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Original Title: Antonio F. Ranada and Jose L. Trueba- Two properties of the electromagnetic knots

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You are on page 1of 15

Antonio F. Ra nada

Universidad Complutense

28040 Madrid, Spain

Physics Letters A 232, 25-32, 1997

Abstract

We prove two properties of the electromagnetic knots in empty

space. First, that any standard radiation elds (i. e. verifying

E B = 0) coincide locally with an electromagnetic knot. Second, that

the electric and magnetic helicities of any knot are equal. These results

can be used as a basis for a topological model of electromagnetism.

PACS. 11.10, 03.50, 02.40, 41.10

Keywords: electromagnetic eld, topological eld, knot, helicity,

link.

E-mail: jltrueba@eucmos.sim.ucm.es

1

2

1 Introduction

Electromagnetic knots are very curious solutions of the standard classical

Maxwell equations. Their dening property is that any pair of magnetic

lines or any pair of electric lines is a link [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], characterized by the

integer n

m

or n

e

, respectively, which gives the value of the corresponding

helicity [6, 7, 8], and can be interpreted as Hopf invariants [9, 10]. They are

interesting not only on their own; recently, they have been used as a basis

for a model of ball lightning [4]. In this last case, it was shown that a linked

magnetic bottle i. e. a magnetic knot coupled to a plasma is more

ecient to conne a plasma than an unlinked one because the connement

time is bigger if there is linking. We may mention that Kamchatnov had

considered what he called a topological soliton which corresponds to our

n

m

= 1, n

e

= 0, coupled to a plasma, and concluded that it expands because

of the Joule eect [11].

In this work we study further the idea of electromagnetic knot, proving the

following two properties in the case of empty space: (i) any standard classical

electromagnetic eld of radiation type (also called singular or degenerate)

is locally equal to an electromagnetic knot; (ii) the electric and magnetic

helicities of any knot are equal. The plan of the paper is as follows.

In section 2 we prove property (i); in section 3, property (ii), and give the

explicit time dependent expressions of a family of knots. Later, in section 4,

we show that it is possible to formulate a topological model which is locally

equivalent to classical Maxwell theory and is based on a variational principle.

Finally, in section 5 we state the conclusions.

2 Radiation electromagnetic elds are locally

equal to electromagnetic knots

In reference [3] a method to construct electromagnetic knots was proposed.

A slightly more formal procedure is the following.

Let (r, t), (r, t) be a couple of regular classical complex scalar elds;

then, via stereographic projection, the one-point compactication of the com-

plex numbers can be identied with the sphere S

2

, so that they give regular

maps , : M = R

3

R S

2

, M being the Minkowski space-time. Let

be the normalized area 2-form on S

2

. Suppose now that and are dual in

3

the sense of the equality

(

) =

, (1)

where

duality operator in the Minkowski space-time, which veries

2

= 1 (see

sections 2 and 3 of [2].) If we dene the 2-forms F and F as

F =

, F =

, (2)

where a is a normalizing constant with dimensions of action times velocity

(we use

a instead of a for convenience), it turns out that F and F obey

necessarily Maxwell equations in empty space:

dF = 0 , d F = 0 , (3)

because d

2

. They dene an

electromagnetic wave, having the right dimensions to be the Faraday form

and its dual. In references [1, 2], some examples of couples (, ) are given.

We require , to be single-valued at innity, so that the electromagnetic

wave has nite energy. This makes possible compactifying R

3

to S

3

and

interpreting the scalars as giving two maps S

3

S

2

at every time. The

consequence is important, since the magnetic and electric helicities are then

topological constants of the motion, that is

h

m

=

_

A Bd

3

r = H()a , h

e

=

_

C Ed

3

r = H()a , (4)

where A and C are vector potentials for B and E, H() and H() are two

integer numbers called the Hopf invariants of the maps , : S

3

S

2

and

the integrals extend to all R

3

. The corresponding waves have been called

electromagnetic knots [1, 3, 5] because any pair of magnetic lines and any pair

of electric lines is a link with linking numbers H() and H(), respectively.

Not all the solutions of classical Maxwell equations in vacuum can be

written as (2) in terms of a pair of scalars. However, there is a local equiva-

lence of these electromagnetic knots with the standard theory as we will see

now.

It is known that, because of the Darboux theorem [12], the Faraday form

of any electromagnetic eld F, and its dual F, can be written, locally, as

F = dq

1

dp

1

+ dq

2

dp

2

, F = dv

1

du

1

+ dv

2

du

2

, (5)

4

where q

k

, p

k

, v

k

, u

k

are functions of spacetime and also good canonical vari-

ables and coordinates of the eld [13]. Each one of the two terms in these

sums is a radiation eld (i. e. veries E B = 0). This means that any

standard electromagnetic eld in empty space can be expressed as the sum

of two elds of radiation type, although it must be said that this representa-

tion is not unique (by standard electromagnetic eld we mean any solution

of Maxwell equations). Consequently, a pure radiation eld is expressable as

F = dq dp, F = dv du, (6)

the electric and magnetic elds having then the form

B = p q, E = u v. (7)

The functions (p, q) and (u, v) are called Clebsh variables of B and E, re-

spectively. They are not uniquely dened, but can be changed by canonical

transformations.

However, it will be more convenient for our purpose to redene these

variables, writing instead

F =

a dq dp, F =

a dv du. (8)

In this case, B, E can be expressed as

B =

a p q =

a (

0

uv

0

vu)

E =

a u v =

a (

0

qp

0

pq) (9)

Note that, given a constant a, any electromagnetic eld can be written in

this form; in this way, the Clebsh variables are dimensionless quantities.

A very important property is satised by the electromagnetic knots. In

a precise way, the following proposition holds true.

Any standard radiation electromagnetic eld in empty space with Faraday

2-form F

st

, regular in a bounded spacetime domain D, coincides locally with

a knot around any point P D in the following sense: There is a knot with

2-form F

kn

, such that F

st

= F

kn

around P, except perhaps in a zero measure

set. The same property holds for F

st

.

This means that the dierence between the set of the radiation solutions

of the Maxwell equations and the set of the electromagnetic knots is not local

5

but global. In other words: Radiation elds and knots are locally equal. A

proof is the following.

Let the Faraday 2-form of the standard radiation eld F

st

be expressed

as (8) with p, q dimensionless. Dene then the functions , as

= (p

2

+q

2

), =

1

2

arctan

q

p

. (10)

It is then clear that

F

st

=

a d d, (11)

so that and give another election of the Clebsh variables of the standard

eld (they are obtained from p, q through a canonical transformation.) If an

electromagnetic knot derives from the scalar = S exp(i2) through eqn.

(2), it is easy showing that

F

kn

=

a d d

1

(1 + S

2

)

. (12)

This means that F

st

will be a knot if there exist regular functions S(r), (r),

one-valued at innity, such that

=

1

1 + S

2

, = . (13)

The second equation poses no problem because was dened as a phase

function. If < 1, the solution for S is trivial, the standard eld with form

F

st

being then a knot. The same happens if is bounded, say if < A,

because we can then take as the Clebsh variables

= /n

= n

, n

being an integer greater than A. Dropping the primes and entering the new

Clebsh variables in (13), it is clear that there exists then a solution for S, .

Let us take now the case in which is not bounded in D (but F

st

is con-

tinuous and the equation (11) is still valid). Let be the threedimensional

set in which diverges (a zero measure set). In general D consists in k

connected open components D

j

. Let D

j

D

j

be k open subsets in which

is bounded. In each one of them, we dene Clebsh variables

, by the

same method as before. It follows that the eld is equal to a knot in each

D

j

. Now, the volume of D

j

may be made as small as desired. This

means that the magnetic eld can be obtained by patching together those

of the knots F

kn

j

, each one dened in the corresponding D

j

, except for a set

6

as small as required containing . (Note that there is no problem if any D

j

is not simply connected.) The same can be said of the dual to the Faraday

2-form F

st

, which coincides with the corresponding 2-form of a knot, except

perhaps in a zero measure set

netic eld coincides locally with an electromagnetic knot, except perhaps on

a zero measure set. In other words, standard radiation elds can be obtained

by patching together electromagnetic knots generated by

j

,

j

, each one

dened in a dierent domain, except at most on the zero measure set

.

This ends the proof.

It is convenient now to give examples of the expression of electromagnetic

elds in the form (2) or equivalently (8)-(9). We present now three: the

Coulomb potential, a plane wave and a standing wave.

If = Pe

i2q

, = V e

i2u

, it is easy to see that

p =

1

1 + P

2

, v =

1

1 + V

2

,

q and u being the other two Clebsh variables.

(i) Coulomb potential, E = Qr/(4r

3

), B = 0.

This eld can be obtained from the scalars

=

ct

r

exp

_

iQ

(c

2

t

2

+ r

2

)

2

4c

ar

3

t

log(r/r

0

)

_

, = tan

2

exp

_

iQ

a

_

, (14)

where , are the azimuth and the polar angle and r

0

is any length. The

Clebsh variables are

p =

r

2

(r

2

+ c

2

t

2

)

, q = Q

(r

2

+ c

2

t

2

)

2

8c

ar

3

t

log(r/r

0

), v = cos

2

2

, u =

Q

2

a

.

As can be seen, both scalars are regular everywhere except at r = 0 and

r = .

(ii) Plane wave, E = E

0

(0, sin (x/c t), 0), B = E

0

(0, 0, sin (x/c t)).

The two scalars and the corresponding Clebsh variables are

=

1 + cos (x/c t)

sin (x/c t)

exp

_

i

4cE

0

y

a

_

,

=

1 + cos (x/c t)

sin (x/c t)

exp

_

i

4cE

0

z

a

_

, (15)

7

p =

1

2

(1cos (x/ct)), q =

2cE

0

y

a

, v =

1

2

(1cos (x/ct)), u =

2cE

0

z

a

.

It is seen that and do not represent smooth maps S

3

S

2

because

they are not well dened at innity. However there are smooth maps which

coincide with them in any bounded domain and which are well dened at

innity. The fact that plane waves in all the space R

3

are not expressable

as global knots is not a matter of concern, since a plane wave extending to

all three-space is not in fact a physical solution since it requires an innite

amount of energy.

(iii) Standing wave given by

A

0

= 0, A

1

= A

01

cos k

1

x sin k

2

y sin k

3

z cos t,

A

2

= A

02

sin k

1

x cos k

2

y sin k

3

z cos t, (16)

A

3

= A

03

sin k

1

x sin k

2

y cos k

3

z cos t,

which expresses one mode of a cubic cavity. The scalars which give this eld

can be taken as

=

1 p

p

e

i2q

, =

1 v

v

e

i2u

, (17)

where the Clebsh variables are equal to

p =

1

2

(1 + sin k

1

x sin k

2

y sin k

3

z cos t), q =

3

i=1

2A

0i

ak

i

log | sin k

i

x

i

|,

v =

1

2

(1 + cos k

1

x cos k

2

y cos k

3

z sin t), u =

3

i=1

2(k A

0

)

i

ak

i

log | sin k

i

x

i

|.

Note that the scalar elds and are not well dened in the planes k

1

x =

n

1

, k

2

y = n

2

and k

3

z = n

3

, the n

i

being integers, where q and u diverge.

But there are scalars

n

1

n

2

n

3

, well dened and smooth in the nite domains

n

1

< k

1

x < (n

1

+ 1), n

2

< k

2

y < (n

2

+ 1), n

3

< k

3

z < (n

3

+ 1),

which generate the elds in each one of them. However, the electric and

magnetic elds can not be produced by a pair of smooth maps S

3

S

2

. As

we said before, the elds can be obtained by patching together knots dened

in bounded domains. Looking locally, this electromagnetic wave coincides

with a knot around any point (except for a zero measure set), but there is

no knot which coincides with it throught all the space R

3

.

8

3 A property of the helicities of a radiation

eld

As was shown in references [3, 14, 15] (see also [16]), the electromagnetic

helicity of an electromagnetic eld, dened as the sum H = h

m

+h

e

satises

H = 2 hc(N

R

N

L

) , (18)

where N

R

=

_

d

3

k a

R

a

R

, N

L

=

_

d

3

k a

L

a

L

, and a

R

(k), a

L

(k) being here

Fourier transforms of the classical vector potential A ( a

R

, a

L

being their

complex conjugates), i. e. the c-number elds which are interpreted in QED

as annihilation operators for right and left polarization photons. It must be

stressed that both the functions a

R

, a

L

and the right hand side of (18) are

fully meaningful as classical quantities. Note that N

R

and N

L

are interpreted

in QED as the numbers of right- and left-handed photons. Equation (18) is

a remarkable relation between the wave and particle aspects of the eld.

In this paper we consider only classical electromagnetic elds in empty

space for which the energy and helicity integrals are both nite, so that their

electric and magnetic vectors decrease faster than r

2

at innity. Also a

R

and

a

L

must be less singular than

3/2

(where = ck) at = 0 and decrease

faster than

2

at = . We will prove now the following statement:

The magnetic and electric helicities of a radiation electromagnetic eld

in empty space are equal.

The proof is simple. By using the same method as in references [3, 14],

it is easy to show that:

h

m

h

e

= hc

_

d

3

k

_

e

i

(a

L

(k)a

L

(k) a

R

(k)a

R

(k)) + cc

_

, (19)

where = 2t. Dening now

F() = hc

2

_

d[a

L

(k)a

L

(k) a

R

(k)a

R

(k)] ,

being the solid angle and F() = F(). Because of the stated behaviour

of a

R

and a

L

, F() is a square integrable function; it is clear then that

h

m

h

e

= f() +

f() , (20)

f() being the Fourier transform of F().

9

Taking now time derivatives, it is straightforward to see that

d

dt

(h

m

h

e

) = 4c

_

R

3

E B d

3

r , (21)

except for a vanishing surface integral. If the eld is of radiation type,

E B = 0, then the left hand side of (21) vanishes, which implies that the

dierence h

m

h

e

is a constant of the motion. Because of (20), the real part

of f() has a constant value, which can only be zero because it is a square

integrable function. This means that h

m

= h

e

.

This property is valid for any electromagnetic eld that satises that the

integral in R

3

of E B is zero. In particular it is so for any electromagnetic

knot, what implies from (4) that H() = H() = n. Then (18) takes the

form

H = 2an = 2 hc(N

R

N

L

) . (22)

As a consequence, if one takes a denite value for the normalizing constant a,

the knots have a curious mathematical property (in addition to any standard

electromagnetic radiation eld coinciding locally with a knot): their helicities

verify the equations

h

m

= h

e

= na, N

R

N

L

= n

_

a

hc

_

. (23)

In other words, the knots can be classied in homotopy classes, since both the

helicities and the classical quantity N

R

N

L

take only discrete values, which

are integer multiples of a and a/ hc, respectively. Note that the dimensions

of a are action times velocity.

The simplest thing to do now is taking a = hc, since one has then h

m

=

h

e

= n hc, N

R

N

L

= n, so that the dierence N

R

N

L

coincides with the

common value of the electric and magnetic helicities. This could be expressed

by saying that, with this value of a, the knots are classical elds with the right

normalization to be the classical limit of the quantum theory (as N

R

N

L

is an integer). As any standard radiation eld coincides locally with a knot,

this new property of the classical Maxwell equations implies that they are

locally equivalent to a topological theory.

Note in this connection that, if one multiplies the phases of , by the

integer j, the elds B and E are multiplied by j; and the energy and the

helicities by j

2

. In this way, we can dene knots with dynamical quantities

10

as big as desired, even with a small value of a, which plays the role of a unit

of helicity, in spite of the knots being given by classical elds.

Let us dene a composed electromagnetic knot as the sum of two knots;

because of the Darboux theorem, any electromagnetic eld is locally a com-

posed knot. The electromagnetic helicity for a composed knot, sum of the

knots (

1

,

1

) and (

2

,

2

), is:

H = 2a (H(

1

) + H(

2

)) + 2

_

R

3

(A

1

B

2

+C

1

E

2

) d

3

r . (24)

In [3], a family of knots was constructed by imposing their dening property

at t = 0. It turns out that, although all of them are composed knots, only

those for which the magnetic and the electric linking numbers are equal at

t = 0 are knots in the strict sense (as it is to be expected from the property

just proved). This will be shown now by giving the explicit time dependent

expressions of the corresponding scalars. The scalars at t = 0 were given by:

(n)

(t = 0) =

(n)

H

=

_

2X + i2Y

2Z + i(R

2

1)

_

(n)

(m)

(t = 0) =

(m)

H

=

_

2Y + i2Z

2X + i(R

2

1)

_

(m)

(25)

where (X, Y, Z) = (x, y, z), being any constant with inverse lenght di-

mension, and

H

,

H

are Hopf maps with unit Hopf index. The notation

(n)

means to leave the modulus of the complex number unchanged and

multiplying its phase by the integer n. It is easy to see [3] that:

H(

(n)

) = n

2

H() = n

2

H(

(m)

) = m

2

H() = m

2

(26)

Taking as Cauchy data the magnetic and electric elds derived from

(n)

,

(m)

,

respectively, we obtain the time dependent electromagnetic eld (following

the method of reference [1])

B

n

(r, t) =

a

2

(A

2

+T

2

)

3

(QH

1

+ PH

2

)

E

m

(r, t) =

a

2

(A

2

+ T

2

)

3

(PH

1

QH

2

) (27)

11

with T = ct, where:

Q = A(A

2

3T

2

) , P = T(T

2

3A

2

) , A =

R

2

T

2

+ 1

2

, (28)

the vectors H

1

and H

2

being

H

1

= n

_

Y XZ , X Y Z ,

X

2

+ Y

2

Z

2

+ T

2

1

2

_

+ mT ( 1 , Z , Y )

H

2

= m

_

X

2

Y

2

Z

2

T

2

+ 1

2

, Z +XY , Y + XZ

_

(29)

+ nT ( Y , X , 1 )

It is easy to show that, if n = m, this solution is a knot. More precisely, it

is a simple, if cumbersome, exercise to show that (27) are obtained from the

scalars

(n)

(t) =

_

(AX TZ) + i(AY + T(A 1))

(AZ + TX) + i(A(A 1) TY )

_

(n)

(n)

(t) =

_

(AY + T(A 1)) + i(AZ + TX)

(AX TZ) + i(A(A 1) TY )

_

(n)

(30)

each one having Hopf index equal to n

2

. In this way, we have obtained

the explicit time dependent expressions of representative knots of the homo-

topy classes whith Hopf index n

2

. Now, changing the sign of (X, Y, Z, T) in

(30), we obtain the homotopy classes with Hopf index n

2

(the same can be

achieved also by other changes).

Let us take now the electromagnetic eld (27) with n

2

= m

2

. It can be

shown, just with some algebra, that it is then the sum of two knots, with

scalars (

1

,

1

) and (

2

,

2

), each one with a common value for the electric

and magnetic helicities. Let n

1

, n

2

(both integers), , verify the system:

n

1

+ n

2

= m ,

n

1

cos + n

2

cos = n , (31)

n

1

sin + n

2

sin = 0 .

This system has the following solution for each couple (m, n). If n

2

> m

2

,

take an integer k such that n

2

k

2

and having the same parity as m. Then,

12

we can take n

1

= (mk)/2, n

2

= (m+k)/2, cos = (n

2

km)/(nmnk),

cos = (n

2

+ km)/(nm + nk). If, in the other case, n

2

< m

2

, the same

solution is valid with k

2

n

2

. The only situation in which the system (31)

has no solution is the case n = 0 and m odd, but we can deal with it changing

the roles of n and m (equivalently, changing those of the two scalars).

Then

1

and

1

are given by:

1

(t) =

_

(AX TZ) cos (A(A 1) TY ) sin +i(AY + T(A 1))

(AZ + TX) + i(A(A 1) TY ) cos + i(AX TZ) sin

_

(n

1

)

1

(t) =

_

(AY + T(A 1)) + i(AZ +TX)

(AX TZ) + i(A(A 1) TY )

_

(n

1

)

(32)

and

2

and

2

have the same form as (32), with the changes n

1

n

2

and

. From these expressions it is easy to see that H(

1

) = H(

1

) = n

2

1

,

and H(

2

) = H(

2

) = n

2

2

. To show that these two are knots and that their

sum is the composed knot given by (27), the best is writing them explicitely.

For

1

,

1

, we have the knot:

B

n

1

(r, t) =

a

2

n

1

(A

2

+ T

2

)

3

(QF

1

+ PF

2

)

E

n

1

(r, t) =

a

2

n

1

(A

2

+ T

2

)

3

(PF

1

QF

2

) (33)

where P, Q, A are given by (28) and:

F

1

= cos

_

Y XZ , X Y Z ,

X

2

+Y

2

Z

2

+ T

2

1

2

_

+ sin

_

Z XY ,

X

2

Y

2

+ Z

2

+ T

2

1

2

, X Y Z

_

+ T ( 1 , Z , Y ) (34)

F

2

=

_

X

2

Y

2

Z

2

T

2

+ 1

2

, Z + XY , Y + XZ

_

+ T cos ( Y , X , 1 )

+ T sin ( Z , 1 , X )

and a similar form for E

n

2

and B

n

2

. The sums B

n

1

+B

n

2

and E

n

1

+E

n

2

are

equal to (27) if (31) holds true.

13

4 A topological model of electromagnetism

The preceding considerations show that a model for which the radiation

elds are electromagnetic knots is locally equivalent to the standard Maxwell

theory [2]. The reason is that, as explained in Section 2, any standard eld

can be written as the sum of two radiation elds, which implies that is locally

equal to the sum of two knots. Of course, they would be non equivalent from

the global point of view. This topological model can be formalized by means

of a variational principle as follows. Let us take four scalars

k

,

k

, k = 1, 2,

as fundamental elds and dene

F =

a (

1

+

2

) , F =

a (

1

+

2

) , (35)

where the star superscripts indicate here pull-back of the area 2-form in

S

2

to the Minkowski space-time M = R

3

R by the corresponding map. It

seems natural to take as action integral

S =

1

4

_

(F(

k

) F(

k

) +F(

k

) F(

k

)) , (36)

which coincides with the usual form 1/2(F F). The duality conditions

(

k

) =

k

, k = 1, 2 , (37)

must be imposed by means of the Lagrange multipliers method. It is very

easy to show that the Euler-Lagrange equations are:

dF = 0 , dF = 0 , (38)

since the duality conditions do not contribute to these equations, what means

that they are naturally conserved under time evolution. This shows that a

topological model locally equivalent to Maxwell theory is possible.

In standard Maxwell theory, the Cauchy data are the eight functions

A

,

0

A

are the four complex functions

k

(r, 0),

k

(r, 0), that is eight real functions,

constrained by the two conditions (

k

) (

k

k

) = 0, in order

that the level curves of

k

will be orthogonal to those of

k

. It is not necessary

to prescribe the time derivatives

0

k

,

0

k

since they are determined by the

duality conditions (37).

14

The model thus constructed looks linear because the elds B, E obey the

linear Maxwell equations in empty space. However, it can not be really linear

since it embodies topological constants of the motion. Given a knot B, E,

the eld B, E is only a solution of the model if is an integer, a case in

which it is also a knot; in spite of that any standard electromagnetic eld is

locally equal to a composed knot of the model. The dierence is in the way

the elds behave around the innity. What happens is that the composed

knots form a nonlinear subset of the set of solutions of Maxwell equations,

which can be considered as linear for local purposes. This is a subtle way of

being nonlinear and can be called hidden nonlinearity.

5 Summary and conclusions

We have proved (i) that any standard electromagnetic eld of radiation type

is locally equal to an electromagnetic knot, and (ii) that the magnetic and

electric helicities of a knot, and of any standard electromagnetic eld of radi-

ation type, are equal. Consequently, a topological model can be constructed

which is locally equivalent to Maxwell theory.

As a summary, it can be said that electromagnetic knots are interesting

objects worth of further research.

6 Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Profs. M. V. Berry, A. Ibort, J. M. Montesinos and

M. Soler for discussions and encouragement and to Prof. A. Tiemblo for

hospitality to A.F.R. at Instituto de Matemticas y Fsica Fundamental, CSIC,

Madrid.

15

References

[1] A. F. Ra nada, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 23 (1990) L815.

[2] A. F. Ra nada, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 (1992) 1621.

[3] A. F. Ra nada and J. L. Trueba, Phys. Lett. A 202 (1995) 337.

[4] A. F. Ra nada and J. L. Trueba, Nature 383 (1996) 32.

[5] A. F. Ra nada, in: Solitons and Applications, eds. V. G. Makhankov,

V. K. Fedyanin and O. K. Pashaev (World Scientic, Singapore,

1990).

[6] H. K. Moatt, J. Fluid Mech. 35 (1969) 117.

[7] A. F. Ra nada, Eur. J. Phys. 13 (1992) 70.

[8] G. E. Marsh, Force-Free Magnetic Fields (World Scientic, Singa-

pore, 1996).

[9] H. Hopf, Math. Ann. 104 (1931) 637.

[10] R. Bott and L. W. Tu, Dierential Forms in Algebraic Topology

(Springer, New York, 1982).

[11] A. M. Kamchatnov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 82 (1982) 117. [Sov. Phys.

JETP 55 (1982) 69.]

[12] G. Darboux, Bull. Sci. Math. (2) 6 (1982) 14.

[13] S. Fritelli, S. Koshti, E. Newman and C. Rovelli, Phys. Rev. D 49

(1994) 6883.

[14] J. L. Trueba and A. F. Ra nada, Eur. J. Phys. 17 (1996) 141.

[15] A. F. Ra nada, in: Fundamental Problems in Quantum Physics, eds.

M. Ferrero and A. van der Merwe (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1995).

[16] G. N. Afanasiev and Yu. P. Stepanovsky, Nuovo Cimento A 109

(1996) 271.

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