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Original Title: H. Pu, C.K. Law and N.P. Bigelow- Complex quantum gases: spinor Bose}Einstein condensates of trapped atomic vapors

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Physica B 280 (2000) 27}31

Complex quantum gases: spinor Bose}Einstein condensates of

trapped atomic vapors

H. Pu, C.K. Law', N.P. Bigelow*

Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA

'Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China

Abstract

We discuss the energy eigenstates, ground and spin mixing dynamics of a spin-1 spinor Bose}Einstein condensate for

a dilute atomic vapor con"ned in an optical trap. Our results go beyond the mean "eld picture and are developed within

a fully quantized framework. 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Bose}Einstein condensation; Spinor condensates

1. Introduction

A Bose}Einstein condensate (BEC) is a fundamental

quantum state of simple Bose particles in which there is

a macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state of

the system [1]. One important description of the BEC is

in terms of a single many-particle wave function, or order

parameter. When the constituent bosons have internal

degrees of freedom, such as spin, the quantum state and

its properties becomes more complex and can display

a rich spectrum of interesting behavior. In the "eld of

low-temperature physics, a remarkable example of such

richness can be seen in the elegant system of super#uid

`He [2]. More recently, a new example has appeared

with the realization of an optically trapped BEC of so-

dium atoms in an F"1 electronic state [3,4]. In the

optical trap, the spin components m

'

"0, $1 are free to

evolve as the atoms interact and spin exchange e!ects

give rise to complex evolution and non-trivial ground

state properties. What has made the alkali spinor BEC

particularly interesting is that optical and magnetic "elds

can be used to probe and manipulate the system. Fur-

thermore, because the alkali vapor BECs are very dilute,

a theoretical treatment based on measurable funda-

mental atomic parameters is possible, involving no phe-

nomenological parameters.

In the last year, several groups [5}9] have turned their

theoretical e!orts to studying the alkali spinor BEC

problem with a frequent emphasis on the mean-"eld

limit. Our group has treated this problem from a some-

what di!erent point of view [8], centered on the tech-

niques familiar to quantum optics and using both

semi-classical and fully quantum frameworks. In this

paper we present new results on the energy eigenstates

and the spin mixing dynamics for a spin-1 spinor BEC.

We emphasize a fully quantum treatment and relate our

results to those found using a semi-classical, mean-"eld

approach.

2. The Hamiltonian and its energy eigenstates

Assuming that the interaction between atoms

preserves angular momentum and rotation symmetry in

hyper"ne spin space [5], the second quantized Hamil-

tonian for a dilute gas systemis given by H"H

`

#H

^

where

H

`

"

?

dr

?

(#<

'

)

?

#

z

'

2

?@

dr

?

@

, (1)

0921-4526/00/$- see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 2 1 - 4 5 2 6 ( 9 9 ) 0 1 4 2 9 - 5

H

^

"

z

2

dr(

#2

"

"

#2

"

"

!2

#2

"

"

#2

"

"

). (2)

Here

H

( j"0,$1) is the "eld operator for the jth spin

component, is the kinetic energy operator and <

'

is

the trapping potential which is assumed to be the same

for all three components. We have used z

'

and z

to

denote the coupling strengths. The separation of H

`

and

H

^

in the full Hamiltonian is useful because in most

systems z

'

<z

which is the focus of this paper is described by H

^

.

We introduce angular momentum (magnetization)

density operators de"ned by: M

>

"(2[

"

#

"

], M

"(2[

"

#

"

] and M

X

"

tion relation: [M

X

(r), M

(r')]"$o(r!r')M

(r) and

[M

>

(r), M

(r')]"2o(r!r')M

X

(r). In this way we can

rewrite H

^

in a concise form

H

^

"

z

2

[M`!2N] dr, (3)

where N"

#

"

"

#

is the number

density operator which commutes with M's.

The angular momentum represented in Eq. (3) tells us

about the ground state structure of the condensate gener-

ated by the spin-mixing interaction H

^

. To see this we

assume that at zero temperature most atoms occupy

a single spatial mode with structure (r) and hence

that the "eld operators are e!ectively described within

a single mode approximation,

G

+a(

G

. (4)

Here a(

G

is an annihilation operator which obeys the

usual boson commutation relations. In Eq. (4), (r) is the

ground state solution of the Gross}Pitaevskii equation,

(#<

'

#z

'

N`)"j resulting from H

`

alone,

with N being the total particle number in the condensate

and j being the chemical potential. Such a single mode

approximation is valid when z

'

<z

for both sodium and rubidium atoms [5]) such that

H

`

is the dominant part of the full Hamiltonian [11].

Using Eq. (4), the Hamiltonian is simpli"ed as a problem

of three non-linear coupled oscillators [10]. H

`

and

H

^

now become

H

'

"jNK!z'

'

NK(NK!1), (5)

H

"z'

(K`!2NK). (6)

Here z'

H

,(z

H

/2)j dr(x)" ( j"a, s), NK is the total num-

ber operator, and is the angular momentum operator

de"ned by: K

>

,(2(a(

a(

"

#a(

"

a(

), K

,(2(a(

"

a(

#

a(

a(

"

) and K

X

,(a(

a(

!a(

a(

angular momentum structure of H

^

is still preserved in

the single-mode approximation, i.e., with M` replaced by

K`. Since the Hamiltonian conserves the total number of

particles, H

'

is a constant operator. Hence, we need only

consider H

The energy eigenstates of the single-mode Hamiltonian

are angular momentum eigenstates of K` and K

X

, i.e.,

K`l, m,"l(l#1)l, m, with l"0, 2, 4,

2

, N if N is even,

and l"1, 3, 5,

2

, N if N is odd. The energy spectrum of

H

, E'J'

"z'

ings are of the order z'

near l"N. In

the case of z'

ground state with no degeneracy. On the contrary, if

z'

l"N, m"!N,!N#1,

2

, N,. In Ref. [8], we have

reported that all l"N, m, have sub-Poisson number

#uctuations in each component. This is in contrast to the

case of l"0, m"0, which has super-Poisson number

#uctuations. We note that the super-Poisson nature in

l"0, m"0, is quite familiar in the language of quan-

tum optics [8]. More recently, Ho and Yip [12] have

discussed this result from a viewpoint more familiar to

the condensed matter community and described this

property as an unexpected signature of a &super-frag-

mented' ground state of the spinor condensate.

Using the Fock states n

, n

"

, n

, de"ned by the

number operators n(

H

,a(

H

a(

H

for the three spin compo-

nents (i.e., n(

H

n

, n

"

, n

,"n

H

n

, n

"

, n

m angular momentum states l, m"0, have the form

l, m"0,"

',`'

I"

AJ

I

k, N!2k, k,. (7)

In Fig. 1, we show the distribution AJ

I

for various

values of l. The states with low l share a similar feature in

that AJ

I

contains a wide range of k values. One interesting

feature is that AJ

I

exhibits rapid oscillations with k as

l increases. However, AJ

I

can become smooth and local-

ized as l approaches its maximum value N. Note how as

l increases the number #uctuations change from super-

Poissonian to sub-Poissonian.

We point out that most of the BEC angular mo-

mentum states are entangled states meaning that they

cannot be factorized into products of wave functions

associated each individual spin component. This is in

contrast to mean-"eld theory where each individual com-

ponent is assumed to be in a coherent state. In the "eld of

quantum information theory, entanglement of a pure

state can be measured by the entanglement entropy,

S,!Tr(j

H

ln j

H

) where j

H

is the reduced density matrix

of the sub-system j. Such an entropy should be distin-

guished from the familiar thermodynamic entropy. As an

example, the entropy of l, m"0, is given by

S"!

',`'

I"

AJ

I

` lnAJ

I

`. (8)

28 H. Pu et al. / Physica B 280 (2000) 27}31

Fig. 1. Fock state amplitudes associated with zero m angular

momentum states for N"1000.

The larger the S, the stronger the entanglement. Given

a "xed N, we "nd that l"0, m"0, has the largest

entropy among all of the available angular momentum

states. For example, l"0, m"0, has S"10.5 for a sys-

tem with N"10` atoms. This is close to the maximum

entropy S

`

"10.8 of a maximally entangled state

which is the state with equal amplitudes for all

k, N!2k, k, (assuming "xed N). In fact, we "nd that

S for l"0, m"0, approaches S

`

as N goes to in"nity.

Therefore, the ground state of a spinor condensate can

well be considered as a physically realizable example of

high quantum entanglement of three coupled systems.

Whether this is useful for quantum information applica-

tions is an open topic for further studies, but we point out

that S can well be an alternative indicator of fragmenta-

tion of a spinor condensate.

3. The spin-mixing dynamics

Having discussed the Hamiltonian and the energy

eigenstates of the spinor condensate, we now turn to the

spin-mixing dynamics of the system. In an earlier work,

we investigated the dynamics of the spinor condensate

assuming that it was initially in a Fock state. In the

present paper we emphasize instead the phase relation-

ship among di!erent spin states. For this purpose, we

choose an initial state given by

(0)"

1

(N!

Ca

"

#

S

(2

(a

#a

,

vac,, (9)

where C`#S`"1. Without loss of generality, we

choose S"S and C"Ce'F`. Here, 0 may be regarded

as the relative phase among individual spin states of the

spinor condensate. This state (9), can be experimentally

prepared, for example, by "rst preparing a BEC with all

atoms in the spin-0 state, then applying appropriate

Raman pulses to transfer equal number of particles into

spin-1 and spin-(!1) states. The phase 0 can be adjusted

by engineering the phases of Raman pulses.

Fig. 2 shows the population evolution of the system for

N"100. The initial populations in spin-0 and spin-($1)

are C` and S`/2, respectively. Under the spin-exchange

interaction, we see that the population in each individual

spin states experience collapse and revivals. The revivals

occur at z'

t"n/4 (n"1, 2, 3,

2

), hence the revival time

depends on the total particle number N through z'

. The

collapse is more complex. In the initial collapse regime,

the population oscillates with a frequency given by

f"4N(P

"

(1!P

"

) cos(0/2) (10)

with P

"

"C` being the initial population in spin-0. We

note that the same frequency appears in the semi-classi-

cal treatment where we regard each spin state being an

independent coherent state. However, in that case, the

population oscillation is not damped, whereas here it is

modulated by a damping envelope found to be Gaussian

in form: eR

`

R

`

of N and 0. z'

versus 0 is

presented in Fig. 3. Therefore, we point out that by

studying the dynamics of the population evolution, one

may determine not only the particle number, but also

have access to the relative phase of the spinor conden-

sate. Such a measurement would provide valuable in-

formation on quantum phase of the condensate, a subject

which is both interesting and controversial.

We also "nd that both the population oscillation am-

plitudes and t

"

[P

"(1!P

"

)/2]. For example, when 0"0, as P

"

ap-

proaches

`

, the oscillation amplitudes approach 0, while

t

PR. When P

"

"

`

, we found that the system does

not exhibit spin-mixing behavior. A closer examination

shows that under such conditions, the initial state (9) can

H. Pu et al. / Physica B 280 (2000) 27}31 29

Fig. 2. Populations as functions of time. The parameters for the

initial state are: (a) C`"

`

and 0"0; (b) C`"

`

and 0"/2;

(c) C`"

`

and 0"0. For all the "gures shown, N"100.

Fig. 3. Collapse time t

`

and

N"100.

The application of a magnetic "eld B introduces an extra

term into the Hamiltonian: H

"

"B) K. Such an interaction

does not change the total angular momentum l, however, it can

change the value of m if transverse magnetic "eld is present. For

a semi-classical treatment of the magnetic "eld e!ects on spinor

condensate (see Ref. [13]).

be expressed as

(0)"

,

J

X

,

C

J

X

l"N, m"l

X

,, (11)

i.e., it is a superposition of the angular momentum states

with total angular momentum l"N. Since such a state is

an eigenstate of K` (hence also H

), is a non-mixing

stationary state.

Similar non-mixing states were also found by us in

a semi-classical treatment, where the non-mixing states

were identi"ed as the eigenstates of the semi-classical

Hamiltonian for the spinor condensate. These non-mix-

ing states are particularly interesting because they repre-

sent situations in which the nonlinear atom}atom

interaction does not a!ect the condensate spin dynamics

and only appears as a constant energy shift. In addition,

if the condensate is prepared in one of these non-mixing

eigenstates, the spinor condensate responds linearly to

external magnetic "elds. This suggests that despite the

intrinsic nonlinearity of the condensate interactions, one

may realize macroscopic quantum control of the spinor

BEC, an interesting subject in the context of quantum

computing and quantum information. For example, one

can "rst prepare all the population in the spin-1 state,

which, in terms of the angular momentum state, corre-

sponds to l"N, m"!N,. Then, by applying appro-

priately engineered magnetic "elds, one may create an

arbitrary superposition of states with l"N, yet which

have di!erent m [13]. Recently, generation of arbitrary

superposition states involving ground state Zeeman sub-

levels of non-degenerate atomic Cs vapors was success-

fully demonstrated in Heinzen's group [14]. In their

experiment, the total states available is determined by the

number of Zeeman sublevels (in their case, the number of

Zeeman sublevels is 9 for the F"4 Cs ground state). If

we apply the similar approach to the angular momentum

states l, m, of the spinor condensate, the number of

available states can be on the order of total particle

number of the condensate, which in current experiments,

can be as large as tens of millions. Therefore, spinor

condensates can represent a very large Hilbert space and

hence have the potential to store enormously large

amount of quantum information. We thus believe that

spinor condensates may be a new and very interesting

platform suitable for quantum computing. More inves-

tigations along this line are underway.

30 H. Pu et al. / Physica B 280 (2000) 27}31

4. Summary

In summary we have described a fully quantum mech-

anical treatment of the spin-1 spinor Bose condensate.

Using an angular momentum algebra the energy eigen-

states were derived and discussed. These eigenstates are

identi"ed as collective spin states which are most conve-

niently represented by the angular momentum states

l, m, which are the simultaneous eigenvectors for K` and

K

X

. We have also described the spin-mixing dynamics of

the system initially prepared in a speci"c state selected

because it has a well-de"ned relative phase among indi-

vidual spin components and because this state can be

created and controlled experimentally. Finally, we have

pointed out the possibility of using spinor condensate as

a platform for quantum information storage and quan-

tum computing.

Acknowledgements

We thank S. Raghavan and Professors G. Shlyapnikov

and T.-L. Ho for many useful discussions. This research

was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-9457897, and by

the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. C.K.L. ac-

knowledges the support from the Chinese University of

Hong Kong Direct Grant No. 2060148.

References

[1] K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1987.

[2] D.M. Lee, R.C. Richardson, D.D. Oshero!, Rev. Mod.

Phys. 69 (1997) 645.

[3] D.M. Stamper-Kurn, M.R. Andrews, A.P. Chikkatur,

S. Inouye, H.-J. Miesner, J. Stenger, W. Ketterle, Phys.

Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 2027.

[4] J. Stenger, S. Inouye, D.M. Stamper-Kurn, H.-J. Miesner,

A.P. Chikkatur, W. Ketterle, Nature (London) 396 (1998)

345.

[5] T.-L. Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 742.

[6] T. Ohmi, K. Machida, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 67 (1998)

1822.

[7] Elena V. Goldstein, P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999)

1509.

[8] C.K. Law, H. Pu, N.P. Bigelow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998)

5257.

[9] W.-J. Huang, S.-C. Gou, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 4608.

[10] L. Wang, R.R. Puri, J.H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. A 46 (1992)

7192.

[11] H. Pu, C.K. Law, S. Raghavan, J.H. Eberly, N.P. Bigelow,

Phys. Rev. A, in press.

[12] T.-L. Ho, S.K. Yip, preprint.

[13] H. Pu, S. Raghavan, N.P. Bigelow, submitted for

publication.

[14] D.J. Heinzen, G. Xu, Quantum Electronics and Laser

Science '99, OSA 1999 Technical Digest Series Conference

Edition, 1999, p. 177.

H. Pu et al. / Physica B 280 (2000) 27}31 31

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