=
=
= =
As a rule of thumb, it is expected that for every 0.01g/cm3 increase in density there will be a
decrease of about 2 API
Problem 2:
The density of pure water is temperature dependent.
PETR2311 Homework
2
a) At what temperature does water have its maximum density?
b) What is the specific gravity of water at that temperature to four significant figures?
c) What is the API of water at its maximum density to three significant figures?
SOLUTION:
a) 4 C
b) From the lecture on Fluid Properties Slide 4 (From The Physics Factbook by Glenn Elert
(http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2007/AllenMa.shtml) referencing Lide, D. R. (Ed.)
(1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press.)
Interpolating from their Table 4.
Given:
T = 4C
Find:
Specific Gravity (SG) of water at 4C
Procedure:
Specific Gravity of a Fluid (Density of Fluid)/(Density of water at 60F) by definition
Density of water at 4C = 1.000
Density of water at 60F (~15.6C) = 0.999
Specific Gravity of water at 4C = 1.000/0.999 = 1.001
c)
141.5
131.5
141.5
131.5 9.859
1.001
API
SG
API
=
= =
Problem 3:
It is a rainy day in Houston. You are a poor student (or TA or professor) with an old car that has
bald tires. You are traveling at 60 miles/hour and you slam on the brakes (i.e., your wheels are no
longer turning. Assume there is a layer of pure water 0.1 mm thick between your tires and the
road, i.e., the rubber is not meeting the road. Assume each of your tires contacts the water layer
over a rectangle 10 cm wide and 15 cm long.
a) How much braking force (in lbs) can you expect?
PETR2311 Homework
3
b) You are always told to keep your tires well inflated. In fact, to get lower rolling friction
and better mileage, many experts advise overinflating your tire somewhat. Does over
inflating help or hurt your wet braking in this problem?
c) Would harder rain have helped or hurt?
d) Since safety is paramount, list two practical actions you could take to improve your
chance of survival and how they relate to the study of viscosity.
SOLUTION
Given:
v = 60 mi/hr
Fluid = water
Fluid thickness = 0.1 mm
Area of tires = 4(10cm)(15cm)
a)
Find: Braking force in lbs
Procedure: Couette flow between parallel plates
Assume viscosity of pure water.
2
6
6
(60 / ) 1 5280 12 2.54 1 10
(1 ) (600 )
(0.1 ) 100 3600sec
1.61 10
1.61 10 3.6
444823 /
dv
dy
dv
F A
dy
mi hr P ft in cm hr mm
F cP cm
mm cP mi ft in cm
dynes
F dynes lbs
dynes lb
t
=
=
(  
      
=
(      
\ .\ . \ .\ .\ .
\ .
= = =
b)
Overinflating leads to less area of tire on the water layer which in turn leads to less viscous
force. Of course, you have so little force that you are probably going to die anyway.
c)
If the harder rain leads to a thicker water layer, then the viscous force will again be reduced, and
once again, you are dead.
PETR2311 Homework
4
d)
From the equation for Couette flow, you could
i. Reduce your speed v
ii. Make the water layer thinner. That is one purpose of tread on the tires, i.e., get new tires
iii. Underinflate your tires to get more area on the road
Of course, even better is to remove yourself from the Couette flow regime by having rubber
contact the road rather than rubber contacting a water layer. Again, tread on the tires attempts to
break through the water layer. The frictional force of rubber on concrete is many orders of
magnitude higher than these viscous forces.
Problem 4:
You are paddling a flat bottom boat at a constant speed on a still lake. The water is shallow near
the shore and deeper in the middle of the lake.
a) Look at the Couette flow equation. What does the equation say about the effort of
paddling as you go from shallow water to deep water?
b) What would you conclude about paddling in the ocean on a still day?
c) Is your answer to Part (a or b) consistent with your experience?
d) What is wrong? Or, said another way, when is the Couette flow equation applicable?
SOLUTION
a) Blindly applying the Couette flow equation would say that as you go from shallow to
deep water at a constant velocity would reduce the velocity gradient and consequently
reduce the shear that must be supplied by your paddling effort.
b) Blindly applying the Couette flow equation as you paddle in the ocean (great depth)
would say that almost no effort is required to keep the boat moving, or alternately, with
the same effort you could go very, very fast.
c) Of course, the conclusions of applying the Couette equation blindly are nonsense.
d) The Couette equation is applicable in the limit of very thin fluid layers and very slow
velocities leading to laminar flow. Flow in thick fluid layers or at fast velocities is
significantly more complicated.
Problem 5:
A simple viscometer can be constructed as in the drawing. A mass of 10 g pulls a block of mass
1 kg on a thin layer of oil of thickness 0.1 mm. The dimensions of the block are height 10 cm,
length in the plane of the picture 20 cm and width into the picture 10 cm.
PETR2311 Homework
5
M
L
H
Oil thickness = h
m
a. If the block moves to the left with a velocity of 10 cm/sec, what is the viscosity of the oil
in cP?
b. If the mass on the pulley were increased to 100kg, would this method of measuring
viscosity still be appropriate? Why or why not?
The actual measurements of the velocity (in cm/sec) were 10, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9 and 10.1.
c. What is the best estimate of the viscosity in cP?
d. What is the uncertainty in the estimate of the viscosity in cP?
SOLUTION:
Givens: shown in drawing
Find:
2
Procedure:
(10 g)(980cm/sec )(0.1 mm) 1cm
(20 cm)(10 cm)(10 cm/sec) 10mm
0.049Poise 4.9cP
F dv
A dy
F
dv
A
dy
F mg
dv v
dy h
A LW
mgh
LWv
=
=
=
=
=
=
(
=
(
= =
b)
PETR2311 Homework
6
If the mass of the pulley is very large (100 kg) then the masses will accelerate violating the
constant velocity assumption of the Couette flow in the definition of the viscosity. Consequently,
this calculation method would be inappropriate.
c)
{ }
best
Given: v 10, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9,10.1 cm/sec
Find:
=
1
2
Procedure:
( )
1
{ }
10 10.1 9.8 9.9 10.1
/ sec
5
9.98 / sec
(10 )(980 / sec )(0.1 ) 1
(20 )(10 )(9.98 / sec) 10
4.91
best best
n
best i i
i
best
best
v
v mean v v
n
cm
cm
g cm mm cm
cm cm cm mm
cP
=
=
= =
+ + + +
=
=
(
=
(
=
d)
{ } Given: v 10, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9,10.1 cm/sec
Find: o
=
2
1
2
2 2 2 2 2
Procedure:
1
standard deviation{ } ( )
1
(10 9.98) (10.1 9.98) (9.8 9.98) (9.9 9.98) (10.1 9.98)
4
best
best best best
v
n
i i best
i
best
v best v v
v
v
v v v v
n
mgh mgh
v v LWv LWv v
v
o o
o
o
=
c
=
c
= =
c c    
= = =
 
c c
\ . \ .
+ + + +
=
o
o
=
c
=
c
=
=
PETR2311 Homework
7
Problem 6:
A fluid of viscosity is flowing between parallel plates (see figure) where the distance between
the upper plate and the bottom plate is b. The bottom plate is moving with a velocity of U
1
and
upper plate is moving with a velocity U
2
. The dimensions of each of the plate are L and W and
the pressure drop across P.
a) Derive the symbolic relationship for the velocity profile. Use the above symbols.
b) Derive the symbolic relationship for the volumetric flow rate between the two plates.
c) Derive the symbolic relationship for the average velocity of the fluid through the two
plates.
d) Derive the position as well as the value of the maximum velocity.
e) Sketch on a graph, the velocity profile with velocity on the xaxis and y on the yaxis.
The sketch curve should show important points with the symbolic values. Such as the
velocities at the boundaries and the position of the maximum velocity.
SOLUTION:
a)
PETR2311 Homework
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
Sum the forces on a slab:
0
0
y
y
y
y
y
y dy
y dy
y dy
y dy
y dy
ext
ext y y dy
y y dy
A WL
F
dv
WL dy
dv
F WL
dy
F
dv
WL dy
dv
F WL
dy
F PW dy
F F F F
dv dv
PW dy WL WL
dy dy
t
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
= =
=
= = +
= +
= A
= = + +
= A +
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
Sum the forces on a slab:
0
( ) ( )
0
( )
0
( )
0
y y dy
y y y
y y y
y y y
dv dv
PW dy WL WL
dy dy
dv dv y d v y
PW dy WL dy WL
dy dy dy
dv dv d v y
PW dy WL WL dy WL
dy dy dy
dv dv d v y
Pdy L L Ld
dy dy dy
+
= A +
(
= A + + (
(
= A + +
= A + +
0
2
2
0
2
2
1 2
( )
0
,
( )
( )
0
. . (0) ( )
y
y
d v y
P L
dy
Since this balance is true y between the plates
the differential equation for v y is
P d v y
L dy
with BC v U and v b U
= A +
A
= +
= =
PETR2311 Homework
9
2
2
1 2
2
2
1
2
1 2
( )
0
. . (0) ( )
( )
Integrate once:
( )
Integrate once more:
( )
2
Solve
P d v y
L dy
with BC v U and v b U
d v y P
dy L
dv y P
y C
dy L
P
v y y C y C
L
A
= +
= =
A
=
A
= +
A
= + +
2
1 1 2
1 2
2
2 1 1
2 1
1
2 2 1
1
Apply first BC:
(0) 0 0
2
(0)
Apply second BC:
( )
2
2
Therefore, thefull equation:
( )
2 2
P
v U C C
L
v U C
P
v b U b C b U
L
U U Pb
C
b L
U U P Pb
v y y y U
L b L
A
= = + +
= =
A
= = + +
A
= +
  A A
= + + +

\ .
b)
2 2 1
1
The velocity profile is given by:
( )
2 2
U U P Pb
v y y y U
L b L
  A A
= + + +

\ .
2 2 1
1
2 2 1
1
0
2
3 2 1
1
0
3
2 1
Flow through a thin layer
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
6 2 2
6 2
b
b
dQ v y dA
v y Wdy
U U P Pb
y y U Wdy
L b L
U U P Pb
Q y y U Wdy
L b L
U U P Pb y
y U y W
L b L
U U Pb Pb
L b L
=
=
(   A A
= + + +
( 
\ .
(   A A
= + + +
( 
\ .
(   A A
= + + +
( 
\ .
 A A
= + +
}
( )
( )
2
1
3 3
2 1
1
3
2 1
2
6 4 2
12 2
b
U b W
U U b
Pb Pb
U b W
L L
U U b
Pb
W
L
( 
+
( 
\ .
( A A
= + + +
(
+ ( A
= +
(
c)
PETR2311 Homework
10
( )
( )
3
2 1
2
2 1
12 2
12 2
Q Q
v
A Wb
U U b
Pb W
L Wb
U U
Pb
L
= =
+ ( A
= +
(
+
A
= +
d)
2 2 1
1
The velocity profile is given by:
( )
2 2
U U P Pb
v y y y U
L b L
  A A
= + + +

\ .
And the maximum is when
2 1
2 1
2 1
( )
0
( )
0
2
2
2
extreme
extreme
dv y
dy
U U dv y P Pb
y
dy L b L
U U Pb
b L
y
P
L
U U L b
y
b P
=
  A A
= + + =

\ .
A
+
=
A
= +
A
Check for maxima
2
2
2
2
( )
0
( )
0
d v y
dy
d v y P
dy L
<
A
=
<
Hence the maximum value is:
PETR2311 Homework
11
2 2 1
1
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
1
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 2 1
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 4
2 2
U U P Pb
v y y y U
L b L
U U U U U U P L b Pb L b
U
L b P b L b P
U U U U P L b L
b
L b P b P
U U U U L b Pb
b P b
  A A
= + + +

\ .
  A A    
= + + + + +
  
A A
\ . \ .
\ .
A    
= + +
`
 
A A
\ . \ .
)
A    
+ + +
 
A
\ . \ .
1
2 2
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 2 1
1
2
2 1
2 2
2 4 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
L Pb b
U
L P L
U U U U L P b P L P
b
b P L L b P L
U U U U L b Pb L Pb b
U
b P b L P L
U U L
b P
  A
+ +
`

A
\ .
)
  A A A    
= + +
`
  
A A
\ . \ .
\ .
)
  A A    
+ + + + +
`
  
A A
\ . \ .
\ .
)
  
=

A
\ .
( )
2
2 1
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
2 2
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 1
2
2
2 1
8 2
2 2 4
2 8 2 4
2 8
U U b P
b
L b
U U U U L b b Pb
U
b P b L
U U U U U U L Pb L Pb
U U U
b P L b P L
U U U L Pb
b P L
A   
+ +
`
 
\ . \ .
)
A     
+ + + + +
`
  
A
\ . \ . \ .
)
A A    
= + + + +
 
A A
\ . \ .
A  
= + +

A
\ .
1 2
2
U +