediation as a tool. As a spin-off of earlier projects between the University of Wisconsin-Stout (US) and the Aarhus School of Business (Denmark), this pilot project concentrated on editing and revision of texts. Editing in this context is seen as the adaptation of a source text for the purpose of translation, whereas revision is seen as the adaptation of the translated target text to be used in the target country. The CCVT members were students of technical writing in the US and translators of language for specific purposes in Denmark. The actual project covered texts from Danish T&I magazines on Danish conditions that had to be translated and adapted to magazine articles for a certain industry in the US. As such, the set-up of the CCVT very closely copies the CCVT constellations in many workplaces: cooperation across professions, borders and time zones in that people with a technical background in one country cooperate with people with a linguistic background in another country. In contrast to previous projects, this project did not focus on the crosscultural difficulties of the work process as such, but on the professional difficulties in relation to the actual editing and revision processes. Like many workplace CCVTs, the actual work was to a high extent made in the two countries, even though the process was collective. The work process was divided as follows between the CCVT members: a text was taken from a Danish trade and industry magazine, so the text had been written by an experienced technical writer. In the actual CCVT process, the editing process and translation of the source text was made by the translator with the purpose of adapting the text to the new target audience. The US CCVT members, who were studying technical writing, revised the text for publication in a US trade and industry magazine. Thus, the results of the actual changes in the editing phase were supplemented with the results that emerged in the translation phase, and eventually in the revision process. The combination of the translation phase and the revision phase highlighted interesting differences between the text versions and unveiled new and unforeseen problems in CCVT text processing. On the whole, the project created new insights in some of the cross-cultural differences that were hard to nail down, but that were seen by the students and commented on. Some of these insights call for new approaches to editing and revision as work methods.

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Sources: Mossop, Brian (2001) Revising and Editing for Translators, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing Anawati, Danielle and Craig, Annemieke: Behavioural Adaptation Within Cross-Cultural Virtual Teams, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 49. No. 1, March 2006. Paretti, Marie C.: Audience Awareness: Leveraging Problem-Based Learning to Teach Workplace Communication Practices, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 49. No. 2, June 2006.

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Francis MUS Romance Languages, KU Leuven francis.mus@arts.kuleuven.be

An Immaculate View The Function of Translation Studies in the Process of Writing Literary Historiographies
Although the discipline has gained a high degree of autonomy, the question remains of why Translation Studies matter. The ambiguous place that TS occupies within the field of literary studies is due to the fact that the study of translations seems to give a rather narrow image of the literary fact in a given situation, thus putting the discipline at risk by its relative autonomy. Despite - but also because of - this very specific position that TS holds, the discipline constitutes not only a supplementary but also a necessary way of looking at literature: it allows an immaculate view on a given literature, its identity, its (literary) relations. This specific perspective constitutes both its strength and its weakness. I will highlight these two features on both a theoretical and pragmatic level (case study) (a) On the one hand, Translation Studies allows an indirect (translations as a symptom of the socio-literary situation, see below) but accurate insight into the dynamics (and, consequently, the process of shaping an identity) of the literary field in a given situation. Especially in multilingual cultures (and which cultures are not multilingual nowadays?), the study of translations is the way par excellence to map the (literary) relations of a certain literature. In my paper, I will focus on the Belgian literary field in the interwar period. As a geopolitical, multilingual and multicultural construct, Belgium serves as an ideal laboratory for the study of the ways in which literature and translation influence each other, shape cultural traditions and how Belgian literature defines itself. By analyzing translations in Francophone newspapers and magazines of this period I will be able to chart several relationships that reveal the dynamics of the literary field. By way of questions such as Which are the privileged source literatures?; What do they reveal about European successful authors to be translated? etc., the intended cartography will enable me to formulate research hypotheses about the structure and evolution of intraand international literary relations in Francophone Belgian literature. These hypotheses need to be confronted with the accepted assumptions in existing literary historiographies so as to confirm or contradict them. Involving the study of translations in literary historiography adds another way of analyzing literature. This combination of perspectives allows TS to fulfil the role of extra argument (pro or against) the accepted hypotheses in literary historiography so that TS can even bring to light new elements (literary relations, important foreign sources, etc). (b) On the other hand, if TS wants to present itself as an accurate method for studying literature in a given period, implementation of a more comprehensive theory is required. Indeed, TS can give a reliable falsification/corroboration hypothesis of the literature (and its dynamics, relations, identity), but in order to turn the hypothesis into thesis, Translation Studies needs to be integrated into existing, more embracing theories such as field theory (Bourdieu), polysystem theory (Even-Zohar) and discourse study (Angenot, Maingueneau). My research on the Belgian interwar situation combines these angles (with emphasis on TS). It will show on a theoretical plane the position and the importance of TS within these theories and on a concrete plane the role of transfer of cultural elements between national or linguistic spaces (Aron) that translations play so as to offer an insight into literary dynamics in the Belgian interwar period.

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Sandra NAUERT, Heidrun GERZYMISCH-ARBOGAST Saarland University s.nauert@mx.uni-saarland.de h.gerzymisch@mx.uni-saarland.de

Website Localization and Translation


Translation is becoming increasingly important in our globalized world as a means of securing communication across languages and cultures. Technological advances and internationalization have contributed to the development of new fast, often short-lived and multilingual forms of internet communication One of these new forms of international communication is website localization, which has been defined as adapting a product to a particular locale (LISA 2003, Esselink 2001). Within the localization process, translation is regarded as only part of the process of , modifying a website for a specific locale (Yunker 2002:17) along with project management, image adaptation or setting up a language gateway. and involving the cultural adaptation of texts and other documents like multimedia, graphics and other programs. Translating websites has been little discussed in the translation studies literature although it has been recognized as involving problems and decisions on a number of different translation levels (e.g. cultural adaptation, information sequencing of hypertext segments and language use). While considerable literature has been published on the topic from a computer linguistic perspective (e.g. Somers 2003), little has been written about the translation dimension. In particular, methodological proposals concerning the interdependence of the categories language material, non-linear text and cultural systems has been given little attention. The article argues that translation and localization are overlapping concepts with translation referring to a wide spectrum of text types and localization implying an internationalized product. These shared features include a.o. the element of transfer or adaptation of culture in the widest sense. The paper suggests a coherent strategy for translating websites on several dimensions, the integration of which will show the interdependence of text and systems level, making the website process more systematic and transparent, less time-consuming and thus more economical. Proceeding from different text perspectives, three interrelated levels are identified on which translation decisions are made, i.e. (1) the holistic level, on which decisions involving the entire website are made, e.g. cultural adaptations, (2) the hol-atomistic level, on which decisions involving the coherence and information sequencing decisions are made, e.g. adapting navigation paths in hypertext segments and (3) the atomistic level, on which decisions involving individual linguistic units, e.g. Netspeak idiosyncracies are made. The translation methods (Aspectra, Relatra, Holontra) reflect these text perspectives and allow for an integrated methodological sequence of translating, which is adapted for localization purposes. All three levels are interrelated and need to be considered in their interrelationship when translating websites. This is shown with a sample website localization which will illustrate the suggested methodology.

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References: Esselink, Bert (2000): A Practical Guide to Localization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Gerzymisch-Arbogast, Heidrun/Mudersbach, Klaus (1998): Methoden des wissenschaftlichen bersetzens. Tbingen: Francke. UTB Nauert, Sandra (forthcoming): Lokalisierung von Websites als Prozess. Im Fokus: Alfa Romeo. To be presented at the MuTra Conference in Vienna 2007. Sandrini, Peter (forthcoming): Localisation. In: Gerzymisch-Arbogast et al. (eds.): Key Issues in LSP Translation. Amsterdam - Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Somers, Harold (ed.) (2003). Computers and Translation: A Translator's guide. Amsterdam - Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Yunker, John (2002): Beyond Borders. Web Globalization Strategies. Indiananpolis: New Riders Publishing.

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Stella NEUMANN, Silvia HANSEN-SCHIRRA, Kerstin KUNZ, Erich STEINER, Mihaela VELA Saarland University st.neumann@mx.uni-saarland.de, hansen@coli.uni-sb.de, k.kunz@mx.uni-saarland.de, e.steiner@mx.uni-saarland.de, m.vela@mx.uni-saarland.de

New Insights from the Study of Translations


This paper presents a corpus-based study of specific properties of English and German translations compared to similar texts in the target language as well as their respective source texts. The past decade has seen a number of studies investigating translation properties sometimes even called universals on the basis of raw corpora. While building on this work the present study goes beyond it in annotating the texts with a broad range of linguistic information and aligning the texts on several levels. We use a one million word corpus of English-German and German-English translations, the CroCo Corpus. This corpus consists of originals and translations in both directions from eight different registers all relevant for translation. The linguistic annotation covers part-ofspeech tagging, a morphological decomposition and the analysis of phrase structure and syntactic functions. The alignment is based on the following units: sentences, clauses and words. In order to cover a linguistic basis of comparison for both languages, we also include register neutral reference corpora in both languages. This design permits explanations not only for the comparison between translations and target language originals but also between translations and their source texts, for register-specific peculiarities and finally in view of the influence of contrastive differences. In this paper we will show how we can retrieve complex and meaningful information from our corpus and interpret it with respect to properties like explicitation, normalization, shining-through etc. We will also discuss how empirical-quantitative and hermeneuticqualitative methods go hand in hand in our research. Combining raw text with multidimensional annotation and alignment, we try to bridge the gap between abstract concepts like explicitation and the data itself. We claim that it is particularly insightful to investigate published translations with all their possible flaws because it is these texts that are produced by translators in real life and because they are consumed by the target language audience. They allow inferences on what goes on in the translation process by diagnosing the divergences from their source and comparable target texts and thus complement process-oriented research. Furthermore, the translations have an impact on the target language audience and represent one factor in language contact. This study yields a wealth of insights: It contributes to understanding the pitfalls of translation and can thus help adapt translator training specifically to existing problems. Through our annotation and alignment architecture, we obtain a fresh perspective on the definition of the translation unit. Beyond translation studies, our investigation contributes findings to the study of language contact showing how differences in translations have an impact on the target language. Furthermore, our corpus has already proven a valuable resource for computational linguistics where information on translation strategies is desperately needed. From a more practical perspective, it can also be an efficient resource for professional translators during the translation process. The rich annotation and alignment may prove time saving for the search of translational equivalents.

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Christiane NORD University of Applied Sciences, Magdeburg/Germany cn@christiane-nord.de

"You Can Say You to Me..." Organizing Relationships in Literary Translation


According to Roman Jakobson (1960), the phatic function is responsible for opening and closing the communicative channel and keeping it open throughout the communication process. Since the phatic function works mainly on the basis of conventional or even formulaic (verbal and non-verbal) behaviour, quite a number of scholars take the view that it is completely void of content and therefore not really worth studying. In my paper, I would like to show that the opposite is true: the phatic function prepares the ground for any successful referential, expressive or appellative communication, because it defines and shapes the social relationship holding between the communicating parties right from the start. We could therefore speak of a "channel-organizing" function, which includes such important features of text and discourse as topic-comment progression, focussing, connectives, metacommuni-cation, and the like. The paper will focus on the sender-receiver relationship. This aspect is indicated in the text or discourse by "relation markers", such as direct forms of address (or strategies to avoid them), turn-taking signals, register selection, transition rituals, discourse markers, and many others. Most of these markers do not depend on language structures, but they are highly culture-specific, as a comparison between behaviours in various parts of larger and diversified language areas (e.g., Germany vs Austria vs Switzerland, Spain vs any Latin American country) may show. Nevertheless, and as far as I know, they have not been dealt with in geat depth in the field of intercultural communication in the broadest sense. In foreign-language teaching, for example, the first few lessons very often create (or support) the illusion that a substitution of linguistic forms will suffice to produce adequate dialogues in the foreign language. In fictional texts, relation indicators may be a subtle device to describe the characters and the relationship between them in an indirect way. In literary translation, they may be considered, among other things, as touchstones for the identification of foreignizing or domesticating strategies. After briefly defining and classifying the phatic function and its various sub-functions, the paper seeks to explore the methods and strategies used in literary translations to represent the channelorganizing behaviour of fictitious characters, drawing on a corpus of English, German and Spanish lliterary texts and their translations. Particular attention will be devoted to relation markers. Jakobson, Roman (1960): "Linguistics and Poetics", Closing Statement in Style in Language, ed. by T. A. Sebeok, Cambridge/Mass., 350-377.

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Carol OSULLIVAN School of Languages and Area Studies, University of Portsmouth carol.osullivan@port.ac.uk

Language Difference and Translation on Screen Interdisciplinary Possibilities


To date, the interpenetration of the disciplines of Translation Studies and Film Studies has been limited. With the rise of Audiovisual Translation Studies, new vistas and possibilities for interdisciplinary research seem likely to emerge. One possible site of common interest might be the phenomenon of language difference on screen, which has as yet remained almost entirely untheorised. Decades-old observations by Shochat and Stam that the reality of language difference [] entails consequences for the cinema that have yet to be explored (1985: 35) and by Laura Martin that we do not even have a typology of the devices used for representing foreign language within the context of English-language film, much less an analysis of their functions (1984: 57) still stand. In order to give ourselves a framework with which to talk about language difference in film, this paper proposes an adaptation of the categories used by Meir Sternberg in his seminal 1981 article Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis. Though the typology presented in this article was developed in relation to literature, the seed was already sown for the extension of the ideas to encompass the treatment of language on film, in which the reality of polylingual discourse [is represented] through a communicative medium which is normally unilingual (Sternberg 222). It will be argued that Sternbergs principal categories, referential restriction, vehicular matching and homogenizing convention, are as appropriate to film as to print literature. Where Sternbergs model requires modification to make it applicable to film is at the level of mimetic compromise, defined by Sternberg as the combination of the above strategies used by any given text. The polysemiotic nature of film will require any typology of language difference to account for dubbing and subtitling, while also considering devices such as partial subtitling, the deliberate omission of subtitles and the so-called Babel Fish close-up. What is the usefulness of this modified typology for the disciplines of Translation Studies and Film Studies? I would argue that its significance lies in providing a basis for the inter- and transdisciplinary analysis of diegetic translation and related phenomena on screen. The typology is an essential building block in a more systematic and wide-ranging discussion of the extent to which film constitutes a meaningful site for intercultural representation and debate.

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Michael OPGENHAFFEN Lessius University College Antwerp michael.opgenhaffen@lessius.eu

Translating for Online News Media A "Mix of Attributes" Approach


During the last ten years, the Internet has become one of the most popular news sources. This new technology with his specific features causes new types of communication and, as a consequence, new types of journalistic writing, translation and adaptation. One of the main questions in recent translation studies is to which extent the collaboration between translation studies and communication studies is needed and could shed light on the complex process of translation within this new context of online news media. The mix of attributes approach, a concept in communication studies, can be applied to reformulate the process of writing and translating for journalistic productions on the Internet. In this presentation, we suggest that the Internet as new technology results in new challenges and opportunities for translators and journalists. Recent studies have indicated that in 2006 almost 70 % of the people in the United States and Canada went online on the Internet. During the last 6 years, the worldwide Internet penetration has been doubled from 8 % to 16.7 % in 2006. Searching for information and news has always been one of the top activities online. The Internet offers the news consumer a wide range of news messages through different online media platforms. Not only traditional newssites, but also news blogs, wiki-newssites, RSS-newsfeeds, newsgroups, newsalerts and many other new types of online newsmedia are covering the worlds news issues. Needless to say that these popular news media have been influencing and transforming the work of translators, journalists, copywriters, webmasters and other people involved in the journalistic process of translating and writing for the online news media. Because of the characteristic features (multimediality, interactivity, hypertextuality and immediacy) of the Internet and the different types of online news, one could argue that rewriting and translating for the online news media is more complex than doing so for traditional news media. Scholars in journalism studies suggest that the different types of news media online must result in new types of journalism and that journalists must adapt their storytelling to this new digital reality. In this article, we suggest that the same is true for translation. We propose a multidisciplinary focus when studying the process of translating, rewriting and adapting media texts into the online counterparts. More specific, we use the mix of attributes approach and other theories and concepts of communication studies to point out the growing importance of understanding the main characteristics of online news media while translating news messages. The mix of attributes approach, originally postulated as an appeal to broaden the study of media effects to more than the study of the media content, stresses to specify the formal and technological features of the medium while doing research. Apart from the media content, other and maybe more important dimension are in play when studying the media, for example the (non-)linearity of the media text, the interactivity and multimediality. We suggest to apply this mix of attributes approach in translation studies in order to take the specific characteristics of the online media types into account and to get better insight in the translation process of online news media.

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Viktorija OSOLNIK KUNC Filozofska fakulteta viktorija.osolnik-kunc@guest.arnes.si

Qualittssicherung in der juristischen Translation Dargestellt am Beispiel eines Kommunikationsmodells fr slowenisch-deutsche Gerichtsdolmetscher und bersetzer von Rechtstexten in Slowenien
(Quality Assessment in Legal Translation. A Communication Model for Translators and Interpreters from Slovene into German at Courts and Public Authorities in Slovenia) Eine der schwierigsten Formen der Translation ist die von Rechtstexten. Nicht nur die Idiomatisierung und der Abstraktionsgrad der Rechtssprache stellen eine Herausforderung fr bersetzer und Dolmetscher, sondern auch und vor allem das (Fach-)Wissen ber die Rechtskultur, d.h. die nationale Rechtsordnung des jeweiligen Landes in oder aus dessen Sprache bersetzt wird. Die Anfertigung eines Translats mit juristischem Inhalt, in dem der Textinhalt vom Produzenten zum Rezipienten transponiert wird, ist besonders fr allgemein bestellte und ffentlich beeidete Gerichtsdolmetscher und bersetzer von Rechtstexten eine uerst anspruchsvolle Aufgabe, zumal sie durch die Beglaubigung des Translats die Richtigkeit und Vollstndigkeit der angefertigten Translation besiegeln und in Slowenien die strafrechtliche Haftung dafr bernehmen. Gerichtsdolmetscher und bersetzer von Rechtstexten geraten hiermit bei der Frage der richtigen Fachbersetzung in den Zwiespalt zwischen dem Wissen im Fach und der sprachlichen Korrektheit. Was von Juristen zum Thema der Rechtssprache hufig vereinfacht als Fhigkeit des juristischen Denkens beschrieben wird, bedeutet fr Translatoren erst einmal eine Bewusstmachung der fr die Translation relevanten Wissensaspekte. (Vgl. hierzu: Gerzymisch-Arbogast 1999, Wiesmann 2004 und Baumann/Kalverkmper 2004) Der Beitrag ist als wichtige Aufwertung des Status von Gerichtsdolmetschern und bersetzern von Rechtstexten in Slowenien zu verstehen und soll einen Beitrag zur Qualittssicherung in der juristischen Translation leisten. Anhand von empirischen Erhebungen unter slowenischen Gerichtsdolmetschern und bersetzern von Rechtstexten wird festgestellt, wie gro der Anteil jener ohne juristische Ausbildung im Vergleich zu Volljuristen ist und auf Besonderheiten zwischen Linguisten mit juristischem Fachwissen im Vergleich zu Juristen mit fachlichen Sprachkenntnissen hingewiesen. In einem von mir entworfenen Kommunikationsmodell wird fr Linguisten bzw. nicht juristisch ausgebildete Translatoren ein Modell des juristischen Denkens prsentiert. Es versucht Elemente wie Erkennen, Verstehen, Denken, Differenzieren und Generalisieren, System und Kultur juristischer Inhalte, sowie den einer Nation eigenen Denkstil zu bercksichtigen und sie in ein Relationsverhltnis zueinander zu bringen. Die bisher vorwiegend auf fachvermittelnde Informationen konzentrierte und sich hufig nur auf Fragen der Terminologie in der Fremdsprache beschrnkende sprachliche Vorbereitung von zuknftigen Gerichtsdolmetschern und bersetzern von Rechtstexten durch das slowenische Justizministerium, soll durch das vorliegende Modell erweitert werden.

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Martina OZBOT University of Ljubljana martina.ozbot@guest.arnes.si

Odes to Liberty Political Subversiveness in Translations of Literary Classics (Two Examples from Italian Literature in Slovene Translations)
The aim of the paper is to discuss issues concerning the role translated literary texts can have in promoting a subversive political agenda and thus in contributing to radically changing a given political situation by supporting the target readership in their claims for (greater) national autonomy. Translation as a means of developing national consciousness and of encouraging political action will be explored by analysing textual and extratextual characteristics of the Slovene translations of two classical works of Italian literature: Edmondo De Amicis' Il cuore (Heart; 1886) and Niccol Machiavelli's Il principe (The Prince; 1513). De Amicis' book, which has the form of a schoolboy's diary, was written for Italian schoolchildren, and while it has strong educational ambitions, it is also overtly patriotic (i.e. pro-Italian and anti-Austrian) and therefore partly political in its scope. Machiavelli's book, on the other hand, is a treatise about political leadership based on the author's observation of the political situation in Italy in his own and earlier periods, and can be read today variously as a historical, philosophical and/or literary work. Each of the two classics has been translated into Slovene a number of times in different periods (Il cuore in 1891, 1929 and in 1952, with several reprints up to 1993; Il principe in 1920, 1966 and in 1990), in different social and political contexts (in the AustroHungarian Empire, in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia) and by different translators. All the translations examined are domesticating and the majority of them and in particular the first two versions of Il cuore and the first version of Il principe display a heavy political bias through the translators' adapting the source texts to the particular political, social and historical circumstances of the target situations in order to make the translations serve well-defined domestic agendas. Notwithstanding the rather different strategies employed by the translators to achieve their goals, all the target texts exhibit at least some degree of political commitment, which is at its highest in the first translation of Il cuore, published at a time when (relative) political independence of Slovenes was no more than an aspiration, whereas in the most recent translation of Il principe, the goal of which seems to be of a genuinely literary kind, a political agenda is nearly absent. The study of the two Italian classics in Slovene versions demonstrates that translation is not only a means through which target language, literature and culture generally can be enriched by new, imported ideas and concepts, but is equally significant as an instrument which can serve domestic political ends. By virtue of preserving an appearance of foreignness, translations often allow more scope for social and political subversion than original writings, which do not have the protection enjoyed by those texts that have been merely rewritten in a language different from the source one. In addition to exploring the impact translated literary texts can have upon various extraliterary matters, the paper also hopes to show that the interdisciplinary study of translation has the potential to shed important light on various aspects of historical, social and political contexts in which translated texts are embedded.

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Adriana PAGANO, Igor Antonio DA SILVA Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais pagano@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br, ials@gmail.com

Expert Knowledge in Translation Insights from Self-Translation in Disciplinary Writing


This paper reports on an ongoing project Expert@ Expert knowledge in translation: modeling peak-performance, developed at LETRA - Laboratory for Experimentation in Translation at Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil, aimed at mapping the development of expert knowledge in translation through empirical studies of subjects along the cline ranging from novices to experts. More specifically, it discusses the results of an experiment designed to explore expert academic writers translation processes in order to verify the impact of domain knowledge and generic knowledge (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1991; Bhatia, 2004) on task completion and durability (Alves, 2005). The experiment targeted four researchers at a leading research center in Brazil, who translate their own papers into English, out of a Portuguese original, their main motivation being their unwillingness to rely on professional translators services as they deem the latter do not cater to their specific needs of text production. The experiment investigated their translation process during their performance of two translation tasks of research article introductions from Portuguese (L1) into English (L2). Two experts on sickle cell anemia (S1 and S3) and two experts on Chagas disease (S2 and S4) were asked to complete two translation tasks. One of the tasks was designed to gather data on the subjects problem solving while translating a text related to their area of expertise, and the other task involved a translation of a text related to a topic outside their area of expertise (either sickle cell anemia for S2 and S4 or Chagas' disease for S1 and S3). In both tasks, text genre was held constant, as both involved translations of research article introductions, a genre regularly used by the subjects in their disciplinary writing. The main objective was to see the impact of domain knowledge on the subjects problem solving strategies and completion of the task and check correlations between domain knowledge and generic knowledge for this particular profile of subjects. Data was collected through the use of the softwares Translog and Camtasia to record all keyboard and mouse movements and online search procedures during text production, together with recall protocols produced by the subjects immediately after they had finished their translations as they watched their own translation process on the computer screen through the replay function of Translog. The protocols were supplemented by observational notes and interviews. Data triangulation was performed in order to characterize the subjects profile, considering time spent during orientation, drafting and revision, patterns of pauses and text segmentation, instances of meta-reflection and metalanguage as evidenced in recall protocols and interviews and the target texts produced at the end of the tasks. Interviews and protocols were also tagged in order to map statements that could clearly be linked to problems related to domain knowledge and problems related to generic knowledge, including mastering genre conventions in L2. Results point to a direct relationship between the subjects performance within their own area of expertise (maximum degree of domain knowledge) and their investment in problem solving and task completion, particularly seen through a considerably higher number of instances of metareflection and metalanguage in the task involving translation of a text belonging to their own area of expertise. As expected, generic knowledge remained stable in the two tasks performed, thus signaling the subjects mastering of generic conventions across different expertise areas. Data triangulation allowed for the

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identification of different profiles within the group of subjects, the durability of their tasks being a positive measure of their degree of expertise. High durability was found in the performance of two of the subjects within their own area of expertise, there being a positive correlation between time spent on the task, degree of investment in problem solving, number of instances of meta-reflection and metalanguage and text production complying with perceived generic constraints.

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Natasa PAVLOVIC Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb, Croatia natasa.pavlovic@zg.t-com.hr

Spot the Difference Translation Processes into L1 and into L2 Compared


Translation into the second language (L2 translation) is a reality in many settings around the world, especially - but not exclusively - in those cultures that use a "language of limited diffusion". Even translators whose mother tongue is one of the "major" languages are more and more frequently required to work out of their L1 into English, the dominant language of the globalized world. This makes L2 translation an increasingly important issue for the practitioner, and research on L2 translation a hot topic for Translation Studies. In the past, prescriptive approaches to translation denounced the practice of L2 translation as unprofessional or even impossible. As a result, L2 translation was until recently largely neglected both in translation theories and in research. Over the past ten to fifteen years, however, the number of studies dealing with L2 translation has been on the increase, with translation into the non-mother tongue even becoming the main topic of forums and conferences, and their subsequent publications (e.g. Kelly et al. 2003; Grosman et al 2000). This paper will report on the findings of one such study, the authors PhD project. The main assumption of the study was that translation processes in the two directions are different. The author set out to discover in what respect and to what extent this was so. The study was set up as a set of experiments involving novice translators university students who had just passed their final translation exam translating two comparable general-language texts, one from English into Croatian and the other from Croatian into English. All the subjects had Croatian as their L1, and at the time of the experiments they had been learning English as their L2 for at least 12 years. The method of data collection used in the experiments was the collaborative translation protocol, a type of verbal report obtained from collaborative (joint) translation sessions. Collaborative translation (cf. Kiraly 2000), albeit not typical of professional translation practice, is nevertheless used in educational settings, and has been part of the subjects translation training. The translation sessions were audio- and video-recorded, and later transcribed. Pre- and postexperiment questionnaires complemented the data from the translation sessions. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in analyzing the data. The analysis focused on the number and type of problems the translators encountered, the tentative solutions they considered, the final solutions they chose, the arguments used in the decision-making process, the translators use of internal and external resources, as well as on the number errors and their likely causes. Preliminary findings suggest that translation processes in the two directions are similar in some respects, but also point to a number of differences. They go beyond, and to some extent even challenge, the popular belief that L1 translation focuses mainly on the comprehension of the source text, while L2 translation centers around the formulation of the target text, suggesting this may not necessarily be true in all translation tasks. It is expected that the findings of this study will help formulate new hypotheses about L2 translation to be tested in further research. It is also hoped that some of the findings can be profitably used in the training of future L2 translators.

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Jan PEDERSEN Stockholm University jan.pedersen@english.su.se

Using Descriptive Translation Studies as the Link between Practice, Theory and Training
Using Descriptive Translation Studies as the link between practice, theory and training When research is carried out within the Descriptive Translation Studies paradigm, the link between theory and practise on the one hand and between theory and training on the other is of paramount importance. The norms that studies in this paradigm seek to uncover are not prescriptive norms based on introversion by an authority or idealised notions about what translation should be about (cf. Chesterman 1997: 56). Instead, the descriptive norms of the DTS paradigm should be based on hard and solid empirical evidence. This means that the input of DTS theories is actual translation practise itself. The researcher uncovers regularities in translated texts, makes generalizations from them, collaborates these with statements made by practitioners, and on the basis of this, descriptive norms are formulated. These, in turn, can be used for translator training (cf. e.g. Kovai 1996 or Leppihalme 2000). The translators will then be taught norms that are valid in an actual workplace; norms which have evolved through the interplay between translators, commissioners, and readers. One example of such a study within the DTS paradigm is called Scandinavian Subtitles. This is a comparative study of the subtitling norms found in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The project is based on a corpus of one hundred Anglophone films and TV programmes and their Swedish, Danish and (to a certain extent) Norwegian subtitles. The material was recorded on Scandinavian TV channels over one year and has been chosen to represent multiple genres and programme types from documentaries to reality shows, with a main emphasis on fiction. These texts have been supplemented by metatexts, such as books and articles written by subtitlers describing their trade (e.g. Wildblood 2002; Pollard 2002), proceedings from seminars with subtitlers (e.g. Mathiasson 1984; Nordisk sprksekretariat 1989), interviews with subtitlers and policy-makers within the field of subtitling and not least with experience of the subtitling situation. In this way a sound empirical base of actual subtitling behaviour is ensured. From this material Extralinguistic Cultural References (ECRs, cf. Pedersen: forthcoming) have been extracted. These pose a form of translation problem, to which a number of solutions can be found in the subtitles. For instance, if someone in the ST makes a reference to The Three Stooges, and these are not known in the Target Culture, the subtitler may use some interventional strategy like Specification to help the viewers access this ECR. After extracting coupled pairs (cf. Toury 1995: 81) of ECR problem + solution in the many versions, patterns have been recognized, which has lead to the formulation of a number of general translation solutions. These have been arranged into a taxonomy which in turn can be compared to previous taxonomies and models (e.g. Newmark 1988; Florin 1993) and complement these or even replace them, if it turns out that contemporary practice has made them dated. Through a combination of empirical data and translation theory, a definite set of norms on how these translation problems are solved crystallizes. A conclusion can be formulated: if you have an ECR of the x kind, then it can be shown that it is usually solved in manner y, under circumstances z. The norms that have thus been formulated can then be taught to prospective subtitlers who can benefit from a norm based on the experience and practice of their forerunners, without having to amass their experience.

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In this way, the theorist repays the subtitling community for helping him to formulate the norms in the first place. In this way, translation theory provides a service to translation practice. It helps practitioners formulate the norms that they themselves use, and helps them to pass them on to the next generation of practitioners, keeping abreast with the development within the field. I think this is as it should be. If theory is not based on practice, it runs the risk of alienating the very people it is supposed to help. To me, a connection between practice, theory and training is not only something to be desired, it is a necessity.

References Chesterman, Andrew, 1997. Memes of Translation. The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. Florin, Sider. 1993. Realia in Translation in Zlateva, Palma (ed.) 1993. Translation as Social Action: Russian and Bulgarian Perspectives. London & New York: Routledge. Pp. 122 - 128. Kovai, Irena. 1996. Reinforcing or changing norms in subtitling. In Dollerup, Cay & Appel, Vibeke (Eds.) Teaching Translation and Interpreting 3: New Horizons. Papers from the third Language International conference, Elsinore, Denmark 9-11 June 1995. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Pp. 105 - 110. Leppihalme, Ritva. 2000b. Caution: Cultural Bumps. On Cultural Literacy as a Goal in Translator Training. In Englund Dimitrova (ed.) 2000. versttning och Tolkning: Rapport frn ASLA:s hstsymposium, Stockholm, 5-6 november 1998. Uppsala: Universitetstryckeriet. Mathiasson, Hans ke (ed.) 1984. Rapport frn Nordiskt versttarseminarium anordnat i Stockholm 3 4 maj 1984. [Report from the Nordic translators seminar in Stockholm May 3 4 1984]. Newmark, Peter. 1988. Approaches to Translation. New York: Prentice Hall. Nordisk sprksekretariat. 1989. Nordisk TV-teksting: Rapport fra en konferense p Schffergrden ved Kbenhavn 25.-27.november 1988. [Nordic TV subtitling: report from a conference at Schffergrden in Copenhagen Nov. 25 - 27 1988] Oslo: Nordisk Sprksekretariats rapporter. Pedersen, Jan. 2003. A corpus-linguistic investigation into quantitative and qualitative Reduction in Subtitles. rebro University, unpublished background study. Pedersen, Jan. (forthcoming) "How is culture rendered in subtitles?" in Multidimensional Translation: Challenges. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Pollard, Chris. 2002. The Art and Science of Subtitling: A Close Look at How It's Done In Language International, 2002, 14, 2, Apr, 24 - 27. Toury, Gideon. 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies And Beyond. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Wildblood, Alan. 2002. A Subtitle Is Not a Translation: A Day in the Life of a Subtitler In Language International, 2002, 14, 2, Apr, 40 - 43.

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Bohdan PIASECKI University of Warwick, Centre for Translation and Comparative Cultural Studies b.a.piasecki@warwick.ac.uk

Translating Literatures An Attempt to Establish a Methodology for the Analysis of Anthologies of Translated Poetry
Over the years, the discipline of translation studies has become truly multifaceted. Numerous theories formulated by scholars in the field focus not only on the act of translation itself, but also endeavour to address a multitude of related issues, thus operating, at times, within the realms commonly associated with cultural, literary, political, editorial, and reception studies. My paper strives to assess the efficacy of a number of theoretical frameworks in the analysis of the intricate cultural and literary artefacts that are anthologies of translated poetry, and to evaluate their usefulness in the analysis of the said anthologies changing role within the evolving structure of international relations. The aspects one has to examine in order to fully understand the significance and impact of anthologies of translated poetry are manifold. It seems mandatory to investigate the mechanisms of the text selection process by identifying the agendas of publishers, editors, and translators, taking into account extra-textual factors such as national and cultural politics and power relations between countries, literatures, and languages. An in-depth analysis of these factors will make it possible to discover, by performing a thorough study of the translated text itself, how they affect the translators conscious and unconscious choices, and how they are reflected in the target language text. Finally, a comparative study of the reception reserved for the poems in the source and target culture is necessary to ascertain whether goals were achieved, and what the translations real influence has been. In my paper, I try to verify which of the major theories in translation studies provide scholars with the tools necessary to conduct a fruitful scrutiny of an anthology of translated poetry, and strive to construct a set of concepts and theoretical instruments that will amount to a working methodology. Itamar Even-Zohars polysystem theory, Lawrence Venutis writings on the translators invisibility and the contrasting concepts of foreignisation and domestication, Andr Lefeveres notions of patronage and rewriting, and Susan Bassnetts insights on the increasingly fluid boundaries between translations and originals would all certainly come to play an important role in the establishment of a methodology suitable for my research, among other theoretical notions. My examples are drawn from books of contemporary Polish poetry translated into English in the past 30 years; the relationship between these two literatures has been a particularly complex one and has changed greatly in that period, influenced by the dramatic social and political changes in Poland. The source materials include seminal selections of pre-1989 works such as Postwar Polish Poetry by Czesaw Miosz or Spoiling Cannibals Fun: Polish poetry of the last two decades of the last two decades of communist rule, by Stanisaw Baraczak and Clare Cavanagh, as well as more recent collections: The Burning Forest: Modern Polish Poetry, by Adam Czerniawski, Carnivorous Boy, Carnivorous Bird: Poetry from Poland, by Marcin Baran, and Altered State: the New Polish Poetry, by Rod Mengham, Tadeusz Piro, and Piotr Szymor, among others. The paper is an attempt to show that translation studies, far from being merely a set of infringements on the territory of other disciplines, can provide unique and functional frameworks for the analysis of complex, culture-forming literary phenomena, and provide valuable insights into the multiple aspects of cultural exchange through procedures ranging from the close-reading of translated poetry to drawing conclusions from publishing strategies and critical receptions of translated texts.
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Agnes PISANSKI PETERLIN Department of Translation, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana agnes.pisanski@guest.arnes.si

The Translation of Text-Organising Metadiscourse Translating Slovene Research Articles into English
Rhetorical conventions among cultural communities vary and an awareness of these differences is necessary for successful intercultural communication. A lack of such awareness may result in problems in discourse production or reception, and subsequently also in translation. While intercultural contrastive rhetorical studies of rhetorical conventions in comparable texts provide valuable information about intercultural rhetorical differences, alerting us to potential translation problems, it is only through research of originals and translations within the framework of translation studies that translation strategies used in such cases can be identified, analysed and evaluated. This paper attempts to examine an example of intercultural variation in rhetorical conventions, focusing on the use of text-organising metadiscourse. Text-organising metadiscourse is a pragmatic phenomenon and does not constitute a formal linguistic category. A comparison of text-organising metadiscourse in originals and translations is a rather complex issue as it involves two problems: the problem of rhetorical conventions in translation and the problem of pragmatic phenomena in translation. The main aim of this paper is to propose a model for the analysis of translation strategies used in translating text-organising metadiscourse, also applicable to the analysis of other pragmatic phenomena. The model describes the translation of metadiscourse units on two levels. On the first level, it reflects whether the specific metadiscourse item is translated or omitted, or whether an item of metadiscourse has been inserted in translation. On the second level, it describes the microlocation of each individual metadiscourse item within the sentence in both, the original and translation, as well as the formal realisation of the item in the original and translation. The second aim of the paper is to examine the question of how text-organising metadiscourse is translated from Slovene into English. It has been established through previous research that Slovene and English academic writing differ to some extent in the rhetorical conventions governing features such as text organisation. Nevertheless, the issue of how such differences may impact the translation of Slovene academic writing into English has not yet been explored and relatively little data exists on translating Slovene academic writing into English. For this purpose, a sample of Slovene research articles and their English translations is analysed using the model outlined above. Metadiscourse items are identified through a manual search to ensure that all instances of metadiscourse are discovered. The results of the analysis are used to evaluate the proposed model, focusing on whether the descriptions it provides give useful and sufficient information on the translation strategies applied. The results of the analysis are also compared to the findings of previous contrastive studies of the use of metadiscourse in Slovene and English research articles. The present study examining the issue of translating text-organising metadiscourse is useful from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. Firstly, it seeks to propose a theoretical framework for describing the translation of pragmatic units. Secondly, the results of this analysis provide information of practical use to translators engaged in the translation of academic discourse, offering important evidence about cross-cultural differences in pragmatics between Slovene and English.

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Franz PCHHACKER University of Vienna franz.poechhacker@univie.ac.at

Why Interpreting Studies Matters


The challenge raised by the Congress theme will be taken up, obviously enough, from the perspective of interpreting studies as a major subdiscipline of Translation studies. Much of this paper will be devoted to reviewing examples of where and how interpreting studies (IS) has mattered in the past. This effort presupposes a thorough understanding of the notion interpreting studies, which some may construe as studies/research on interpreting and others as the designation of a rather young academic discipline; the analysis obviously hinges on this underlying definition, but on either understanding examples of the relevance of IS to the scientific community and to society at large can be found. Viewed as research on interpreting, there are some striking examples of how IS has prompted theoretical progress in such fields as cognitive psychology and neurolinguistics, mainly in relation to the skill of simultaneous speaking and listening involving two languages. In addition, research on interpreting has influenced training practices for interpreters, mainly with regard to aptitudes and component skills involved in the task. On the disciplinary understanding, on the other hand, the social relevance of IS has taken shape only recently; that is, it has begun to matter that there is an academic infrastructure for the study of (i.e. for research on and the research-based teaching of) interpreting. This development has gained momentum as interpreting scholars have broadened their purview to include interpreting practices in the community, which makes studies of interpreting in such social settings as courtrooms, hospitals, asylum tribunals and schools relevant to society by definition. The second part of the paper will thus discuss a number of examples of work by interpreting scholars that has been closely interrelated with the concerns of social institutions in particular nations. In the Austrian context these include the comprehensive study on sign language interpreting practices by Grbic (1994), which has been followed up by highly successful training and certification measures; the authors surveys and case studies on healthcare interpreting in Vienna (Pchhacker 2000), which prompted the development of an implementation plan for municipal community interpreting services as well as a training course; the study by Kadric (2001) on selective interpreting in Viennese first-instance courts, which has given rise to a due-process initiative by the judiciary; and the discourse-analytical work of Pllabauer (2005) on interpreting in asylum hearings, which has served as the foundation for initiatives to raise quality standards in this setting, inter alia by proposals for a legislative amendment and the publication of a handbook on standards of practice. The final part of the paper will explore areas in which IS has played a role and is likely to matter even more in the near future. These include the introduction of new technologies for simultaneous interpreting (remote interpreting, videoconferencing, simultaneous consecutive, etc.) and the role of digital technologies in the traditional mainstay of IS, that is, the education of future professionals. It is in relation to the latter, the interpreting profession, that IS has had and will have a crucial role to play by default on the assumption that professional aspirations unlike craftsmanship require a mechanism for the development and advancement of the fields specialized body of knowledge.

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Sieglinde POMMER McGill University, Canada and University of Vienna, Austria spommer@post.harvard.edu

Translation Skills for the Legal Profession?


Due to the great influence of European law on all branches of national law in the Member States of the European Union, the law has become increasingly multilingual. This development has made it more important than ever for lawyers to understand foreign legal texts and to talk about ones own as well as other legal systems in foreign languages. While lawyers may not necessarily be required to actually produce legal translations often, it is evident that the necessary transfer of legal content from one legal system and legal language to another requires not only comprehensive comparative legal knowledge of the legal orders involved but also good language proficiency as well as a sound command of the specialized legal terminologies. The realization of the crucial role of translation in European legal harmonization has, however, not yet impacted much on how legal translation is taught. Unfortunately, very few interdisciplinary programs have been set up. To an even lesser extent has legal education integrated obligatory language classes in their curricula. Despite the close relationship which obviously exists between law and language due to the fact that the law can express itself exclusively by way of the latter and the fact that legal work depends heavily on the exact use of language, linguistic skills are not promoted in European law schools in any particular ways. These mostly offer voluntary foreign language classes in the form of introductions to foreign legal systems and merely encourage study terms abroad. Today, the view is generally accepted that a legal translator should have good legal knowledge in more than one legal system. While it is a fact that more and more lawyers are asked to translate legal texts, they usually receive only, if at all, practical on-the-job training a remarkable trend blatantly contrary to the establishment of Translation Studies as a recognized course of study in the tertiary education sector and the placing of more and more significance on the importance of translation theory in the classroom in the hope of optimizing the translation process and guaranteeing better quality translation results. Acknowledging the importance of foreign language skills for enhancing legal communication among the new generation of European lawyers, this contribution explores the value of translation skills for the discipline of law and shows the necessity as well as possible implementation options for incorporating the respective training in legal education in order to allow the profession to meet the changed demands of the day. Outlining an interdisciplinary approach to legal translation learning and teaching, the author further discusses in which areas translation skills could prove most useful to todays lawyers, looking into topics such as systembound legal terminology and inequivalent legal concepts, the usefulness of comparative law, questions of comparability and translatability, the practice of co-drafting, methods of applying law and determining meaning, the parameters of functionality and transparency, and, more generally, the interplay of theory and practice, thereby identifying the specific input translation studies could make for the education of the legal profession thereby contributing to a better understanding of the national laws as well as the law in general.

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Erich PRUNC ITAT Graz erich.prunc@uni-graz.at

Translations were ascribed a low status in the discourse on the establishment of Slovene national literature because the establishment of a canon of national literature was given absolute priority. The average middle-class audience was bilingual and literature critics as well as publishers took it for granted that this audience was able to understand Germanlanguage literary texts and/or texts in German which were intended to achieve a transfer of knowledge. The resulting preliminary norm of translation was that only genres were translated into Slovene which were intended for a monolingual rural population. This includes a large number of religious texts and devotional writings as well as light fiction, a genre which had been gradually emerging at the end of the century. The only exemption from this diglottic distribution of genres was the translation of dramatic texts which were intended for groups of lay actors and the (semi)professional theatres in Ljubljana, Trieste, and Maribor. The symbolic function of drama texts was considered more important than the audiences bilingualism. In an atmosphere of fierce cultural competition with the German theatre, the mere staging a play in Slovene was considered a manifestation of national identity. Another argument which played an important role in the national discourse of emancipation and legitimisation (especially with respect to the translation of classical plays) was that with Slovene-language theatre performances the Slovene language was able to prove its functionality. This discursive line can also be observed in the paratexts of the translation of schoolbooks and scientific/academic texts. This discourse culminated in a demonstrative show of disapproval by Count Alexander von Auersperg: in 1864, when the introduction of Slovene as an official language in schools was heavily debated in politics, he brought two of the recently published Slovene translations of schoolbooks into the Carniolan regional parliament to point out the wretchedness of Slovene literary production and the lack of expressiveness of the Slovene language by stating omnia mea mecum porto. In the Slovene counter-discourse, translations of schoolbooks and academic works were therefore used to prove the lexical and terminological expressiveness of the Slovene written language. This important function was also attributed to one of the classics of science, Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature) by Friedrich Schoedler, which was translated within the Slovenska Matica project and laid down the foundations of Slovene scientific terminology. After a brief presentation of a research project on translations from German into Slovene, which is conducted by the Balkans Commission of the Austrian Academy of Science, text examples of different genres (devotional writings, light fiction, academic texts) will demonstrate how, due to the fact that adaptation was the prevailing operative norm of translation, translations themselves were used as a format for the prevailing discourses, especially the religious-moral discourse and the discourse of emancipation and legitimisation. This had an influence on discourse practice on the one hand, and on translation policy on the other hand. In the autopoietic system of constructing a Slovene nation and Slovene national literature, translations, thus, did not only prove to be a possible format of discourse but, due to their social repercussions, also turned out to be a formative element of this discourse.
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Omnia Mea Mecum Porto: Translations as a Format and Formative Element of the Discourse of Emancipation of Slovene Culture between 1848 and 1918

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Hong QIAN University of Macau ya57302@umac.mo

Investigating the Changed Positioning via the Appraisal Theory: A Case Study of Four Translations of the Speeches Delivered by National Leaders
Why translation studies matters? By focusing on one specific aspectspeakers positioning in Source Text and Target Text, it is hoped that this paper will to an extent demonstrate the correlation between translation studies and translation practice. To achieve this purpose, the Appraisal theory will be adopted in this paper as a theoretical framework and four translations (from English to Chinese) of Q & A part of the speeches delivered by national leaders will serve as cases for analysis. The Appraisal theory is part of the interpersonal metafunction in Systemic Functional Linguistics. The interpersonal metafunction is mainly realized through the mood and modality systems. Although the two systems can reveal the interpersonal relationships, they may fail to reflect the speakers attitudes and positions. Since 1990s, J.R. Martin and P. White as well as other scholars have further developed the theory of interpersonal metafuntion and framed the system of the Appraisal theory. Appraisal theory consists of 3 parts, namely attitude, engagement and graduation, each of which is subdivided into dimensions. This paper will mainly adopt the part of engagement as the analytical framework. Engagement enables people to analyze how various positioning are achieved linguistically. It consists of 2 subsystems: monoglossic and heteroglossic. Monoglossic is propositions that are construed as either having no alternatives or challenges at all, or as having no alternatives or challenges which need to be acknowledged or engaged with in the current communicative context (White & Sano 2004). Heteroglossic is employed to label all formulations which, in these and other ways, acknowledge that the utterance operates against a heteroglossic backdrop and present the speaker as recognizing or engaged with other voices and other view points within this backdrop (White & Sano 2004). Within heteroglossic, there is a further distinction according to if they are dialogically expansive or dialogically contractive in their intersubjectiv functionality. The distinction lies in if the utterances allow for dialogically alternative positions and voices (dialogic expansion) or alternatively, act to challenge, fend off or restrict the scope (dialogic contraction). This paper attempts to use the Appraisal theory (mainly the part of engagement) as a tool to investigate the speakers positioning in the source and target texts. The object for this study is four translations (from English to Chinese) of Q & A part of the speeches delivered by national leaders. The source and target texts will first be described in the appraisal theoretical framework by employing the variables in Engagement part. Then they will be compared so as to find out the differences in the speakers positioning. Finally a discussion will be carried out to explore possible reasons that caused the differences in the speakers positioning in the target text. It is indicated that the translators role, the linguistic conventions and the translation purpose may all contribute to the changes of the speakers positioning. These findings show that in terms of translation practice, it requires that translators should firstly carefully think about speakers attitude and positioning in ST because any word may be an indication of the ST speakers positioning. With the ST speakers positioning ascertained, then the translator can decide how to transfer the ST positioning into TT according to text type, translation purpose, target readers and the context, etc. And it is also worth noting that since even a form word may reveal the ST speakers positioning, no words in the ST can be randomly omitted when translating.

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Rosa RABADAN, Camino GUTIERREZ-LANZA, Noelia RAMON University of Leon, Spain dfmrra@unileon.es, dfmmgl@unileon.es, dfmnrg@unileon.es

Exploring Translation Research Applicability Description for Assessment (ACTRES/TRACE)


Translation Studies as a distinct inter-discipline has brought us academic recognition in the last few decades, but this seems to have worked against its close utilitarian links with other fields and their activities. One of the reasons for our relative isolation from the real world is that there are different types of applied activities that are carried out by users outside the research/academic community. In many environments, activities such as translation evaluation, proofreading and editing, etc., are the responsibility of a type of professional on the rise, the language services provider, who can benefit from translation research in a number of ways. This paper sets out to explore the possibilities of designing an effective and efficient tool to contribute to the assessment of translations by using a limited number of languagepair-bound descriptive anchor phenomena. The procedure needs to be user-friendly, so that service providers can incorporate it easily to their daily work routine. Personal pronouns are a good candidate for anchor phenomenon for the language pair English-Spanish: English always shows a formal filler in the subject slot, whereas in Spanish subject pronouns are typically omitted, as the information related to person, number, and gender (the latter except in the 1st and 2nd person singular) is already included in the verbal inflections. In order to examine the real usefulness of this feature as anchor for assessment, we need to analyse both Spanish original texts and Spanish translations. The methodology used has two stages: 1. Anchor results stage: Empirical data are extracted from the ACTRES English-Spanish parallel corpus (Contrastive Analysis and Translation English-Spanish), which contains contemporary original texts and their translations, and are subsequently compared to data from the CREA (Corpus de Referencia del Espaol Actual), a large reference corpus of original Spanish texts. If we compare Spanish original texts with texts translated from English into Spanish, a quantitatively significant difference in the number of subject pronouns in the translations would suggest transfer from the source language and indicate poor management of expressive resources in the translated texts. A second type of result would be qualitative and would concern the choice of whether to use the subject pronouns in Spanish and, if so, to what (additional) purpose. 2. Verification of applicability stage: Empirical data are extracted from the previously mentioned ACTRES parallel corpus and from the TRACE English-Spanish parallel corpus (TRAnslation and CEnsorship), which contains translations dated from the 1950s to the 1980s. The results obtained in the previous stage are applied to these translated materials by a group of real world (non-academic) users so as to verify whether our proposal can work efficiently for time-constrained translation evaluation tests. The results obtained from the corpus-based description of our chosen anchor phenomenon are easy to handle by final (applied) users and contribute, at least, to the following activities: translation quality assessment (TQA), identification of cross-linguistic plagiarism and identification of pseudotranslation in Spanish language texts. Our proposal also raises implications for academic users, as it may offer new insights into descriptive research procedures.

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Aline REMAEL, Reinhild VANDEKERCKHOVE, Annick DE HOUWER University College Antwerp a.remael@ha.be reinhild.vandekerckhove@ua.ac.be

An Investigation into the Need for Intralingual Open Subtitling in Flanders The Findings of an Interdisciplinary Research Project
In this paper we will be reporting on the final results of a joint research project carried out by the University of Antwerp and University College Antwerp into the use of intralingual subtitling for native language (Dutch) television programmes in Flanders. The prominence of this open form of subtitling in Flanders1, is tied in with the fact that a growing number of people is currently adopting a spoken variant of Dutch that increasingly functions as a kind of general Flemish, a linguistic variant that is strongly coloured by the Flemish regiolect of the provinces of Brabant and Antwerp, but deviates from standard Dutch. In fact, this general Flemish is now used in contexts where in the (recent) past either Standard Dutch or a local dialect would have been the norm. The decision whether or not to subtitle a particular variant on television is symptomatic of the informal (sub)standardization process that appears to be going on in Flanders, and which runs counter to some linguists historical expectations. In an earlier stage of the project 380 hours of recordings made in January, February and March of 2005, consisting of 798 Dutch-language programmes broadcast on VRT and VTM (one public and one commercial channel), were assembled and categorized according to genre as well as the presence/absence of intralingual subtitling. In a second phase, speaker profiles were drawn up and a selection of subtitled programmes was subjected to an in-depth analysis, looking into what exactly was subtitled and how, as compared to interlingual subtitling appearing on programmes broadcast by the same channels. This analysis was backed up by interviews with the policy-makers responsible for the decision to translate and the subtitlers responsible for some of the translations. Finally, in the last stage of the project, 7 film clips were selected from the corpus (6 with the major Flemish standard and substandard language variants, with and without subtitling; 1 representing northern standard Dutch from the Netherlands, without subtitling) and shown to 480 respondents from the 4 major linguistic regions in Flanders. The respondents consisted of three age groups (18-25, 30-40, 60-70), and were asked to supply some minimal background information about themselves (e.g. male/female). They were shown the 7 clips and asked to reply to a brief questionnaire inquiring into their understanding of the clips and their appreciation of the subtitles. The results yielded by the questionnaire are extremely interesting in different respects, and indeed, for (socio)linguists as well as translation scholars. They throw light on the linguistic attitudes and aptitudes of different age groups and regional groups, as well as the need for subtitling (or not) in some unexpected cases. In other words, the findings are also relevant for society at large, and more particularly for the determination of linguistic policies, translation policies and translation practice at television channels. Finally, the project resulted in a methodological design that can easily be exported to other (multilingual) countries with different linguistic setups, and, for instance, used for investigations into the intralingual subtitling of (some) immigrants, or speakers from minority communities. The project is the result of collaboration between linguists and translation scholars, and would not have materialized without this collaboration.

It addresses neither the deaf and hard of hearing, nor immigrant communities 147

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Earlier stages of the project have yielded the following presentations and one publication: - A. Remael, A. De Houwer, R. Vandekerckhove, 2006. The intralingual subtitling of Dutch and Flemish TV programmes in Flanders: figures and a first analysis. The Study of Language & Translation", Gent, 12-14 January 2006 (Research assistant: Isabelle Van der Niepen) - R. Vandekerckhove, A. De Houwer, A. Remael, 2006. Intralinguale ondertiteling van Nederlandstalige televisieprogramma's in Vlaanderen: lingustische en extralingustische determinanten. "Vijfde sociolingustische conferentie", Lunteren, Nederland, 28-29 March 2006. (Research assistent: Isabelle Van der Niepen) -R. Vandekerckhove, A. De Houwer, A. Remael & I. Van der Niepen, 2006. Intralingual subtitling of Dutch television programmes in Flanders: new perspectives on language variation and change, Sociolinguistics Symposium 16, Limerick, Ierland, 6-8 July 2006 (Research assistant: Isabelle Van der Niepen) -A. Remael, A. De Houwer & R. Vandekerckhove, 2006. Intervention in native-language programmes: intralingual subtitling of Dutch and Flemish TV programmes in Flanders. 2nd Conference of the International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies, University of the Western Cape, Zuid Afrika, 12-14 July 2006. (research assistant: Nele Jaeken). Publication: R. Vandekerckhove, A. De Houwer, A. Remael & I. Van der Niepen, 2006. Intralinguale ondertiteling van Nederlandstalige televisieprogramma's in Vlaanderen: lingustische en extra-lingustische determinanten. In: T. Koole, J. Nortier & B. Tahitu (red.): Artikelen van de vijfde sociolingustische conferentie, 503-513. Delft: Eburon

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Hanna RISKU, Angela DICKINSON, Richard PIRCHER Danube University Krems hanna.risku@donau-uni.ac.at amdtranslations@yahoo.de richard.pircher@donau-uni.ac.at

Intellectual Capital in Modern Society Knowledge Management in Translation Studies


From a Knowledge Management perspective, Translation Studies has much to offer translators, translation clients and other academic communities alike. As true knowledge workers, translators are experts in their chosen field(s) of expertise and are party to translation and scientific knowledge and methods relevant to the development of modern society. By drawing the translation process firmly into the main design process in intercultural communication projects and highlighting the range of skills and knowledge required by translation practitioners, Translation Studies not only helps translators better recognise the context and complexity of their work and the material they deal with but also puts them in a position to exploit their role to the benefit of all concerned. There is doubtless much more to come in this field in the future, with developments arising not only from the field of Translation Studies itself but also from interdisciplinary activities linking it to other fields such as Knowledge Management. Knowledge management (KM) has gained increasing importance in the business world over the last decade, although the concept of knowledge work is in fact far older, dating back to the 1950s when the term knowledge worker was coined by the management expert, Peter Drucker, in his 1959 book Landmarks of Tomorrow. The recent rise in the significance of KM as a business approach has again brought knowledge work to the forefront of management research, where it is used to refer to people whose work primarily involves the development or use of knowledge. Numerous examples are given of the types of professions that can constitute knowledge workers, including, but not limited to researchers, engineers, product developers, analysts and teachers. However, despite the fact that it obviously merits being regarded as a knowledge profession, the field of professional translation is still rarely, if ever included in general discussions on knowledge work. Nowadays, KM assumes an increasingly important role in business, acting as an organisational driver and with organisational KM seen as an integrated approach to achieving organisational goals that places particular focus on "knowledge" as the new factor of production (see Sammer et al 2003). It centres around the recognition that knowledge forms a key corporate asset, and that organisations have good reason to try to manage this knowledge or intellectual capital. Aside from the obvious relevance of organisational KM for in-house translation departments or translation agencies, this paper aims to show that translation and Translation Studies matter both on an organisational and a larger social level by demonstrating that: 1. the knowledge involved and embedded in professional translation forms a key factor in value creation in organisations, and 2. the knowledge generated in the field of Translation Studies forms an important part of the intellectual capital in the knowledge society. The development of the KM movement also shows interesting parallels to the history of Translation Studies: as the KM movement has developed, two different strategies have emerged, namely the codification and the personalisation approaches (see Hansen et al. 1999).

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The codification approach focuses on the managing of information, regarding knowledge as identifiable objects that can be stored and managed in information systems and dealing primarily with explicit knowledge (since this is generally more readily accessible and can be easily codified). Parallels to Translation Studies can be found here, for example, in the system linguistic approaches to translation. The personalisation approach looks more at human issues, i.e. managing and mobilizing people to develop, share and use knowledge. Links can be seen here, for example, to intercultural transfer processes and the professional development aspects of Translation Studies. Recent trends show that the importance of the human and cultural aspects of KM now seems to outweigh that of an IT-based knowledge strategy. A further trend in KM is the recent focus on personal KM tools and techniques, with experts and practitioners increasingly coming to the conclusion that organisational KM can really only become feasible if it first provides people with effective tools to manage their own knowledge. Personal KM revolves around a set of core issues, methods and tools aimed at managing personal knowledge and information, supporting networking activities (e.g. communities of practice and knowledge communities) and making best use of one's own personal capital. From a translation and Translation Studies perspective, this development is particularly interesting for individual and freelance translators who can benefit greatly from access to methods and techniques directed at KM on an individual level. Although translators are often primarily seen as language professionals, their knowledge and skills extend far beyond their language pairs. Translation is an analytical-synthetical, research intensive process that requires extensive background knowledge (both tacit and explicit) not only of the source and target languages and cultures, but also of the subject matter of the text, the purpose of the translation, the requirements of the target audience, the potential roles of the translator and the translation methods and strategies suitable for different cultures and communication situations. In times of global cooperation and conflict, intercultural communication helps smooth the way for dialogue and successful value creation. To overcome cultural and communication barriers, societies today need access to professional people with the right knowledge and competencies. As intercultural communication experts and knowledge professionals, translators are in an excellent position to make a unique contribution to the value creation process and this is where Translation Studies comes into play. The challenge now facing Translation Studies in this regard is to ensure they assume their rightful role as an integral part of Knowledge Management endeavours.

References Dickinson, A. (2002): Translating in Cyberspace. Virtual Knowledge Communities for Freelance Translators. Master Thesis: Danube University Krems Drucker, P. F. (1957): Landmarks of Tomorrow. New York: Harper Hansen, M. T., Nohria, N., Tierney, T. (1991): Whats Your Strategy for Managing Knowledge? Harvard Business Review 77, No. 2, pp. 106-11 Risku, H. & Pircher, R. (in print): Translatory Cooperation: Roles, Skills and Coordination in Intercultural Text Design. In: Wolf, Michaela (ed.): bersetzen Translating Traduire: Towards a "Social Turn"? Mnster: LIT. Sammer, M. (ed.) (2003): An Illustrated Guide to Knowledge Management. Graz: Wissensmanagement Forum

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Jeannette RISSMANN ITI Scotland jeannette@mortispeed.plus.com

Drama Translation, Dialect and National Identity


Theatre performs an important role in any given society. Translated plays contribute to our cultural life. New worlds open up: countries, societies, cultures, people, their ways of living and thinking. The audience is encouraged to compare these different worlds with and, more importantly think about, their own society. Often, this process is unconscious; what is foremost in their minds is an entertaining and enjoyable night out. Research in drama translation studies is rooted in practice. Scholars are researchers, practitioners and teachers and the results of their work will have an effect on that same practice and the training of new translators and, thus, on the day out at the theatre and, eventually on culture and society. Why then is it possible to observe that theory does not always reflect practice and practice does not always follow theory? Focusing on translation of drama for the stage as defined by Johnston (1996), this paper will explore approaches to dialect translation in theory and practice. The use of dialect in a play is not arbitrary, but performs specific functions. What are these functions and how does the translator approach their translation - taking into account the special nature of a play text (van den Broeck 1980, Bassnett-McGuire 1985)? Five strategies will be discussed in detail: neutralization of the ST dialect, translation into a TL dialect, into a combination of TL dialect and sociolect, into an artificial language and translation into the broken language of a foreigner. When examining these strategies, connections will be drawn to factors that influence the translators choice of strategy, including such concepts as skopos, foreignisation and ideology of translation. The discussion will seek to find answers to the question: If scholars of drama translation recommend caution with the strategy of translating a SL dialect into a TL dialect with or without sociolect (Rozhin 2000, Kolb 1998) - why is this strategy frequently encountered? Based on Aaltonens (2000) assertion that the choice of a non-standard by a playwright may be political, it will be argued that this may also be true for the translators choice. A case in point, which will be explored in detail, is the work of Quebecois playwright Michel Tremblay (others are Jeanne-Mance Delisle and Molire) which was translated into Scots rather than English for what are essentially political reasons. Long (forthcoming, 2007) points out that the use of the vernacular in translation gives it status and, thus, supports the establishment of a national identity in the formation of nation states as well as in the assertion of regional identities. This paper will argue that similar processes can be observed in Scotland, that the translation of plays into Scots performs an important role in establishing a specifically Scottish national identity separate from that of a generalized sense of Britishness. Given the collapse of the Eastern European bloc in the not so distant past and the surge in the development of new nation states it remains to be examined if the translation of SL dialect into TL dialect can be encountered to a similar extent in other countries. What is the effect of TL dialect on the audience: does it seem outright wrong, awkward, is it even noticed or simply accepted and seen as natural? And if the latter is the case, would that mean it is time to revise or at least qualify above recommendation to not translate ST dialect in a play text?

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Jales ROCHA Sorbonne Nouvelle jalesrocha@gmail.com

Translation of Musicals The Example of Les Misrables


Although relatively little has been written about the translation of musicals, this is not an uncommon practice in the theater world. In some parts of the world (such as Asia), subtitling seems to be the norm, and the same happens in musical films in this particular case, subtitling tends to be used systematically in most areas of the world. However, when musicals in theatrical format are taken overseas, they are often translated to be sung and acted out in the local language. In Brazil, musicals regained popularity in the early 2000s, and several productions have been translated from English into Portuguese for performance ever since, such as Les Misrables, The Beauty and the Beast, and The Phantom of the Opera. The 2002 translation of Les Misrables from English into Brazilian Portuguese constitutes the corpus used in the research associated with the paper. Alongside recent publications related to vocal translation, such as the ones edited by Gorle (2005) and Marschall (2004), the main theoretical frame used in the study is the Interpretive Theory of Translation (ITT), developed at the Higher School of Interpreters and Translators (ESIT), of the Sorbonne, Paris, France. This theory, initially restricted to conference interpreting, was later extended to translation in general. It focuses on the translation/interpreting process and its different phases and it claims that translation involves both cognitive and affective components. The translation of musicals is one of the fields not yet explored in the light of this theory started in the late 1950s. In the process of translating a musical, both notional and emotional elements must be taken into account, as the same story needs to be retold in a different language (which limits adaptation), and the new public needs to feel similar aesthetic sensations (and this requires artistic writing). All these aspects are common to literary translation in general, but musicals as well as operas offer additional challenges, as they also have musical and dramatic constraints. Therefore, several verbal and non-verbal aspects must be considered. Elements such as length of words (as they need to fit into the melody), rhyme, syllabic prominence, and choice of vowels are some of the formal aspects that cannot be neglected not to mention the strategies needed to convey the message clearly and effectively. These aspects are developed in the paper through practical examples taken from Les Misrables, which constitutes part of the authors ongoing Ph.D. research project.

Main Bibliographical References Apter, Ronnie. 1989. The Impossible Takes a Little Longer: Translating Opera into English. Translation Review 30/31: 27-37. Gorle, Dinda L. 2005. (ed.) Song and Significance: Virtues and Vices of Vocal Translation. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi. Gorle, Dinda L. 1997. Intercode Translation: Words and Music in Opera. Target 9/2: 235-270. Etkind, Efim. 1982. Un Art en crise. Essai de potique de la traduction potique, translated into French by W. Troubetzkoy. Lausanne: Lge dHomme

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Grandmont, Suzanne de. 1978. Problmes de traduction dans le domaine de la posie chante. Meta 23/1: 97-108. Isral, Fortunato. 2001. Pour une nouvelle conception de la traduction littraire : le modle interpretative. Traduire 190/191: 158-167. Lederer, Marianne. 2003. Translation: the Interpretive Model. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Marschall, Gottfried. (ed.) 2004. La traduction des livrets : Aspects thoriques, historiques et pragmatiques. Paris: Presses de lUniversit Paris-Sorbonne Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Toward a Science of Translation, with Special Reference to Principles and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating. Leiden: E.J. Brill. Seleskovitch, Danica. 1987. Traduction technique et traduction littraire, diffrence ou opposition ? Traduire 4: 88-99.

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Jonathan ROSS Bogazici University jonathan.ross@boun.edu.tr

Translatological Turns? The Spread of Ideas beyond Translation Studies


Since 1972, when James Holmes took the bold step of defining The Name and Nature of Translation Studies in his groundbreaking paper at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics, Translation Studies has come a long way as a discipline in its own right. Departments and programmes dedicated to the practice and study of written and oral translation have been set up in educational institutions worldwide, and scholars from these and other departments have produced a wealth of research and literature on translation and translations. Several academic associations have been founded, as have numerous field-specific periodicals, and the amount of conferences, seminars and workshops devoted to Translation Studies and its manifold branches seems to increase every year. All this does not mean, of course, that Translation Studies is a hermetic discipline. This has never been the case and, presumably, never can be. A large number of scholars who teach, and research into, translation find themselves employed not in departments of Translation Studies, Translation and Interpreting, or their counterparts in other languages and cultures, but in longer-established disciplines, especially linguistics, language and literature, and comparative literature. In their theorising and research, moreover, translation and interpreting scholars draw heavily on notions, paradigms and methodologies originating in these and other disciplines, such as cultural studies, sociology and psychology. Indeed, at the same time as Translation Studies is underlining its credentials as a discipline in itself and gaining wider recognition within the academic world and society at large, scholars associated with this discipline are increasingly opting to conduct interdisciplinary work. While appropriating models and findings from various disciplines and thereby potentially paving the way for further turns within Translation Studies, they are also enriching other areas of study by showing what can be gained in these by applying ways of thinking about, and looking at, translation(s). No longer does translation research focus almost exclusively on literary translation, and interpreting research on conference interpreting. Researchers are now devoting attention to a much wider range of written and spoken texts and, moreover, considering not only what Roman Jakobson termed interlingual translation but also non-linguistic or not-purely-linguistic products and processes in which things are carried across. The refreshing extroversion of recent work in Translation Studies has apparently not gone unnoticed. Ideas and methods developed and debated within the Translation Studies community are having an impact, albeit still a modest one, on scholars primarily involved in other areas. Through bibliographic research carried out using, among other tools, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index, I have ascertained that invocations of the works of translation scholars can be found in publications by researchers in fields as diverse as Business Studies, Landscape Architecture, Public Health, History of Religion, and Information Science. My paper will examine the deployment of notions of translation and methods from Translation Studies in a selection of these publications. It will describe how translatological conceptual and methodological tools have been adopted and adapted (Schffner 2004: 6), in other words translated, to suit the needs of the authors in question and to illuminate the (inter)disciplines to which they belong.
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It will also evaluate the significance of this contact with Translation Studies for the disciplines in question, as well as for future inter- and multidisciplinary work with a translational dimension. References Chesterman, Andrew. 1997. Memes of Translation: The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Gentzler, Edwin. 2003. Interdisciplinary connections. Perspectives-Studies in Translatology 11.1: 11-24. Schffner, Christina. 2004. Researching Translation and Interpreting. in Christina Schffner, ed. Translation Research and Interpreting Research: Traditions, Gaps and Synergies. Clevedon, Buffalo and Toronto: Multilingual Matters. 1-9.

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Lucia RUIZ ROSENDO University Pablo de Olavide lruiros@upo.es

Profesin y formacin en el mbito de la medicina Estudio exploratorio desde la perspectiva del intrprete y del usuario
Universidad Pablo de Olavide Las reuniones de medicina internacionales constituyen en la era actual uno de los acontecimientos celebrados con ms frecuencia en Espaa, y los organizadores suelen recurrir a los servicios de interpretacin ante la confluencia de distintas lenguas y culturas. Por consiguiente, la medicina representa un mbito de especializacin que ofrece amplias posibilidades a los intrpretes en formacin, especialmente a aquellos cuya combinacin lingstica es ingls-espaol, ya que en las ltimas dcadas se constata el auge del ingls como lingua franca de la comunidad mdica internacional. No obstante, son pocos los estudios realizados en este mbito, especialmente aquellos que tratan de profundizar en el mercado para adaptar la formacin a las necesidades profesionales reales. Por este motivo, decidimos realizar un estudio exploratorio cualitativo a travs de cuestionarios retrospectivos distribuidos por muestreo aleatorio simple con el objetivo de conocer la percepcin de los dos grupos de actores ms implicados en el proceso de la interpretacin: por un lado, los intrpretes profesionales y por otro los mdicos usuarios. El estudio analiza una serie de aspectos que podramos considerar cruciales en la formacin y profesin de la interpretacin: en primer lugar, los factores contextuales de los congresos de medicina partiendo de la base del concepto de hipertexto de Pchhacker (1992) (eventos multilinges mdicos y temtica ms frecuentes, modalidades de interpretacin ms utilizadas, zonas geogrficas, tipologa de los participantes y elementos verbales y no verbales). En segundo lugar, la preparacin de un congreso de medicina (aceptacin de un determinado encargo, nivel de especializacin, proceso, preparacin terminolgica y conceptual, fuentes documentales). Por ltimo, aspectos relativos a la comunicacin y evaluacin de la calidad en los congresos de medicina (reticencia de oradores y participantes hacia un intrprete no especialista en medicina, grado de comprensin del mensaje original necesario para realizar una interpretacin de calidad, elementos no verbales que ayudan a la comprensin y parmetros de calidad ms valorados). Incluimos igualmente datos relativos al perfil del intrprete que trabaja frecuentemente en congresos mdicos (experiencia, formacin, afiliacin a asociaciones profesionales, desarrollo de la profesin) y del mdico usuario (experiencia previa con la interpretacin, expectativas, intereses, entre otros). La relevancia del presente estudio estriba en su aplicacin en la formacin y en la profesin ya que trata de profundizar en el mercado para adaptar la formacin a las necesidades profesionales reales. Desde el punto de vista de la formacin, consideramos que ayuda a conocer las necesidades, requisitos y exigencias tanto de intrpretes como de usuarios facilitando y encaminando la preparacin del futuro intrprete especializado de medicina. Por otra parte, desde la perspectiva de la profesin, estimamos que el estudio pone de manifiesto los criterios de los usuarios, lo cual podra ayudar al intrprete profesional que trabaja en congresos de medicina, sobre todo a aquellos con una menor experiencia, a conocer a priori ms aspectos sobre este mercado. Concebimos nuestro estudio como un punto de partida slido a partir del cual seguir investigando en el futuro para obtener una visin slida de la estructura, caractersticas y necesidades del mercado de la interpretacin mdica no solo en Espaa sino en otros pases en los que se destaque la celebracin de este tipo de reuniones.
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Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio es proporcionar una idea general de la situacin de la prctica profesional de la interpretacin mdica, desde la perspectiva de intrpretes y mdicos usuarios, que sirva de punto de partida a investigaciones futuras en este mbito, ya sea en Espaa o en otros pases en los que se celebren frecuentemente reuniones mdicas internacionales.

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Susana SANTOS NGELO SALGADO VALDEZ Faculty of Letters, University of Lisbon valdez.susana@gmail.com

The Unaccredited Writer The Journalist Role in the Translators Invisibility A Portuguese Case-Study
There is a perceptible difference between the translators image in the eyes of the Portuguese community and the role played by the translator as a cultural mediator. What is the function of the journalists perspective in this dichotomy? In which way it contradicts or supports the general image of the translation services provider? Does the media promote an interest and awakens an awareness of the translators role or, on the contrary, disregards that the text in question is even translated? In short, how does the media face the translated texts? This paper proposes to analyze the journalistic approach towards books translated into Portuguese in a national newspaper with high circulation. In a society where the majority of sold/ read literature is foreigner and, therefore, translated, is the role of the translator acknowledged or dismissed? It is known that there are publishing companies that omit the name of the translator of their books. Does the same happen in newspapers? Is there a concern to comment on or critic the translator's work? Or are all the translated publications seen as the originals itself? This paper will present an analysis of specific sections of the Saturday printed edition of a Portuguese newspaper throughout the period of six months. The aim is not to evaluate the translator's image from a diachronic point of view, but to study a significant corpus in order to enlight this question. The chosen newspaper Expresso is, not only, very popular, but is also consider a reference paper. On one hand, we will take a closer look at the literature section called Livros (Books) of the section "Actual" (Current) of the newspaper. In this section, the newspaper presents a small summary of some particular books, some of which are translated books. In addition, in this section we can read a literary criticism of a particular book that, some times, includes a translation criticism. On the other hand, we will also focus our attention in the economy related section, Economia, and, in particular, in the section Ideias em Estante (Ideas in the Book-Case), where readers can get acquainted with the latest published books of the field, that are in their majority translated, and read the summary of some books that according to the journalist are more relevant for some particular reason. Are there differences between the approaches of translations within the same newspaper? And if they are, of which nature are they? Are all translators mentioned in the same way or just a particular kind of translators? Perhaps only authors that are also translators are mentioned. What kind of translation criticism do we have? With this paper we aim to address the general approach towards the translators work in the media and, in particular, in this newspaper, while, at the same time, answering these questions.

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Christina SCHAEFFNER Aston University, Birmingham, UK c.schaeffner@aston.ac.uk

Why Translation Matters for Politics


International politics as well as bilateral political relations involve translation to a large extent. For example, bilateral and multilateral agreements are made available in two or more languages, press conferences with visiting heads of state are interpreted, and some governments put translations of important documents on their websites. For informing the public of political events and decisions, the mass media play an important role in mediating politics, and thus also in mediating ideologies. The media report about political decisions and events not only in their home country, but also about those that happened in other countries. In such reports, statements by politicians are quoted on a regular basis, often in direct speech. These quotes are provided in the language of the media, which signals that a translation process had been involved. Articles in the media, however, are socially and culturally determined, and as a consequence, also the direct voice of a politician is in fact a mediated voice. Similarly, politicians usually comment on and react to statements made by politicians from another country, and often they react to the text as it had been made available to them in translation. Such reactions may in turn be quoted and commented on in the mass media, e.g. in news reports or editorials. In such cases, the mediation of voices is even more complex. In Critical Discourse Analysis, the concept of recontextualisation is used to study the links between a text and pre-existing discourses the text draws on. In this way, discourses spread between genres and fields, linking to form textual chains, or chains of discourse. Recontextualisation always involves the transformation of information and arguments, which comes in the form of additions, deletions, rearrangements, substitutions, elaborations. The kinds of transformations that occur as texts move along the political and media chain are dependent on the goals, values and interests of the contexts into which the discourse is being recontextualised. The same applies to contexts in which recontextualisation involves translation. This paper will illustrate examples of transformations that occur as a result of recontextualisation of translated political discourse, illustrated with reference to media reports about (reactions to) political speeches and interviews with politicians (language pair: English and German). As previous research into news translation has shown (cf. http://www.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/BCCS/research/AHRB.html), translation, although an integral part in providing global news, seems to be absent from communicating about the process. It is usually the journalists themselves who perform translation work, and in this process they are guided by the values of news journalism. That is, the institutional context of news agencies and mass media (in particular time constraints and the hybrid nature of the linguistic processes involved in creating global news) determines recontextualisation strategies. Political institutions (such as governments, ministries, political parties) are other examples of institutional contexts which pose challenges to Translation Studies. In certain cases, it is politicians themselves who produce translations (for example, joint statements or declarations between political parties). This paper will therefore link the data analysis to questions such as: who produces translations of speeches and interviews by politicians and of similar political documents? Do governments have their own in-house translation services? Are press releases made available to foreign journalists in translation? Do journalists use these prepared texts for their reports, or do they prepare their own translations? Are feedback mechanisms in place to check what transformations occur in recontextualisation processes (e.g. media reports about political discourse)?

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Anne SCHJOLDAGER, Kirsten WLCH RASMUSSEN Aarhus School of Business asc@asb.dk, kwr@asb.dk

How Does Revision Contribute to Translation Quality?


How does revision contribute to translation quality? Inspired by the Interim Report of the IAMLADP Working Group on Training of Language Staff (20 June 2001), we decided to carry out a small-scale study of professional practice within prcis-writing, revision and editing in Denmark and other European Countries (Schjoldager, Rasmussen and Thomsen. In press) in connection with the development of a pilot module for the European Master in Translation (EMT). With the kind help of the Standing Committee of IAMLADP as well as a few of our own contacts, a web-based questionnaire yielded many eye-opening and interesting responses from a sample of European practitioners and decision-makers within the translation industry. These findings were supplemented nicely by a focus-group interview with the translator-editors of the English Language Editing Service of Direction Gnrale de la Traduction. In general terms, our survey confirmed the findings of the IAMLADP report, namely that there is a particular need for translators to be trained to carry out revision, editing and prcis-writing, and it offered much useful input on how to proceed with this training. The survey also helped us to pinpoint confusing terms and their meanings: Whereas most respondents seemed to distinguish conceptually between the correction/improvement of original texts, on the one hand, and a similar process in connection with translations, on the other, there was no terminological consensus. A review of the literature soon revealed that most scholars make similar distinctions and use a variety of terms to refer to them (see, for instance, Lees (2006) review of revision theory). For our pilot module, we chose to employ Mossops (2001) distinction between editing, for the correction/improvement of original texts, and revision, for a similar process in connection with translations, because it is both logical and operational. This distinction is also made in the present paper. Our work with the EMT module made us painfully aware that the area of professional revision (as defined by Mossop 2001), in particular, lacks necessary in-depth empirical research. We have therefore decided to investigate further the reality of professional revision, using the current situation in Denmark as a case in point. Based on a review of the literature and the above-mentioned surveys, we shall assume that revision is carried out in order to improve translation quality and shall explore to what extent revision actually improves translation quality and how it is achieved (or not, as the case may be). We intend to explore this from three angles: (a) Revision policies Questionnaires will be sent to the managers (decision-makers) of major (i) translation agencies and (ii) companies with an in-house translation section. This part of the investigation will attempt to answer questions such as: How is revision defined? Why is it carried out? How often? What kinds of revision are carried out? Who are the revisers? What are their qualifications? Who are the translators? What are their qualifications? What translations are revised? What are the procedures? What are the guidelines? Are they explicit? How is the relation between quality and revision perceived? (b) Revision practices Based on the results of the questionnaire investigation, a few translators and revisers will be selected for focus-group interviews (a method also employed within translation studies by Schjoldager and Zethsen 2003). Here our aim is explore the reality of revision from a practitioners point of view. (c) Samples of revision In order for us to study actual revision products, respondents will be asked to provide samples of their own work.

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The study of these should include analyses of (i) the target-text brief, (ii) the revision brief, (iii) actual working procedures, (iv) the source text, incl. its genre, (v) revisers corrections/improvements, and (vi) the quality of the end product. In the final phases of the project, we shall attempt to determine how the evidence of our empirical investigation relates to available theories within translation studies, exploring if a modification of available theories is necessary and attempting to suggest a best-practice guide that might modify practice. For the present paper, we shall concentrate on these general research questions: (1) To what extent does revision contribute to translation quality? (2) What are the obstacles experienced by decision-makers, revisers and translators? (3) How may these obstacles be overcome? (4) How do our findings relate to available theories within translation studies?

References IAMLADP Working Group on Training of Language Staff (20 June 2001), Interim Report of the (2001): United Nations System: Restricted distribution. Lee, Hyang (2006): Rvision: dfinition et paramtres. Meta 51: 2. 410-419. Mossop, Brian (2001): Revising and Editing for Translators [Translation Practices Explained]. Manchester:, UK/Northampton, MA: St. Jerome. Schjoldager, Anne and Karen Korning Zethsen (2003): How skopos is established by the professional translator: Preliminary results of a focus group. In Veisbergs, Andrejs (ed.). The Third Riga Symposium on Pragmatic Aspects of Translation. Proceedings. Riga: University of Latvia & Aarhus School of Business. 140-152. Schjoldager, Anne, Kirsten W. Rasmussen and Christa Thomsen (In press): Prciswriting, revision and editing: Piloting the European Master in Translation. To appear in: Meta.

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Mojca SCHLAMBERGER BREZAR University of Ljubljana mojca.brezar1@guest.arnes.si

L'analyse contrastive et son utilit pour les tudes de traduction Le cas du grondif et du participe franais et ses quivalents en slovne
L'analyse contrastive, qui a pour le but d'analyser les diffrences et les similitudes de plusieurs langues au niveau phonologique, morphologique et syntaxique aussi bien qu'au niveau de la smantique et du lexique a vu ses meilleurs temps dans les annes '50 avec La Stylistique compare du franais et de langlais (1958) de J.-P. Vinay et J. Darbelnet. Aujourd'hui l'analyse contrastive est au programme de toutes les coles de traduction, soit comme le cours thorique prenant en compte les diffrences et les similitudes entre deux langues, soit comme partie importante des travaux dirigs o il s'agit de la pratique de la traduction. Pourtant l'intrt scientifique pour elle ne va pas croissant elle tend tre remplace par les tudes pragmatiques sur le contexte de la communication qui renoncent au structuralisme grammatical et o le contexte devrait fournir l'explication de toutes les diffrences qui apparaissent entre deux langues. Nous voudrions dmontrer tout de mme que l'importance de l'analyse contrastive dans le cadre des tudes de traduction et la traductologie reste assez grande aujourd'hui et qu'elle peut tre considre comme la base des tudes mme dans une socit impregne de la pragmatique. En plus, elle peut jouer le rle d'util d'analyse dans la branche la plus rcente des tudes de traduction, notamment l'analyse des corpus parallles et comparables. Pour cette dmonstation, nous avons choisi l'exemple du participe et du grondif franais et ses quivalents slovnes. Le grondif et le participe en franais, qui s'utilisent largement dans les phrases avec les sujets identiques ainsi bien que dans l'usage absolu et vhiculent plusieurs relations logiques, notamment le temps, la cause, la condition, l'hypothse, peuvent tre traduits par les mmes moyens vers le slovne, mais cette traduction, qui pourrait tre de rgle au XIXe sicle, n'a pas de confirmation dans les textes originaux du slovne contemporain. Ils Nous avons constitu un corpus assez vari dans les deux langues la base des textes politiques, journalistiques et littraires. Nous avons labor des corpus parallles dont l'original tait en franais et la traduction en slovne dans le cadre des textes politiques et littraires. Nous avons choisi les traductions qui existaient dj. Nous avons aussi fait un choix des textes comparables pour les textes politiques et littraires. L'analyse des textes journalistiques se faisait uniquement dans le cadre des corpus comparables. Il s'en est suivi de l'tude des corpus parallles que le grondif et le participe sont parfois traduits par la structure correspondante en slovne, c'est dire le grondif (deleje) et le participe (delenik). Cette tendance a surtout t souligne dans les corpus parallles des textes politiques. Dans les corpus comparables o les textes compars ont t les originaux dans les deux langues, nous n'avons presque jamais trouv cette structure en slovne contemporain. La frquence des grondifs dans les textes originals en slovne a t vrifie dans le cadre du corpus gnral de la langue slovne FIDA. La grammaire contrastive, qui trouve ses vrifications dans l'analyse des corpus, peut fournir des preuves de frquence aux traducteurs aussi bien qu'aux traductologues et les aider prendre des dcisions.

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Dieter Hermann SCHMITZ The Finnish Association of Translators and Interpreters trdisc@uta.fi

Die Kirche im Dorf oder die Regierung im Wald lassen Zum bersetzungsproblem der Namen von mtern, Einrichtungen, Institutionen und Vereinen
Auf die (provokant zugespitzte) Frage, warum die Translationswissenschaft von Bedeutung ist, lsst sich m.E. am ehesten mit ihrem praktischen Nutzen im Translationsprozess antworten, ihrer Anwendbarkeit und der Hilfestellung, die sie bei konkreten bersetzungsproblemen bietet. Whrend man deskriptiven Anstzen vorwerfen knnte, im Statischen des bloen Beschreibens zu verharren und konsequenzenlos zu sein, und man der Theoriebildung anlasten knnte, sich in oft fruchtlosen Streitereien um die Hoheit einzelner Schulen, ihrer Begriffssysteme und Perspektiven zu verlieren, bietet die angewandte Translationswissenschaft zumeist handgreifliches Werkzeug etwa in Form von Vorgehensmustern, Strategievorschlgen und Verfahrensmodellen, die letztlich immer auch perspektiv angelegt sind und somit dem Translator Handlungssicherheit vermitteln und bewusste Enscheidungshilfen bieten. Probleme, wie sie beispielsweise beim bersetzen der (Eigen-)Namen von mtern, Institutionen, Gesellschaften, Organisationen usw. auftreten knnen, sollten nicht unsystematsich aufgrund von Intuition und Gefhl gelst werden, sondern vom bersetzer resp. einem Studenten der Translationswissenschaft als bewusste Entscheidung nach bestimmten Kriterien bewltigt werden. Der Grad an Bewusstheit und die Art des systematischen Vorgehens mit klaren Begriffen unterscheidet wohl am ehesten den professionell geschulten Translator vom Gelegenheitsbersetzer oder Autodidakten. In meinem Beitrag diskutiere ich das erwhnte Problem der bersetzung von mternamen im Sprachenpaar Finnisch-Deutsch fr Nachrichtenzwecke. In der Fachliteratur, in Handbchern und Ratgebern werden fr solche und hnliche Flle in Abhngigkeit von der Funktion der bersetzung, dem Auftrag, der Kommunikationssituation, dem Sprachenpaar, den ZT-Rezipienten sowie einer Reihe weiterer Faktoren unterschiedliche Lsungsmglichkeiten angeboten: Die Palette reicht von der Verwendung eines funktionalen quivalents (Bsp.: DE: Amtsgericht vs. FI: krjoikeus) und dessen mglicher Erweiterung mithilfe lexikalischer Mittel, ber Paraphrasierungen, erklrende Umschreibungen sowie dem Rckgriff auf Editionstechniken, hin zu Generalisierungen oder formalen quivalenten, bis zur Fremdwortentlehnung oder gar der Neuschaffung eines Ausdrucks (vgl. Kinnunen 2006). Hinzu kommen verschiedene Mischformen sowie als weitere Alternative im bersetzungsprozess die Auslassung, die aber nur sehr bedingt verwendbar ist. Doch was tun mit Namen von Einrichtungen wie Suomen ni- ja kuvatallennetuottajat (Glied-fr-Glied: Suomen+ ni-+ ja+ kuva+ tallenne+ tuottajat Finnlands/ Finnische+ Gerusch/ Klang/ Stimme/ Laut+ und+ Bild/ Foto+ Aufzeichnung/ Aufnahme+ Hersteller/ Produzent/ Erzeuger)? Oder Steilyturvakeskus (Glied-fr-Glied: Steily+ turva+ keskus Strahlung/ Ausstrahlung+ Schutz/ Schirm/ Obhut+ Mitte/ Zentrum/ Zentrale)? Die weiter oben erwhnten Mglichkeiten zeigen zwar grundstzliche Lsungswege auf, erwecken aber z.T. den etwas trgerischen Eindruck, als wrde jeder bersetzer gleichsam wieder bei Null anfangen.

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In der universitren Lehre sollte angehenden bersetzern (im persnlichen Falle: Studierende im Sprachenpaar FI-DE mit Deutsch als B-Arbeitssprache) zwar eine kritischreflektierende Herangehensweise und der Mut zu eigenen Entscheidungen vermittelt werden, doch zugleich empfiehlt sich im beschriebenen Problemfall die Rckversicherung bei Autoritten, die Suche nach dem translatorischen Przedenzfall und dessen Evaluierung sowie eine Einschtzung, was an bersetzungen mglicherweise schon bekannt und etabliert ist. Vereinfacht ausgedrckt: Statt abzuwgen, wie bersetzt werden knnte, sollte die Problemlsung beginnen mit der Recherche danach, wie bereits mit Rcksicht auf die Situation bersetzt worden ist. Eine besondere Rolle spielt dabei die Besprechung mit Betroffenen oder wenn man so will die Konsultation des Denotats. D.h. vor Verwendung eines bersetzten Namens fr eine Organisation, Gesellschaft, Institution etc. wre selbige evtl. zu kontaktieren und Lsungsmgichkeiten abzusprechen. Auf Grundlage dieser berlegungen stellt der Beitrag das Arbeiten und die Entscheidungsablufe im Rahmen eines Kurses vor, in dem fr einen Radiosender Nachrichten von Studenten vom Finnischen ins Deutsche bersetzt werden.

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Jrgen F. SCHOPP University of Tampere jurgen.schopp@uta.fi

Auf dem Weg in die Professionalitt? Anmerkungen zur europischen bersetzungsnorm DIN EN 15038
Die im Jahr 2006 in Kraft getretene Europische Norm EN 15038 Translation services Service requirements (Deutsche Fassung: DIN EN 15038 bersetzungs-Dienstleistungen Dienstleistungsanforderungen), erstellt vom Technischen Komitee CEN/BT/TF 138 Translation Services, soll in den 29 beteiligten Translationskulturen vom Nordkap bis Sizilien, von Island bis Zypern der Qualittssicherung und Zertifizierung von bersetzungsdienstleistungen dienen. Dies basiert auf Festlegung und Definition von Anforderungen, die fr das Erbringen einer qualitativ hochwertigen Dienstleistung durch bersetzungsdienstleister erforderlich sind (DIN EN 15038, S. 4). Durch Beschreibung und Festlegung der gesamten Dienstleistung, ihrer Arbeitsprozesse und Anforderungen soll bersetzerinnen und bersetzern geholfen werden, den Bedrfnissen des Marktes gerecht zu werden (ibid.). Darber hinaus werden von den Urhebern als mittelbare Ziele genannt: das Vertrauen in die professionelle Leistung unseres Berufes steigern sowie Image und Lobby des bersetzerberufes auf eine mit anderen Berufen vergleichbare Ebene anheben (so der Obmann des deutschen Ausschusses Enrique Lpez-Ebri in MD 6/2004:11). Dies ist als Eingestndnis zu werten, dass mancherorts die Ausbungsformen schriftlicher Translation noch nicht als vollgltiger Beruf angesehen werden bzw. angesehen werden knnen, m.a.W., dass wesentliche Merkmale eines Berufes (wie strukturierte Ausbildung und Aneignung von relevanten Kenntnissen und Fertigkeiten, ffentlich anerkannter Qualifikationsnachweis, Autonomie des Handelns, Know-howVorsprung) auf das bersetzen (noch) nicht zutreffen bzw. diesem nicht zugestanden werden. Eine genaue Analyse von Begriffsinventar und Inhalt der Norm zeigt deutlich deren Kompromisscharakter, bedingt durch die groe Zahl von beteiligten Translationskulturen mit ihren z.T. erheblich differierenden Arbeitsprinzipien und -konventionen. Deutlich wird auch das in vielen der beteiligten Translationskulturen nicht ausreichend reflektierte berufliche Selbstverstndnis. Letzteres muss einerseits als Folge des inhomogenen Zugangs zum translatorischen Ttigkeitsfeld gesehen werden, ist andererseits aber auch auf die unter Auftraggebern, Applikatoren und Nutznieern von Translaten weit verbreiteten unrealistischen Vorstellungen vom bersetzen als rein fremdsprachlicher Umkodierungsakt und schlielich auf einen nicht ausreichenden Praxisbezug vieler universitrer Ausbildungssttten zurckzufhren. Vor dem Hintergrund eines funktional-kommunikativen bersetzungsbegriffs , der schriftliche Translation weniger als interkulturelle Kommunikation per se sieht, sondern als professionelle Ttigkeit zur Herstellung funktionsgerechter Kommunikationsmittel auf der Basis eines Auftrags und ausgangskulturellen Materials , und basierend auf einer Analyse der personellen und fachlichen Grundlagen versucht dieser Beitrag anhand der Begriffe Korrekturlesen und Mehrwertdienstleistung aus der Norm darzulegen, inwieweit diese geeignet ist, die anfangs genannten Ziele zu erreichen und Missstnden auf dem Translationsmarkt abzuhelfen.

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Daniel SIMEONI York University (Toronto) dsimeoni@yorku.ca

The Babelian Status of Method The Case of Research in Translation Studies


Research in Translation Studies raises inevitably the question of method. Although orderly approaches to translational phenomena abound, it is only in the latest decade that issues of method have become topics of interest for the field. The most detailed and useful propositions so far have focussed on the methodological aspects of research (Pym 1998; Williams & Chesterman 2002). Given the unprecedented expansion of Translation Studies worldwide, the time has come to consider the cultural dimensions of method building. Certainly, the field as it exists today is overwhelmingly dominated by the use of English as koin, thus inviting a convergence of purposes and practices. However, the diversity of possible approaches to translational phenomena far exceeds the array of methods classically conveyed in English through the usual binary oppositions of quantitative/qualitative; nomothetic/idiographic; analytic/hermeneutic, empirical/postmodern etc. It matters in the present configuration of Translation Studies to consider method, not only as an exercise in the application of proven, past or existing models in the disciplines of the social sciences and the humanities but, potentially, as manifestations of culturally habituated modes of thinking. Equally valid yet differentiated worldwide, alternative modes of thinking and doing research need to be sought after and positively recruited. Spivaks famous critique (1992) that epistemes (ways of constructing objects of knowledge) should not have national names is a salutary reminder such correlations entail a reduction of autonomous, agentive thinking but it is difficult also to ignore that the social sciences grew out of Europe in the 19th century in a climate of intense nationalistic fever, or to overlook the fact that the postcolonial emergence of new scholarships in Asia and in Africa could not be expected to indulge in method-building in the usual terms. Neither can European practices be reduced to the types of binary choices cited above. My personal experience of those issues has been the result of my position in a translatortraining institution shaped by the French/English model of Canadas official bilingualism. I will explore some of the challenges arising from increasingly multicultural, consciously globalized landscapes, typical of metropolitan identities built in the past around monolingual, monocultural cores and, currently, constitutive of microcosmic situations. In this context, issues of method take on a truly epistemic importance, where the widest range of variation is to be hoped for, by virtue of its being factually and ethically justified. Further, I will argue that it is by enlarging the scope of the discussion from issues of methodologies to considerations of method that Translation Studies will be in a position to free itself from the cast of secondariness which, despite its evident success, has characterized its development for most of the past 30 years. Approaches to translation have been consistently second in their discussion of method, applying interpretative models developed earlier in other disciplines or branches thereof: literary studies, applied linguistics, semiotics, hermeneutics, cognitive psychology, cultural studies, sociology, history and, lately, trying to make the most of a so-called business ethics. The Babelian quality of translation is also that of its methods. Recognizing the specificity of the field would not only help to construct more relevant and more creative scholarships, thus serving the interests of new TS scholars. It might also contribute a model of inquiry to many disciplines in the social sciences and the humanities currently undergoing an overtly acknowledged crisis (see e.g. Spivak 2003 and Wallerstein 2004).

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References: Pym, Anthony. 1998. Method in Translation History. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1992. The Politics of Translation. In Outside in the Teaching Machine. London & New York: Routledge. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 2003. Death of a Discipline. New York, Columbia University Press. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. The Uncertainties of Knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Williams, Jenny and Andrew Chesterman. 2002. The MAP. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

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Mary SNELL-HORNBY University of Vienna mary.snell-hornby@univie.ac.at

Is Translation Studies Going Anglo-Saxon? Critical Comments on the Globalization of a Discipline


The paper focusses on the importance of Translation Studies within society as a whole and in a world that would no longer function without translation and interpreting. In this context translation (and with it interpreting) is seen essentially as an act of communication, whereby we need to distinguish between translation in the globalized world of commerce, technology and international institutions (the latter described in Koskinen 2004 as discourse systems) and translation as dialogue across cultures. In the first area we are concerned particularly with pragmatic texts, specialized translation (and conference interpreting), needing subject area expertise, in the latter with operative and expressive texts (and dialogue interpreting), needing cultural expertise and sensitivity (all seen prototypically, the borderlines are of course fuzzy). All these fields are included in the interdiscipline of Translation (and Interpreting) Studies. Our problem lies in a striking development of the last few years, and that is the overwhelming use of English as a global language, both in the form of a lingua franca, and as a language of publication and conference presentation. This also applies for Translation Studies, and for the scientific community, the discipline and its metadiscourse it involves specific problems: the danger is increasing that the language English is not only used as a means of communication, but is actually becoming part of the object of discussion, with publications or international conferences largely or even exclusively in English, concerning texts in languages contrasted to English and with English examples. This inevitably means that Anglo-American discourse has an advantage over that in other languages and cultures, thus defeating the very purpose of Translation Studies (see Snell-Hornby 2006 and forthcoming). A further issue is the nature and quality of the English used, particularly when it is a second or foreign language or a relay language in translation and interpreting: the pseudo-English of EU hybrid texts as defined by Schffner and Adab (1997) and the UN texts described by Didaoui (1995) are a case in point, often leading to confusion and conflict. There are a number of possible solutions, and these will be presented in the paper and their feasibility discussed. One is the concept of passive multilingualism, quite common among literary translators, and as was already discussed for the European Union in the early 1990s (cf. Finkenstaedt and Schrder 1992). Research is currently in progress investigating the possibility of bridge languages (e.g.. one prototypical or relatively simple Slavonic, Germanic or Romance language) which would facilitate passive listening and reading skills for other languages in the family concerned. This would provide a forum for multilingual conferences and publications, thus encouraging a form of communication which respects cultural differences and does not depend on a single lingua franca. This in turn might promote better interlingual and intercultural communication which after all is what matters in Translation Studies.

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References Didaoui. Mohammed. 1995. Communication interferences in a multilingual environment. The role of translators. Vienna: unpubl. doctoral thesis. Finkenstaedt, Thomas and Schrder, Konrad. 1992. Sprachen im Europa von morgen. Berlin: Langenscheidt. Koskinen, Kaisa. 2004. Shared culture? Reflections on recent trends in Translation Studies. Target 16 (1): 143-156. Schffner, Christina and Adab, Beverly. 1997. Translation as intercultural communication Contact as conflict. In Translation as Intercultural communication. Selected Papers from the EST Congress Prague 1995, ed. Mary Snell-Hornby, Zuzana Jettmarva and Klaus Kaindl, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 325-337. Snell-Hornby, Mary. 2006. The Turns of Translation Studies. New paradigms or shifting viewpoints? Amsterdam: Benjamins. Snell-Hornby (forthcoming). Whats in a name? On metalinguistic confusion in Translation Studies. Target.

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Ubaldo STECCONI European Commission ubaldo.stecconi@ec.europa.eu

What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Translation?


Introduction In the past three decades, translation research has used ideas from several neighbouring disciplines including linguistics, literary theory, game theory, cultural studies, sociology, and memetics. However, in spite of repeated attempts to stake their claim in the humanities and the social sciences, translation scholars have yet to find a common core of premises and principles of their own. As a result, centrifugal forces are stronger than centripetal forces and the wouldbe discipline cannot even give a stable account of its own object of study. Translation Studies urgently needs to fill its hollow theoretical core if it is to fulfil its promise. The present paper is intended precisely as a contribution in this direction. A semiotic foundation of translation is proposed based on insights drawn from Peirces theory of signs. The foundation is composed of three logicosemiotic conditions similarity, difference, and mediationwhich make up an ordinary Peircean triad. Together, these characters can help researchers ascertain whether an identifiable form of signaction belongs with translation semiosis or not. Here follows a brief description of the proposed model in seven propositions. Seven propositions (1) The starting hypothesis is that there exists a form of signaction which is specific to translation. Signaction is also called semiosis, so this special form can be called translation semiosis or Tsemiosis for short. (2) It is possible to state the logicosemiotic conditions to Tsemiosis. Much of the presentation will be devoted to argue that these conditions are similarity, difference, and mediation. (3) The three characters are existential conditions, therefore they are related to but not determined by the cultural and historical settings in which translating occurs. Together, the three characters constitute the foundation of translation. (4) The foundation describes translation in potential terms; it is a negativegeneral conception, so to speak. Full accounts of translation would require two additional and familiar conceptions: events and norms. Translation events are particulars such as a translator at work, a translation project, and a translated text. These events in turn are regulated by translation norms as they are currently understood in the literature. Norms are again general conceptions, but this time of the positive sort. The resulting picture is a twolayered model. (5) The six conceptions included in the diagram below can be used to trace an edge in the semiosphere around Tsemiosis. However, the foundation (and its characters), events, and norms play different roles. If one wished to use this model to decide whether a given event belongs with Tsemiosis, the foundation would not give a positive answer, only a negative one. It would tell one what translation is not, rather than what it is.

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Norms

Mediation Foundation Similarity Difference Events

(6) Proposition no. 5 implies that Tsemiosis is an eventlike entity rather than an object like entity. Although Tsemiosis cannot exist apart from objectlike entities such as words, images, and sounds, it cannot be identified with any of them either. Translating and translated signs merely manifest Tsemiosis. (7) The model does not entail that translating necessarily involves natural languages. However common interlinguality may be in actual translating, Tsemiosis is not existentially defined by verbal signs: translating is not something we do with words, but something we do to words and to other kinds of sign as well. Essential bibliography Chesterman, Andrew. 2006. Interpreting the Meaning of Translation, in A Man of Measure: Festschrift in Honour of Fred Karlsson on his 60th Birthday. Mickael Suominen, Antti Arppe, Anu Airola, Orvokki Heinmki, Matti Miestamo, Urho Mtt, Jussi Niemi, Kari K. Pitknen and Kaius Sinnemki (eds.). Special supplement to SKY Journal of Linguistics vol. 19. 311. Also available at http://www.ling.helsinki.fi/sky/julkaisut/SKY2006_1/1FK60.1.1.CHESTERMAN.pdf (accessed 19 February 2007) Cosculluela, Ccile. 2003. Semiotics and Translation Studies: An Emerging Interdisciplinarity. Semiotica 145 (14). 105137. Eco, Umberto and Siri Nergaard. 1998. Semiotic Approaches, in Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. Mona Baker (ed., assisted by Kirsten Malmkjr). London and New York: Routledge. 218222. Gorle, Dinda L. 1994. Semiotics and the Problem of Translation: With Special Reference to the Semiotics of Charles S. Peirce. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi. Petrilli, Susan, ed. 2003. Translation Translation. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi. Stecconi, Ubaldo. 2004. A Map of Semiotics for Translations Studies, in Similarity and Difference in Translation. Stefano Arduini and Robert Hodgson (eds.). Rimini: Guaraldi and New York: Nida Institute of Biblical Scholarship. 153168. Stecconi, Ubaldo. 2004. Interpretive Semiotics and Translation Theory: The Semiotic Conditions to Translation. Semiotica 150 (1/4). 471489. Torop, Peeter. 2002. Translation as Translating as Culture. Sign Systems Studies 30 (2). 593605. Toury, Gideon. 1986. Translation. A Cultural-Semiotic Perspective, in Encyclopedic Dictionary of Semiotics. Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.). Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 11111124. van Kesteren, Aloysius. 1978. Equivalence Relationships between Source Text and Target Text: Towards a Typology on the Basis of Semiotics, in Literature and Translation: New Perspectives in Literary Studies, James S Holmes, Jos Lambert, Raymond van den Broeck, Marcel Janssens and Andr Lefevere (eds.). Leuven: Acco. 4868.

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Radegundis STOLZE EST, University of Technology Darmstadt radi.stolze@t-online.de

A Systemic Model of Translation


There is complaint about the fact that the translators status were not adequately perceived in public. To improve this we propose seeing the profession in a systemic model. Translating means to communicatively act as a historically rooted person in the social field, in order to enable communication among people of different languages. The translating person looks out for orientation in the respective worlds of cultures and languages. Understanding as a prerequisite of translation is not a matter of fact, and individual aspects of translational action have their impact on other acts, within the overall procedural system. Within the field of TS there are numerous studies on various aspects of translation, such as teaching, contrastive linguistics, software tools, terminology, audiovisual requirements, comparative literature, mental activities, etc. The question is: What is the hidden link among all those studies, how can all this be brought together in order to constitute a visible discipline of TS? Integration is seen in a systemic view of the translator in his or her personal development by the professional activity performed. Living systems are constantly changing, as they grow in a permanent interaction with their environment. The paper will reflect four aspects of translation by human beings, different from the computer: the emotional motivation, the material outfit, the cognitive process, the intellectual enrichment. Development, impact, and mutual interaction of those factors are being discussed. This approach is based on the hermeneutic theory of translation which places the translator as a person in the centre. Understanding and communication include a wider range of factors than have been discussed so far as elements of translation competence (Neubert 2000:10): (1) language competence, (2) textual competence, (3) subject competence, (4) cultural competence, (5) transfer competence. We might ask how all those competences are being developed in the life of translators. Others call for a multidimensional translation (MuTra Project) focusing on the situational embedding of translation, such as LSP, interpreting, audio-visual media, project-management, etc., neglecting the translator. The translators perspective on media and texts, though, is varying. The systemic evolution of a translation competence proves to be a helical movement integrating complex input, rather than a linear process. Strategies of translation and solutions found are influenced by the translators knowledge base and the professional equipment, rather than by the structures of a text to be translated. The translators growth is one of the most decisive factors in the whole procedure of translating. The various factors of the model might even render new insights for translation criticism. Creative translational decisions can be judged against a wider background and better understood in their causes. There is never only one linguistic feature provoking a translational reaction, as was long supposed in TS. A widening of the theoretical horizon integrating extra-textual elements as well may be fruitful.

References Neubert, A. 2000. Competence in language, languages, and in translation. In: Schaeffner, C. & Adab. B. (eds.) Developing Translation Competence. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 3-18. Stolze, R. 2003. Hermeneutik und Translation. Tbingen: Narr.
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Kayoko TAKEDA Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Monterey Institute of International Studies kayokot@msn.com

Why Translation Studies Matters Comments Based on a Dissertation


As a PhD student working on my dissertation, I would like to discuss why my dissertation should matter to others in response to the theme of the 5th EST Congress, Why Translation Studies matters. My dissertation examines sociopolitical aspects of interpreting at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE, commonly known as Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, 1946-1948). I am focusing on the fact that three socially and ethnically different groups of people were chosen to engage in three separate functions in the interpreting process: Japanese nationals as interpreters; Japanese Americans as monitors; and U.S. military officers as language arbiters who ruled on disputed interpretations and translations. I am also analyzing the interactions among the court participants and those involved in the interpreting process during the interpreted testimonies of Japanese witnesses. This is intended to examine the hypothesis that interpreters awareness of their standing in the power constellation of the setting in which they operate affects their behavior and strategies in interpreting. I believe that my research will contribute to the field of Translation and Interpreting Studies by adding new information and providing materials for others to work with since there has been very little research done on the unique features of interpreting at the IMTFE. In addition, I hope that my focus on sociopolitical aspects of interpreting will broaden the scope of research which applies sociocultural approach, as it represents the latest turn in Interpreting Studies. Will my dissertation also matter to people outside the realm of translation and interpreting research? First, historians and political scientists may appreciate new information my work might offer them in the accounts of the IMTFE. In particular, my finding of the link between the interpreting problems in the military trials in Manila and the decision to use Japanese nationals as interpreters at the IMTFE should throw new light on the course of post-war events concerning Japan and the U.S. policy on the occupation of Japan. If my dissertation attracts attention from people outside academia, it would be from those interested in the experience of Japanese Americans during World War II and the role of military linguists (interpreters and translators) in general. The Japanese Americans who worked as monitors and translators during the IMTFE were among those who were forcibly relocated to internment camps after Japans attack on Pearl Harbor. The U.S. Army recruited them from the camps to train for military intelligence in its Japanese language school while their families stayed in the camps as enemy aliens. These military linguists were sent to the Pacific to work as translators and interrogators, and after the war they worked in various activities of the occupation forces in Japan, including war crimes trials. My investigation on the sociopolitical background of these Japanese American linguists should reveal some aspects of the U.S. language policy and the psychological complexity applicable to military linguists who work in settings that are adversarial to their heritage. This is a relevant and important topic in the context of todays war on terror, in which the U.S. government recruits speakers of Arabic, Farsi and Pashto, etc. for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. I hope that my work will serve as a reference in the current discussion on the recruitment and activity of linguists who work in intelligence and on the warfront.

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In summary, if my dissertation does matter to people outside the field of Translation and Interpreting Studies, it would be because it views interpreting as a socially situated activity and focuses on the social, cultural and political contexts of the setting in which interpreters work. Such an approach can provide a different perspective in the observation of human activities and contribute to a deeper and fuller understanding of such activities.

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Arvi TAVAST Tallinn University at@nu.ee

On Translation Practice, Translator Attitudes and Customer Requirements


Even if most translators do not consciously follow any particular translation theory when translating, they have internalised beliefs about what translation is and what is expected from or allowed to a translator. In a particular project, these beliefs may or may not correspond to what is actually expected from the translator by the customer or their validator (an independent contractor commissioned to evaluate the translation product and/or the translator's work). Moreover, these beliefs may or may not be expressed in the actual translation produced. For the purposes of this paper, beliefs about translation are divided in two broad groups: text-based (the translator is turning the source text into the target text) and performative (the translator is using the target text to do things with words). It is hypothesized that the latter produce texts that are in better agreement with customer requirements, although there is a significant number of translators who proclaim performative beliefs, but still translate in a text-based way. The first pilot stage of the study concentrated on finding out what the prevailing beliefs are, and comparing them to the educational background and translation experience of the respondents. Translation samples were only available for a limited number of respondents and not specially selected for the text-based vs performative distinction. This paper reports on the second stage of the study, where all respondents are asked to translate a short but problem-ridden text and, after finishing the translation, answer questions about how they translated, what they tried to achieve, and what they believe about the nature of translation. The test translation is a consumer-oriented IT text of the type where customer requirements are relatively well established and in many cases also documented in translation briefs, translation vendor contracts or quality assurance guidelines. The simulated translation environment is typical of the IT translation field with less than perfect communication between translator and customer, tight deadlines and a lot of independent decision-making by the translator. Rather than being metatexts or linguistic studies about the original, such translations are meant to achieve something on their own, calling for a covert (House), instrumental (Nord) or performative (Robinson) translation. The translator is expected to behave as a responsible human communicator, not as a mechanical transcoder of texts. The test translation contains problems that depend for their solution upon beliefs about the nature of translation: - Full synonyms used in the source text. After applying sufficient subject-field knowledge to recognise their identical meaning, the translator has to decide whether to translate them with one word or to find two target-language synonyms. - Typing errors that change the meaning of the source text to something that can't possibly be true. Some translators base their translations on what they believe is true, some on what they believe is written in the source text. - Poor style, e.g. unnecessary repetitions and exceedingly complex or monotonous sentence structure. The choice is between retaining the style of the source text and writing a fluent translation. Any correlation between translation solutions adopted and beliefs about which solutions should be adopted, as well as the comparison of both to customer requirements, can be used to set objectives for translator training.

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Gaby THOMSON-WOHLGEMUTH University of Surrey, UK indico@asgard1.freeserve.co.uk

Rewriting Of Literature What Happened with English-Language Books for Young People in East Germany?
When the children in the GDR read a book by a foreign writer, they ought to hear something about life in other countries. Things that differ from the immediate sphere of experience of the children in our country will be the most interesting for them, these words can be found in the print permit files commenting on the book Janey by Bernard Ashley (DR1/2305). This quote appears to embrace Otherness and to welcome new concepts into the East German culture. However, East German reality was quite the opposite and the outlook for foreign literature was bleak. Xenophobic notions, hostile of Western mentality, did not allow the child readers to see the full picture of the West, but only what the state wished them to see. And this image, which the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was eager to convey to young people, exhibited a Western world that was evil, destructive and doomed to demise. This paper presents some of the results from a completed PhD thesis, dealing with the translation of English-language literature for children and adolescents in the GDR. It explores the effects of ideology on the translation process with respect to choice of books and manipulation of the texts. Drawing on Andre Lefeveres concept of rewriting, this paper will describe rewriting strategies as employed in the GDR. When Lefevere wrote, the rewriter will frequently adapt works of literature until they can be claimed to correspond to the poetics and the ideology of their age (1985:226), this perfectly fits the East German scenario. There, rewriting took place in various shapes and forms, in order to align foreign books with the indigenous production and make possible a print permit. The fact that, after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the entire documentation between publishers and censorship authority was made publicly available, enables researchers to recognise the extent of rewriting and also the criteria according to which literary texts were rewritten. A literary system also operates with a code, which makes [...] communication between author and reader possible (Lefevere 1985:229). Researching the files, the existence of such a code becomes immediately visible. In an application for a print permit, clear and unambiguous communication was essential. It was vital to use a code that would demonstrate to the censor the socialist qualities of the text and make him or her classify it as belonging to the existing canon of socially accepted childrens books. The full implications of the necessity of using such codification becomes more than evident in the publishers attempt to integrate a whole new genre into East German society; a genre that used to be frowned upon for three decades but, with the gradual widening of literary boundaries, had come into reach for potential publication. Hence, this paper investigates the set of criteria that was used at various levels to make books appear to conform with the East German literary paradigms and, as a result, allow them to pass the socio-cultural border. Examples will be provided from the discourse in the print permit files, also incorporating the description of a genre added to the childrens literary canon in the 1980s.

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Luc VAN DOORSLAER*, Yves GAMBIER** * Lessius University College, Translation Studies luc.vandoorslaer@lessius.eu ** University of Turku, Finland yves.gambier@utu.fi

Does Meta Matter? Some Aspects of the Use of Metalanguage(s) in Translation Studies
Every scholarly discipline at certain stages in its development is confronted with the limitations and irregularities of its metalanguage. Problematic variations of usage and conceptualization also exist in the theory and practice of translation. This issue directly relates with the central topic of this conference, since it raises a set of questions about the role of translation and Translation Studies (TS), the influence from other disciplines, the "mapping" of translation concepts, the consistency of metalanguages, the usefulness of a metadiscourse, the possible contribution of a metalanguage to the social status of translators, etc. Though the compilation of anthologies, dictionaries, encyclopaediae and bibliographies, TS has already dealt with the phenomenon of metalanguage(s). Nevertheless, all of these publications are based on models and criteria, sometimes implicitly, sometimes explicitly. They have all supported the visibility of the discipline, but what have been the consequences for the readability and the understandability? This presentation will focus on several aspects of the conceptualization and the metadiscourse in the field of TS for several types of interaction. * Translation scholars have different backgrounds, sometimes they use the same term but with different meanings. For example, does "text" mean the same to researchers in translation, interpreting, media studies or linguistics? Do the same problems occur in a transdisciplinary situation, communicating with non-translation scholars? - To what extent does the academic situation (working in networks, in scholarly communities, through journals and conferences)require an "appropriate" terminology? - How can experts in a training or teaching situation meet the expectations of the trainees to use a "clear" language? Is quality improved by the standardization of concepts? - How does the metalanguage influence the bidirectionality in scholar-topractitioner communication? Do we need a "common" language for the attempts to correlate evaluation and quality? - What metalanguage do/can scholars use in their contacts with decision makers,like publishers or bureaucrats deciding on grants or subsidies? - Is there a need for a conceptual potential to popularize the discipline, since journalists, literay critics, etc., ask for appropriate concepts when they refer to questions of translation? What can be the role of metaphors in the popularization? - What are the consequences of the use of English as a lingua franca in international fora for the metadiscourse in other languages and how can this be dealt with? - How do new technologies and new media affect and/or mark the metalanguage of TS? We will tackle these questions, with our experiences as scholars, teachers and editors.

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Sonia VANDEPITTE University College Ghent, Belgium sonia.vandepitte@hogent.be

Translation Strategies versus Reformulation Techniques versus Meaning Shifts A Triadic Description Framework for Text-Oriented Translation Studies
The present paper deals with the question of how to describe data in text-oriented translation studies. In 1997 Chesterman presented a heuristic classification of textual strategies (1997 Ch 4, repeated in Chesterman and Wagner 2002: 60-63). This categorization - based on two linguistic types of features, the syntactic and semantic ones, combined with a category of pragmatic strategies can, however, also be used to describe the results of the translation process. Unfortunately, it contains some conceptual problems that are already announced by Chesterman himself. For example, the three categories are not mutually exclusive: some strategies from one category also belong to another (the phrase structure changes of modification and definiteness strategies can also be seen as semantic strategies since they concern meaning). Secondly, some of the strategies (even within one category) seem to be of a totally different nature: literal translation, paraphrase and cultural filtering are applied for reasons that are different from those underlying the application of, e.g., transposition, synonymy and illocutionary change, respectively. So, if [w]e are only beginning to establish the conditions under which a particular strategy is used (or rather: used successfully) (Chesterman and Wagner 2002:64), it is probably not only the complexity of the facts that plays a role, but also these weaknesses with the categorization of the conceptual tools available. Molina and Albir (2002) already propose a remedy for the second weakness: they clearly distinguish between translation method and strategies to describe larger and smaller textual and contextual process-oriented features, on the one hand, and translation techniques to refer to result-oriented characteristics of a translation at a small level, on the other hand. Applying the literature critically and paying much attention to underlying criteria, they present an alphabetical list of eighteen micro-level textual techniques without any categorization going from adaptation to variation. Unfortunately, no distinction has been made between those techniques that imply a meaning difference and those that do not. In fact, their discussion hardly ever refers to the semantic and pragmatic impact translation techniques have. The present paper will therefore set up a conceptually improved approach which is triadic in nature. The new model will distinguish between translation strategies, reformulation techniques (taking into account findings from Brondeel 1998 and 2001, Langeveld 1986, Vandepitte 2001 and Vandepitte 2005) and meaning shifts. Following Molina and Albir, translation strategies will be considered as directly related to the process of translation: they direct the translators choice between alternative formulations. They are not themselves directly visible but they can be inferred systematically from the translation choices that have been made. In contrast, reformulation techniques and meaning shifts are directly retrievable from the source and target texts. Indeed, target texts (whether literary or not) can be compared with their source texts in terms of their different formulations and in terms of their meanings. Both types of descriptive analyses yield their own results: some reformulations in a target text imply meaning shifts, while others do not.

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The model will be illustrated with an analysis of the Dutch translation of Philip Roths American Pastoral. Finally, the importance of all results will be pointed out. The results from the techniques analysis yield relevant insights for linguistic understanding within both semantics and syntax. Meaning shift descriptions contribute to the description of concepts and more complex cognitive entities related to one language and their reduplication in another language, while they are also useful for automated translation, and yield data on translation strategies at the same time. Finally, comparing the differences between source and target texts, and discussing the alternative choices translators could have made, reveal translators strategies and their conformity to certain conscious or unconscious norms in translation publishing.

Bibliography Brondeel, Herman. 1998. Vertaalroutines Engels-Nederlands. TT-M Cahier, 3, 5-64. [Online]. http://veto.hogent.be/onderzoek/publicaties/Scan0202.pdf. [31.10.2006]. Brondeel, Herman. 2001. De vertaalroutines Revisited. In: Willy Vandeweghe, Stefaan Evenepoel, Alfons Maes & Alfons De Meersman (red.): Polyfonie. Opstellen voor Paul Van Hauwermeiren. Gent: Mercator Hogeschool Provincie Oost-Vlaanderen. pp. 42-54. Chesterman, Andrew. 1997. Memes of Translation. The spread of ideas in translation. (Benjamins Translation Library, 22). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. Chesterman, Andrew and Emma Wagner. 2002. Can Theory Help Translators? A Dialogue Between the Ivory Tower and the Wordface. Translation Theories Explained, Vol. 9. Manchester: St. Jerome. Langeveld, Arthur. 1986. Vertalen wat er staat. Amsterdam: Arbeiderspers. Molina, Luca and Amparo Hurtado Albir. 2002. Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach. In: Meta, XLVII, 4, pp. 498-512. Vandepitte, Sonia. 2001. Kritische reflectie bij Brondeels vertaalroutines. In: Willy Vandeweghe, Stefaan Evenepoel, Alfons Maes & Alfons De Meersman (red.): Polyfonie. Opstellen voor Paul Van Hauwermeiren. Gent: Mercator Hogeschool Provincie OostVlaanderen. 192-201. Vandepitte, Sonia. 2005. Translation English-Dutch 1L. Unpublished syllabus. Gent: Hogeschool Gent, Departement Vertaalkunde.

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Martina VANKOV University of Vienna vankusova@a1.net

Slowakisch Brckensprache zur Slawischen Welt? Mglichkeiten und Grenzen einer kleinen EU-Sprache
Der Beitrag beschftigt sich mit der Bedeutsamkeit einer diversifizierten Mehrsprachigkeit der Europer von heute, insbesondere die der bersetzer und Dolmetscher, die in den diversen internationalen Institutionen, hier stellvertretend in den Sprachdiensten der Europischen Union, ihrem Beruf (oder vielleicht doch ihrer Berufung?) nachgehen. Die Kommunikation innerhalb der Europischen Union berhrt fast alle Gebiete der menschlichen Ttigkeit, was fr den Wortschatz der neuen EU-Sprachen, in die bersetzt wird, einerseits eine nachhaltige Bereicherung mit sich bringt. Einige der neuen EUMitgliedslnder sahen sich im Bezug auf den Beitritt zur EU sogar gezwungen, berhaupt eine Terminologie zu schaffen, oder, wie im Falle der Slowakei, die bestehende Terminologie aufzubauen und zu modernisieren. A erdem profitieren die neuen EU-Sprachen auch von einer auch wenn nur begrenzten internationalen Wahrnehmung. Andererseits sendet die Europische Union mit ihrer sprachenpolitischen Manahmen auch extrem widersprchliche Signale aus: offiziell wird betont, dass alle 20 EU-Sprachen Amts- und Arbeitssprachen sind, Englisch, Franzsisch und Deutsch mutierten aber nach der letzten EU-Erweiterung von Arbeitssprachen zu Verfahrenssprachen (engl. procedural languages), wobei Englisch in den diversen bersetzungsstatistiken eindeutig in Fhrung liegt. Dem hohen Prozentsatz der slawischsprachigen EU-Brger wird auch nach dem Beitritt Bulgariens nicht Rechnung getragen. Englisch ist weit ber die Funktion einer Nationalsprache hinausgewachsen und laut Clyne (2001) als globale Lingua franca lngst entnationalisiert. In seiner simplifizierten Euro-Englisch-Form ist es eine leichte Sprache und in der Regel bereitet das bersetzen aus diesem Englisch in andere EU-Sprachen keine Schwierigkeiten, die aber sehr wohl auftreten, sobald beispielsweise ein EU-Kommissar aus einem neuen EU-Land fr die von ihm initiierte Kampagne als Motto ausgerechnet ein Sprichwort in seiner Landessprache whlt. Wie kann man solche translatorische Herausforderungen angehen? Die inzwischen international mehrfach ausgezeichnete Mehrsprachigkeitsmethode EuroCom bietet einen mglichen Ansatz, indem sie deutlich macht, dass die meisten europischen Sprachen keine Fremdsprachen sind. Die EuroComLernmethode baut auf einer mglichst gut entwickelten sprachlichen Kompetenz in einer Brckensprache, die den Weg zu den verwandten Idiomen ffnen kann. Um den Zugang zu allen slawischen Sprachen zu erreichen, wurde von der Forschergruppe EuroComSlav das Russische als Brckensprache gewhlt, denn es ist die am weitesten verbreitete slawische Fremdsprache. Es wird weiters an allen universitren slawischen Seminaren gelehrt, garantiert den Zugang zu den kyrillisch schreibenden slawischen Sprachen, ist eine UNO-Sprache, hat die meisten Sprecher unter den Slawen und scheint daher als Ausgangssprache fr EuroComSlav geradezu prdestiniert. Andererseits kann man das kyrillische Alphabet innerhalb von wenigen Stunden lernen und auch die geographische Lage Russlands und der dadurch begrenzter Kontakt mit den anderen slawischen Sprachen sprechen eher gegen Russisch Als eine typische slawische Sprache, um sich den Zugang zu den slawischen Sprachen zu erschlieen, empfiehlt Pfandl (1995) Slowakisch, Slowenisch oder Tschechisch.

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In der slowakischen Schriftsprache dominiert der westslawische lexikalische Charakter, zugleich ist jedoch auch die Bindung des Slowakischen an die sdslawischen und ostslawischen Sprachen belegbar, so das Habovtiak (1993) die zentrale Stellung des Slowakischen inmitten der slawischen Sprachen besttigt sieht. Der Beitrag sieht somit in dem EuroCom-Ansatz einen wertvollen Zugang, wobei darauf hingewiesen wird, dass man sich vor der Verwendung von kleineren Brckensprachen nicht verschlieen soll, wenn die zu berbrckenden Sprachspalten einen kleineren Durchmesser haben.

References: Besters-Dilger, Juliane & de Cillia, Rudolf & Krumm, Hans Jrgen & Rindler Schjerve, Rosita (Hgg.) (2003) Mehrsprachigkeit in der erweiterten Europischen Union. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag Clyne, Michael (2001) Englisch zwischen plurizentrischer Nationalsprache und internationaler Sprache. In: Ehlich, Konrad (Hg.)(2001) Hochsprachen in Europa. Entstehung. Geltung. Zukunft. Freiburg:Filibach Habovtiak, Anton (1993) Zo slovensko-slovanskch lexiklnych vzahov (Zu den slowakisch-slawischen lexikalischen Beziehungen) Bratislava: Vydavatestvo Slovenskej akadmie vied Pfandl, Heinrich (1995) Zum Bonus und Malus des Russischen In: Wodak, Ruth & de Cillia, Rudolf (Hgg.) Sprachenpolitik in Mittel- und Osteuropa. Wien: Passagen Verlag Ondrejovi, Slavomr (1999) Slovenina v kontaktoch a konfliktoch s inmi jazykmi (Slowakisch in Kontakten und Konflikten mit anderen Sprachen) Bratislava Zybatow, Lew N. (Hg)(2004) Translation in der globalen Welt und neue Wege in der Sprachund bersetzerausbildung Innsbrucker Ringvorlesungen zur Translationswissenschaft II, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag Zybatow, Lew N. (Hg.)(2000) Sprachwandel in der Slavia. Die slavischen Sprachen an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Europischer Verlag der Wissenschaften

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Catherine WAY UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANADA cway@ugr.es

Training and Professional Practice: The Great Divide?


Very little is actually known about the relationship between translator training and the effects it may have on professional practice. Compiling data on the daily practice of professional translators is a minefield, often laborious, requiring a great deal of time and the selfless collaboration of those involved. Often, it is further hampered by the lack of research financing to pay for professional translators valuable time. This fact is proven by the relatively low number of studies to date which have involved professional translators. Nevertheless, as translator trainers, our concern for the social situation of sworn translators in Spain, one of the professional groups that occupies many of our graduates, has lead to a study applied to the sworn translation of degree certificates in Spanish and English in Spain. Part of the ongoing research from this wider study (Way, 2003), aims not only to describe what occurs in the daily professional practice of these documents in Spain, but also to obtain valuable information which could implement changes in our training programmes. As a result of the data compiled from the questionnaires sent to sworn translators of English in Spain, we have been able to perceive the importance of translator training in professional practice. Amongst the aspects which show a clear relation between the training received and daily professional practice we will highlight elements of instrumental competence (research skills), cultural competence (cultural and area studies), and textual competence (the use of certain formats for sworn translation), whist also commenting on the importance of other activities which constitute an integral part of translator training, such as European student mobility programmes. In this paper we will focus particularly on the training in textual competence concerning the format and presentation of official sworn translations and its reflection in professional practice. From the data compiled we will also be able to draw conclusions about how professional practice may influence our training programmes. The analysis of the data compiled also raises questions concerning life-long learning and the need for continuous training courses to keep professional translators up to date with market changes. We believe that this data clearly demonstrates the relationship between training and professional practice, as well as highlighting aspects of professional practice which require greater attention in our training programmes (professional socialization, continuous training, links between the profession and academia). The feedback from our graduates is an inestimable source of information for the future development of translation training programmes and for lifelong learning courses, which could be offered to them in order to supplement initial training and offer further training so that professional translators may meet changes in the requirements of market demands. Our paper will demonstrate that a closer relationship between the professional translator community and training centres is not only necessary in order to consolidate our profession in the 21st century, but is in fact vital and beneficial to both sectors.

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Rachel WEISSBROD Bar Ilan University weissbr1@mail.biu.ac.il

Translation Studies and Mass Media Research


The object of this paper is to point out the significance of translation and translation studies to the research of multilingualism in Israeli mass media, which is usually conducted in the framework of sociology and communication studies. Israeli mass media reflect and probably affect the multilingual and multicultural character of the country. Israelis use a variety of languages. Two of them, Hebrew and Arabic, are official, though in practice Hebrew is the dominant one. Other languages are used mainly by immigrants (Spolsky & Shohamy, 1999). Until recently, the use of the immigrants languages has been restricted by the national ideology and the melting-pot policy it has dictated. A gradual decline of the melting-pot policy and a mass immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the 1990s, have brought about great changes. The use of languages other than Hebrew is no more limited to private communication and is legitimate in public arenas as well. The decline of the melting-pot policy is part of globalization processes, whose effect is also manifested in the penetration of English into Israeli culture. Though few Israelis use English to communicate with each other, it is encountered everywhere in advertisements, street signs, names of companies, shops and restaurants, and in the internet. English is the language of globalization (Crystal, 1997), but its penetration into Israeli culture is also one of the symptoms of its growing Americanization (Rebhun & Waxman, 2000; Segev, 2002). Israels multilingualism can be observed in various cultural fields, including the mass media. Journals, radio stations and TV channels whose language is other than Hebrew are no longer a rarity. This situation has been investigated by sociologists and communication researchers (e.g. Adoni et al, 2002, 2006; Elias, 2005; Epstein and Kheimets, 2006). They have sought answers to questions such as: Does Israeli multilingualism as manifested in the mass media counterbalance the increasing power of English and the Americanization of Israel? And from another perspective: does the consumption of mass media in languages other than Hebrew lead to the segregation of the immigrants or, on the contrary, allow for a more smooth and gradual integration? Is one minority language preferred to another and how? In dealing with these issues, researchers have distinguished between mass media in Hebrew and other languages, failing to pay attention to translation which blurs this very distinction. To illustrate the relevance of translation to research dealing with the multilingualism of Israeli mass media, reference will be made to Israeli television. Since its launching in 1967 till the early 1990s, it consisted of one publicly owned channel. Imported films and programs have been broadcast with Hebrew and (usually) Arabic subtitles. Since the majority of imported films and programs are American, the use of subtitling as the main mode of translation (dubbing is only used in childrens programs) has contributed to the exposure of Israelis to English. If dubbing can be seen as a sort of resistance to the growing power of English, Israel has not manifested such resistance. Since the 1990s, Israeli television has changed significantly. The main changes are its transformation from a one channel to a multichannel television, the launching of commercial channels, the establishment of cable and satellite companies which broadcast to subscribers, and the move to digital broadcasting. These changes have affected translation norms.1 On many channels, imported films and programs are broadcast with (usually an optional) Russian translation in addition to the Hebrew one. Moreover, locally produced Hebrew channels (e.g., the Israeli cinema channel of the satellite company) are broadcast with Russian translation. The modes of translation used are subtitling and voice-over (immigrants from FSU favor voice-over because they have become accustomed to it in their countries of origin).

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If the access to mass media in the immigrants languages is supposed to have an impact on their social integration, then one should bear in mind that such an access is not limited to mass media produced in languages other than Hebrew. Production can be in any language, including Hebrew, and still accessible to the immigrants through translation. The multilingualism of Israels mass media involves power relations between its minority languages and here, too, translation plays an important role. In Israeli television today, translation into Russian is more widespread than translation into Arabic, despite the status of the latter as an official language. Taking translation into consideration is vital if one wants to assess the relative positions of Israeli minority languages vis--vis Hebrew and each other. To conclude, the multilingualism of Israeli mass media manifests itself not only in local production in languages other than Hebrew, but also in translation into languages other than Hebrew. Taking translation into consideration can contribute to mass media research in Israel and possibly in other multilingual countries - whether one is interested in its impact on immigrants absorption, the relations between minority languages, or the role of English as an agent of globalization and Americanization. Notes 1. The notion of norms (Toury, 2000) has been applied to media translation by e.g. Delabastita (1989) and Karamitroglou (2001).

Bibliography Adoni, Hanna, Dan Caspi & Akiba A. Cohen, 2002. "The Consumer's Choice: Language, Media Consumption and Hybrid Identities of Minorities", Communications: European Journal of Communication Research 27, pp. 411-436. --- 2006. Media, Minorities and Hybrid Identities: The Arab and Russian Communities in Israel (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press). Crystal, David, 1997. English as a Global Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Delabastita, Dirk, 1989. Translation and Mass Communication: Film and T.V. Translation as Evidence of Cultural Dynamics, Babel 35:4, pp. 193-218. Elias, Nelly, 2005. Media Uses as Integration Strategy: The Case of the Immigrants from the FSU in Israel, Tel Aviv: Chaim Herzog Institute for Communication, Society and Politics (in Hebrew). Epstein, Alek D. & Nina G. Kheimets, 2006. Between Globalization and Localization: The Linguistic Diversity of the Israeli Mass-Media, paper presented at the 5th Conference of the Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society, Raanana: The Open University of Israel (June 4). Karamitroglou, Fotios, 2001. The Choice between Subtitling and Revoicing in Greece: Norms in Action, Target 13:2, pp. 305-315. Rebhun, Uzi & Chaim Waxman, 2000. The Americanization of Israel: A Demographic, Cultural and Political Evaluation, Israel Studies 5:1, pp. 6591. Segev, Tom, 2002. Elvis in Jerusalem: Post-Zionism and the Americanization of Israel (New York: Metropolitan Books). Spolsky, Bernard & Elana Shohamy, 1999. The Languages of Israel: Policy, Ideology and Practice (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters). Toury, Gideon, 2000. The Nature and Role of Norms in Literary Translation, Lawrence Venuti (ed.), The Translation Studies Reader (London & New York: Routledge), pp. 198211.
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Boguslawa WHYATT School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland bcwhyatt@wp.pl

Rediscovering the Value of Translation as a Game for Bilingual Minds


As a teacher of translation courses offered for the students of English as a foreign language (EFL) at university level for 14 years Ive had the privilege to observe how students learn to play the game of translation. In this paper I would like to share my observations grounded on a small-scale longitudinal study in which 34 students were observed throughout a yearly course of translation. Research methods used for data collection included error analysis, questionnaire and Think Aloud Protocols (TAPs). The study had two objectives: to provide supportive evidence for viewing translation tasks as fitting within the game theory (see Gorlee 1994) and to observe the development of skills needed to play the game in the participants of the study. Although Fabbro (1999) noted that translating is what bilinguals do most of the time Im more inclined to agree with Grosjean (2001) that bilinguals choose (but presumably unconsciously) to function in either monolingual or bilingual language mode. This approach allows to find justification why EFL students whose proficiency is at the CAE level feel so lost when faced with a task of translating a simple text. Most of them although rightly classified as bilinguals have functioned in monolingual modes using either their foreign or native language for communication or comprehension without the need to translate the contents for other people to understand. Observing their initial disappointment with their own bilingual skills draws attention to their inability to exercise control (see De Groot, 2006: 189) not only over their knowledge of the two language systems but also over their general world knowledge, common sense and experience. It is exactly at this point that it becomes appropriate to view translation as a new game the EFL students have to learn to play. This approach should not be perceived as undermining the mental complexity of a translation task but as a way of encouraging students to accept that as in any other new game the acquisition of skills and the value of knowledge, practice and experience is essential to succeed. Translation thus as any other game we play has some requirements and offers some rewards. The analysis of research data reveals that for the EFL students the benefits of learning to play the game of translation are numerous and include: putting to test their bilingual knowledge in well-defined communicative situations, offering the excitement of searching for solutions, overcoming problems with memory access, encouriging to extend ones knowledge base by searching for information in external reference material and above all learning to exercise control over their own entire knowledge base. The analysis of TAPs recorded by the end of the yearly course reveals how students learn to integrate their knowledge networks in the process of translating texts. These networks include not only the knowledge of both languages or general world knowledge but also the less measurable components such as imagination, intuition, experience. The wrong choices they make in their translations reveal the still neglected areas in a foreign language classroom where too much stress is put on formal aspects of language at the expense of language usage, levels of formality, situational appropriateness, sensitivity to context, socio-cultural associations or cross-cultural empathy. Perhaps translation classes where translation is viewed as a kind of mental gymnastics will help EFL students to see that learning to use a foreign language to translate should go hand in hand with learning to use their mind.

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Ian WILLIAMS University of Cantabria (Spain) williams@unican.es

Getting the ACCENT Right in Translation Studies


In the last 20 years, developments in computer technology have contributed to a spectacular increase in corpus and contrastive studies. These methodologies have a great deal to offer translation studies both through empirical descriptive studies and as a means of making and testing hypotheses on language. Enhanced computer potential has also provided trainee and practising translators with valuable tools through translation memories and the ability to align source and target texts in parallel corpora. It is thus possible that theory and practice could follow separate paths, whereby theorists could choose to carry out contrastive studies on comparable corpora to feed their speculations on cultural divergence, whereas practitioners would prefer parallel corpus data, which could lead to the repetition or perpetuation of translation behaviour not in keeping with that found in comparable naturally ocurring data. This paper presents one possible way of bringing theory and practice closer together: ACCENT refers to the Application of Corpus-based Contrastive Evaluation for Natural Translation. Based on a corpus with both a comparable and parallel component, this approach yields empirical data that provide a solid basis for translation studies of a descriptive and theoretical nature; at the same time, however, the data can also be oriented towards translation practice. The corpus design allows the analyst to view the data from different viewpoints: interlinguistic analysis contrasts similar text types in two languages; intralinguistic analysis confronts the products of translation with comparable naturally occurring texts in the target language; and comparison of source and target texts provides insights into actual translation behaviour. In the proposed model, quantitative methods are used to establish the statistical norm for the linguistic phenomena under study in the two languages, and to identify areas of potential deviant behaviour in translated texts by detecting excesses and deficits. Qualitative analysis then examines the context to identify rhetorical environments in which the phenomena occur, and to create linguistic profiles including collocational and colligational patterns and semantic preferences. In a third evaluative stage, the statistical data and linguistic profiles are used to determine appropriate use and to formulate corrective procedures. These formulations are not prescriptive, that is they are not presented as what must be done, but what can be done: they represent frequency-based choices or preferred options in specific environments or contexts. The presentation will be illustrated by the example of first-person verb use in the Results sections of biomedical research articles. This case study is based on an extensive specialised corpus consisting of 192 research articles (500,000 words) and containing both comparable and parallel components. The analysis showed a similar bimodal use of first-person verbs in the Spanish and English native texts, with about half of the texts containing no such forms and the other half showing restricted use. However, Spanish texts including first-person forms used them more frequently than the English texts (92 versus 30 tokens) and the rhetorical patterns and linguistic profiles were different. Actual translation behaviour from English to Spanish revealed that no attempt had been made to adjust texts to what was identified as the Spanish target profile. Contextual analysis indicated that it was easier to apply corrective procedures to rectify the excesses in Spanish-to-English translation than to overcome the deficits by creating appropriate new first-person forms in English-to-Spanish translation.

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Michaela WOLF Institut fr Translationswissenschaft, Graz, Austria michaela.wolf@uni-graz.at

Dragomans in the Field The Reconstruction of the Social Field Of Interpreting in the Habsburg Monarchy
In multiethnic societies like the Habsburg Monarchy or the Ottoman Empire, the practice of translating and interpreting played a major role. In the interplay of international forces and especially between these two empires this practice turned into a particularly delicate activity, which required high diplomatic ability. Correspondingly, the dragoman not only needed to be supplied with excellent language skills and specific cultural knowledge, but also with outstanding diplomatic expertise. The various countries involved in frequent diplomatic interaction in the eighteenth and nineteenth century handled this question of communication in quite different ways. My paper will deal with the specific case of the Habsburg Monarchy, where in 1754 the Empress Maria Theresia founded the Vienna Oriental Academy, a school for boys who were willing to learn a series of languages which they were supposed to adopt in their future charges within the diplomatic corps or within the civil service in relation to the Ottoman Empire. Additionally, they were taught various subjects required for their future positions, such as economy, history or law. The various curricula of the Oriental Academy will be examined in detail with regard to the relevance they gave to aspects of cultural mediation/translation. It seems as if issues of culture and their role in the mediating process were already on the agenda of this institution. Consequently, the paper will introspect the pupils social and cultural competence by way of the detailed analysis of their family trajectory, based on thorough archive research. I will attempt to reconstruct what can be called the social field of interpreting in eighteenth-century Habsburg Empire on the basis of Pierre Bourdieus field theory, which will deliver the tools for positioning the various agents involved in this field. The struggle for recognition and the strive for gaining a promising position in the diplomatic corps in the Habsburg Empire will be revealed by analysing the various forms of capitals (economic, social, cultural, symbolic, linguistic, etc.) the pupils and their families invested in the field. On the basis of these analyses the question arises whether the HabsburgOttoman field of interpreting can be seen as a fundamental grounding for the reconstruction of the relationships between the two Empires in terms of communication.

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Marija ZLATNAR MOE University of Ljubljana marija.zlatnar@guest.arnes.si

Register Shifts in Translations of Popular Fiction from English into Slovene


Although most of the contemparary globally best-selling works of fiction, such as Bridget Jones Diary, Harry Potter, The Da Vinci Code and similar, have been translated into Slovene over the past years, they very often have not achieved the same immense popularity or even cult status in the Slovene culture as they have elsewhere. While some of the reasons are undoubtedly connected to the characteristics of the target culture and the tastes of the Slovene readers, these are not the only reasons. In my paper I will show how major shifts in the register - especially in the level of formality - occur when works of popular fiction are translated into Slovene. There is a shift towards an unmarked, formal standard language, which neutralizes the style of the books. This shift can have two consequences. In some cases, it tends to diminish the formality of the text. This is the case where the source text, or parts of it, are written in a more formal, distant, or archaic way, such as the recently re-translated writings of J. R.R. Tolkien. In other cases, it tends to make the text more formal. This is the case when the source text has a more colloquial style, as in the case of Bridget Jones, a novel written in the form of a diary. The level of formality is not the only feature that changes on the way from English into Slovene. Concomitantly, class and status distinctions are blurred or sharpened, as different fields of language shift towards the neutral standard variety. As a result, all the charactersking or commoner, the wise old wizard or the young schoolboyspeak the same way. Moreover, they do not employ different registers and styles of speech regardless of whether they find themselves in a public, private or extremely intimate situation. The result of such strategies are often either texts that are merely stylistically neutral and hence less interesting texts, or texts that appear strange and outright clumsy to the reader, and are subsequently judged as badly written. The paper will analyze examples from novels belonging to different subgenres of popular fiction, such as fiction for children, fantasy, thrillers, chick lit, romance, etc. that have been published in Slovenia during the last decade. The assessment of translation strategies and solutions, determined through textual analysis of the relevant passages, will be compared with the response of the target culture at the time of publication. This response will be ascertained through literary reviews (or their conspicuous absence), as well as measures of readers enthusiasm in terms of sales figures or the frequency of library loans. To account for differences between translations in this respect, I will explore the choice of translators for the novels studied, as it seems that beginner translators more often tend to a neutral style and unmarked formal register. This, namely, is the style taught throughout the Slovene school system, and encouraged by the norms of good writing as they are presented in relevant textbooks and handbooks.

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Simon ZUPAN University of Maribor simon.zupan@uni-mb.si

Translation Shifts, Modality, and the Slovene Translation of Poes The Fall of the House of Usher
The Fall of the House of Usher is one of Edgar Allan Poes best known and most characteristic stories. One of its distinguishing features is the narrators systematic employment of epistemic modality, used to evoke many of the storys gothic effects. The basic narrative principle at work is relatively simple: by using appropriate modals, the narrator builds pockets of uncertainty into the narrative, which in turn signal to the reader that there exist voids in the narrators knowledge of the unusual phenomena and events of the story, which thus make these events even more mysterious and frightful. The Slovene translation of this story, first published in 1960 and reprinted several times, features significant shifts in the way the narrator employs modality. Unlike his counterpart in the original text, where epistemic modality expressing uncertainty is systematically used, the Slovene narrator often does not add uncertainty to his propositions; instead, he describes his experience using demodalized, polar sentences. Such microstructural translation shifts are so common that they cumulatively affect the narratives meaning potential on the macrostructural level. While in the original text the uncertainty that characterizes the narrative reveals that the narrator is at best capable of only guessing or speculating about the real background of most of the unusual phenomena and events he witnessed, the narrator in the Slovene translation appears to know much more about those phenomena and events. As a result, the texts potential to evoke gothic effects is reduced. The first part of this paper presents a theoretical background using Hallidayan functional grammar to explain notions of modality and polarity as applied to the text under scrutiny. Some of the most characteristic examples of the narrators use of epistemic modality are presented. In the second part, examples from the original text are compared with their Slovene translations. First, the microstructural levels of each of the sentences in the pair are examined and the microstructural shifts are described. Then the effects of individual microstructural translation shifts in modality are examined on the macrostructural level of both texts. For sake of clarity, demodalized sentences in the existing translation are contrasted against other possible modalized solutions, and improvements of the existing Slovene translation are suggested. In the final part, the cumulative effect of individual translation shifts is assessed on the level of the translated text as a whole. The Slovene text is again compared with the original to show that the Slovene version, with many of the previously modalized sentences becoming polar ones through the process of transition from one language code into another, loses some of its potential for evoking gothic effects. Finally, the role and importance of modality as a well-established linguistic and stylistic notion are briefly addressed with regard to translation studies. As preliminary analyses have shown, most miscrostructural translation shifts in modality in the texts concerned could have been avoided. The importance of a detailed reading of the source text by the translator is pointed out, as well as a careful examination of its most prominent stylistic features.

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