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Lecture 15: Angular Momentum-III. The material in this lecture covers the following in Atkins.

Rotational Motion Section 12.7 Rotation in three dimensions

Lecture on-line Angular Momentum-III (3D. Part-2 (PDF) Angular Momentum-III (3D. Part-2) (Powerpoint) Handout for this lecture

Rotation..Quantum Schrdinger eq. for particle moving Mechanics 3D on sphere with radius a Consider now a particle moving on the surface of a sphere with the radius a Its Hamiltonian is given by
h2 2 h2 2 H= +V= 2m 2m sin ce the potential energy is uniform over the sphere and can be put to zero 2 2 2 2 = + + x 2 y 2 z2

We must solve h2 2 = E 2m

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Use (r, , ) not (x, y, z)

Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a


2 2 2 = + 2 L r 2 r r h 2r 2

L2 = h 2 [

d2

sin 2 d 2

+ sin

d d

sin

d d

1 d2 d2 d = - h 2 [ 2 + cot + ] 2 d 2 d d sin

We must solve h2 2 = E 2m

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

h2 2 2 2 L2 2= = E; + We must solve 2 r r h 2 r 2 2m r h 2 2 (a, , ) 2 (a, , ) L2 (a, , )

2m

r 2

h 2r 2

] = E (a, , )

Wavefunction does not depend on r as a variable ( r is a constant r = a). Thus only last term on r.h.s. different from zero

L2 (a, , ) 2ma 2
[

] = E (a, , )

We must have H =

1 2ma

L2 2

2 ( , ) L

] = E (, ) 2ma 2

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

We must solve H (, ) = E (, ) What is (, ) ?


We must have H =
Thus or L2 (, ) = 2ma 2 E (, )
Thus the eigenfunctions (, ) to H must be the eigenfunctions to L2 .

1 2ma

L2 2

1 2ma

L2 (, ) = E (, ) 2

(, ) = Yl,m ((, ) =

L2Yl,m = h 2 l(l + 1)Yl,m; L zYl,m = mhYl,m

2l + 1 (l | m!| |m| Pl (cos ) exp[im] 4 (l + | m!|)

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

and what is E ?
Thus or L2 (, ) = 2ma 2 E (, ); (, ) = Ylm (, ) L2 Ylm (, ) = h 2 l(l + 1)Ylm (, ) = 2ma 2 EYlm (, ) 1) ( ma ) h 2 l(l + If = 2 , 2 E

= Ylm (, )

Finally

h 2 l(l + 1) h 2 l(l + 1) = ; I = ma 2 E = 2I 2ma 2

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

L2 and Lz for a particle H, moving on a sphere have common eigenfunctions Ylm

L2 Ylm (, ) = h 2 l(l + 1)Ylm (, )

Lz Ylm (, ) = hmYlm (, )
HYlm (, ) =
2 l(l + 1) h

2I

Ylm (, )

Schrdinger eq. for particle moving Rotation..Quantum on sphere with radius a Mechanics 3D H, L2 and Lz for a particle moving on a sphere have common eigenfunctions Ylm We already knew that Lz and L2 had commen eigenfunctions since [Lz , L2 ] = 0 = 1 L2 However H 2ma 2 Thus it is readily shown that [H, Lz ] = [H, L2 ] = 0

Lz , L2 and will give the outcomes (L2 )obs = h 2 l(l + 1); (Lz )obs = hm
2 2

For a state described by Ylm (, ) measurements of

This explains why H, Lz and L2 have common eigenfunctions

h l(l + 1) (L )obs (E)obs = = each time 2I 2I

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D
l=0

Properties of solutions to Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

m=0

2l + 1 (l | m!| |m| (, ) = Yl,m ((, ) = Pl (cos ) exp[im] 4 (l + | m!|) L2Yl,m = h 2 l(l + 1)Yl,m; L zYl,m = mlhYl,m

For l = 0 we have m = 0; 1 Yo,o = 4 (L2 )obs = 0; (L z )obs = 0


Value of Yoo is uniform over sphere

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D l = 1 m = 0, 1, 1

Properties of solutions to Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a 2l + 1 (l | m!| |m| (, ) = Yl,m ((, ) = Pl (cos ) exp[im] 4 (l + | m!|)

L2Yl,m = h 2 l(l + 1)Yl,m; L zYl,m = mlhYl,m


l 1 m 0 Ylm 3 Y1,0 = cos 4 3 Y1,1 = sin exp[i] 8 3 Y1,-1 = sin exp[ i] 8 (L z )obs (L2 )obs 0h 1h - 1h 2h 2 2h 2 2h 2

1 1

1 -1

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Properties of solutions to Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a
(L2 )obs = 2h 2 and (Lz )obs = mh

For l = 1 we have m = -1,0,1;


L

z L L L L L z L z z =

h
=0

= -

|L| = 2h

We have three states all with L2 = h 2 2 r That is the length | L | of L is in all three cases | L |= h 2 r However L is oriented differently in the three states with L z = h, 0, h For each of the states a

meassurement of L2 and L z will always give the same value e.g l = 1,m = 1 gives (L2 )obs = 2h 2 ;(Lz )obs = h

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Properties of solutions to Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

For l = 1 we have m = -1,0,1; and (Lz )obs = mh


L z L L L L L |L| = 2h z = L z z =

(L2 )obs = 2h 2

What about L x or L y ?

h
=0

We have (L x 2 + L y 2 )obs = (L2 )obs - (L2 )obs = 2h 2 h 2 = h 2 z However a meassurement of L x or L y can have as outcome -h,0, h

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

Properties of solutions to Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

For l = 1 we have m = -1,0,1; and (Lz )obs = mh

(L2 )obs = 2h 2

For each of the states a meassurement of L2 and L z will always give the same value e.g l = 1,m = 1 gives (L2 )obs = 2h 2 ;(Lz )obs = h
L z L L L L L |L| = 2h z = L z z =

h
=0

What about the expectation values < L x > and < L y > representing the avarage value from many meassurements and what are the possible values for L x and L y for each meassurement ?

l = 2 Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

m = 0, 1, 1, 2, 2

2l + 1 (l | m!| |m| (, ) = Yl,m ((, ) = Pl (cos ) exp[im ] 4 (l+ | m!|) < L2 >= h 2l(l + 1) < L z >= mlh

m 0

15 Y2,0 = ( 3 cos 1) 8

Ylm

(Lz )obs 0h 1 h 2h

(L2 )obs 6 h2 6 h2 6 h2

15 1 Y2,1 = m sin cos exp[ i] 8 15 2 Y2,2 = sin 2 exp[ 2i] 32

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D 2l + 1 (l | m!| |m| (, ) = Yl,m ((, ) = Pl (cos ) exp[im ] 4 (l+ | m!|)
< L2 >= h 2l(l + 1) < L z >= mlh For l = 2 we have m = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 < L2 >= 6h 2 L We have five states all with L2 = h 2 6 z r L =2 h That is the length | L | of L is in all z three cases | L |= h 6 L L =h r z However L is oriented differently L =0 in th three states with L z L z = 2h, h, 0, h, 2h L L = -h z For each of the states a L = - 2h z meassurement of L2 and L z

|L| = 6h

will always give the same value e.g l = 2, m = 1 gives < L2 >= 6h 2; < L z >= h

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D
Properties of solutions to Schrdinger eq. for particle moving on sphere with radius a

(a) A summary of the Fig. 12.31. However, because the azimuthal angle of the vector around the z- axis is indeterminate, a better representation is as in (b), where each vector lies at an unspecified azimuthal angle on its cone.

Rotation..Quantum Mechanics 3D

2Ylm (, ) = h2l(l + 1) L
HYlm (, ) =
same energy

2l(l + 1) h 2 ma

Ylm (, )

L z Ylm (, ) = hm
Different orientation

The permitted orientations of angular momentum when l = 2. We shall see soon that this representation is too specific because the azimuthal orientation of the vector (its angle around z) is indeterminate.

Electron spin
Stern and Gerlach observed in 1921 that a beam of electrons (Ag - atoms) split in an inhomogeneous magnetic field into two beams

They attributed to an internal spin angular momentum of the electron

1 l=s= 2

Electron spin m = ms = 1 2

r S

An electron spin (s = 1/2) can take only two orientations with respect to a specified axis.
An electron (top) is an electron with ms = +1/2; a electron (bottom) is an electron with ms = - 1/2.
The length of the spin - angular momentum is

r S

1 1 h 3 S | = h s(s + 1) = h ( + 1) = 2 2 2

What you must know from this lecture

1. For a particle moving on a sphere we have that H, L2 and Lz commutes. Thus they must have common eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions are the speherical harmonics

2. The corresponding eigenvalue equations are L2 Ylm (, ) = h 2 l(l + 1)Ylm (, ) Lz Ylm (, ) = hmYlm (, ) HYlm (, ) =
2 l(l + 1) h

2I

Ylm (, )

What you must know from this lecture

2 and will give the outcomes Lz , L (L2 )obs = h 2 l(l + 1); (Lz )obs = hm h 2 l(l + 1) (E)obs = each time

3. For a state described by Ylm (, ) measurements of

2I

4. For a given l we have 2l + 1 eigenfunctions Ylm (, ) all with the same energy and the same length L2 = h l(l + 1) of the angular momentum. The all have different projections (orientations) Lz = mh of the angular momentum onto the z - axis.