You are on page 1of 177

A CRIMINOLOGICAL STUDY ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF FEMALE DRUG ABUSE IN KARACHI.

(A STUDY OF WOMEN DRUG USERS)


BY: JAWED AZIZ MASUDI
MASTER OF CRIMINOLOGICAL SCIENCES

MCS (FINAL) 2006 DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI

Certificate
I certify that Mr. Jawed Aziz Masudi has revised this thesis and has made the necessary corrections as suggested in the Viva-Voce Examination and has also corrected all typographical errors in the document as required according to guide line for research as followed in the department. I also certify that Mr. Jawed Aziz Masudi has collected the data himself and that his Thesis is the outcome of his own efforts. Date: August 20, 2006

Dr. Rana Saba Sultan Research Guide Assistant Professor

Deptt. Of Criminology University of Karachi


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
To enumerate all those on whose work I have built or who, through criticism and suggestion, have influenced the conception of this research would be impossible. I must however acknowledge my special indebtedness to all my Teachers, especially my Research Guide, Dr. Rana Saba Sultan, Dr. Nabeel Ahmed Zuberi and Prof. Dr. Fateh Muhammad Burfat, Chairman Department of Criminology/Sociology to keep guiding me with all their congenial responses, that helped me throughout the phases of this Research. I would like to thank Dr. Saleem Azam, Chairperson of Pakistan Society, in particular Dr. Maria Kazmi Program Director, Canadian International Development Agency, who has always been very helpful in introducing female drug user in Pakistan Societys drop-in centre for female drug users. I would also like to thank Dr. A. K. Jamali, Public Health Specialist & Project Manager in AMAL Human Development Network who sent me to Red light Area Karachi for collecting the true facts of near about 5000 registered FSWs (Female Sex Workers) with his NGO AMAL. I can never forget what my senior fellow Syed Khurram Mehdi did for me regarding the preparation of this thesis. He spent days and nights with me for compilation of this research. Without his guidance it would have been impossible to complete my work in its present shape. Mr. Muhammad Khalid, Deputy Manager, Sui Southern Gas Company, has been very helpful in providing me computer guidance like developing/formating Questionnaire etc, for his support I will always remain thankful to him. It would be unjustified if I do not appreciate Hammad Ahmed, M.A (Final) Deptt. Of Criminology, University of Karachi, who helped me in taking photographs of female drug users and in making a documentary for the same. I thank him from the core of my heart. At the end I would like to thank my class fellows particularly Mr. Muhammad Nazeer, Mr. Muhammad, Irfan Hafeez and all my respondents for making it easier in collecting the true facts and consequence that were somehow very private to discuss, but they made me very confident in gathering all related information with this Research. Jawed Aziz Masudi MCS (Final) 2006

DEDICATION I DEDICATE MY THESIS TO MY BELOVED WIFE DR.FAREEHA WHO HAS ALWAYS BEEN VERY KIND HEARTED, ENCOURAGING AND TO INSPIRE ME THROUGHT LIFE.

Jawed aziz masudi

CONTENTS S. #
CHAPTER 1

TOPIC
INTRODUCTION DRUG CAN BE DEFINED AS SOURCES OF DRUGS MEDICAL DEFINITION OF DRUG GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS KINDS OF DRUG MEDICINES ARE LEGAL DRUGS ILLEGAL DRUGS PHYSICAL DEPENDENCY MODEL POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT MODEL DRUGS AND BRAIN REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS THE ROLE OF DOPAMINE IN REWARD SYMPTOMS OF DRUG USAGE HISTORY OF DRUGS HISTORICAL BACKGROUNG OF DRUGS IN PAKISTAN TIES TO AFGHANISTAN WOMEN DRUG ABUSE IN PAKISTAN CURRENT SITUATION OF PAKISTAN DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT PROGRAMME FOR PAKISTAN NATIONAL AIDS POLICY NON GOVERNMENT RESPONSES TO DRUG USE AND HIV THE ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY

PAGE
INTRODUCTION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

1 2 2 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 16

18 18 22 28 29 31 33 35 36 36 38

24 25 26 27 28

FOCUS OF STUDY MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STUDY HYPOTHESES OF STUDY VARIABLES OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS

39 40 41 42 43

CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF PAST LITERATURE


2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.9 THEORY REVIEW OF PAST LITERATURE THE CAP CONTROL THEORY OF DRUG ABUSE THE BAD-HABIT THEORY OF DRUG ABUSE INTERACTIVE MODELS OF NONMEDICAL DRUG USE AN EXISTENTIAL THEORY OF DRUG DEPENDENCE AN EGO/SELF THEORY OF SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE A GENERAL THEORY OF ADDICTION TO OPIATE-TYPE DRUGS THEORY OF DRUG USE SOCIOLOGY OF DRUG USE PAST STUDIES SOME OTHER STUDIES ON DRUG ABUSE A STUDY OF WOMEN DRUG USERS
44 44 45 46 49 54 56 61 63 64 70 73 76

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF SOCIAL RESEARCH UNIVERSE THE SAMPLE SAMPLING METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
78 79 80 81 81 83

3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.10 3.10. 1 3.10. 2 3.10. 3

PRE-TESTING CODING TABULATION SIMPLE TABLES CONTINGENCY TABLES STATISTICAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS CHI-SQUARE (TEST OF INDEPENDENCE) DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL

83 84 84 84 84 85 85 85 85

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


4.1 4.2 FREQUENCY AND DISTRIBUTION TABLES CONTINGENCY TABLES
87 137 138 142

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, COCLUSION, SUGGESTIONS AND LIMITATIONS


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 SUMMARY FINDINGS OF SIMPLE TABLES RESULTS OF HYPOTHESES (CONCLUSION) SUGGESTIONS LIMITATIONS BIBLOGRAPHY SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
143 144 150 152 154

INTRODUCTION
The use of legal drug and illegal drug has a long history in Pakistan. Prior partition Opium was cultivated and sold under a licensing policy of the government. After independence in 1947, the some laws were followed by the government until February 1979. When the Hadood Ordinance was imposed this ordinance was placed a ban on the cultivation, production, sale and use of narcotics within Pakistan. Although the ban closed down legal outlets for drug, illegal availability use continued until this period. The issue of drug abuse had not come a social policy consideration or a national concern the dramatic increase in opium, production in Afghanistan made. Pakistan is an important transit gateway for illegal drug especially heroin as a result drug abuse within Pakistan became a more pronounced problem since that time.

What is Drug?
The word drug is etymologically derived from the Dutch low German word droog which means by dry since in the past most drug were direct plant parts.

The ancient Greek believed drug to be both poison and medicines in modern society. A drug is whatever A common definition of the word drug is any substance that in small amount produces significant changes in the body, mind or both. (Weil Andrew, 2000: 17) A substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease or as a component of a medication. Such a substance as recognized or defined by the United States Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (Wise, 1996: 9) A chemical substance, such as a narcotic or hallucinogen that affects the central nervous system, causing changes in behavior and often addiction. (McKim, 1997: 23) A substance used in the treatment of disease: medicament, medication, medicine, pharmaceutical. (Julien, 1995: 6) A substance that affects the central nervous system and is often addictive: hallucinogen, narcotic, opiate. (Wise, 1996: 12) Drugs, substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. (A. Burger, 1998: 24)

3. SOURCES OF DRUGS
Drugs are obtained from many sources. Many inorganic materials, such as metals, are chemotherapeutic; hormones, alkaloids, vaccines, and antibiotics come from living organisms; and other drugs are synthetic or semi synthetic. Synthetics are often more effective and less toxic than the naturally obtained substances and are easier to prepare in standardized units. The techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the production of drugs, and genetically engineered livestock that incorporate human genes are being developed for the production of scarce human enzymes and other proteins. (UNODC, 1998: ivv)

4. MEDICAL DEFINITION OF DRUG


A substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease or as a component of a medication. (WHO and UNAIDS, 2000: 26) A chemical substance, such as a narcotic or hallucinogen, that affects the central nervous system, causing changes in behavior and often addiction to administer a drug, especially in an overly large quantity, to an individual, and to stupefy or dull with or as if with a drug; to narcotize. Drugs are chemicals that change the way a person's body works. (Sullivan and Hagen, 2002: 177)

5. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS DEPRESSANT


A depressant is a drug that slows a person down. Doctors prescribe depressants to help people be less angry, anxious, or tense. Depressants relax muscles and make people feel sleepy; less stressed out, or like their head is stuffed. Some people may use these drugs illegally to slow themselves down and help bring on sleep - especially after using various kinds of stimulants. (Di Chiara, 1995: 95)

HALLUCINOGEN
A hallucinogen is a drug, such as LSD, that changes a person's mood and makes him or her see, hear, or think things that aren't really there. (Di Chiara, 1995: 95)

INHALANT
An inhalant, such as glue or gasoline, is sniffed or "huffed" to give the user an immediate rush. Inhalants produce a quick feeling of being drunk followed by sleepiness, staggering, dizziness, and confusion. (Di Chiara, 1995: 95)

NARCOTIC

A narcotic dulls the body's senses (leaving a person less aware and alert and feeling carefree) and relieves pain. Narcotics can cause a person to sleep, fall into a stupor, have convulsions, and even slip into a coma. Certain narcotics - such as codeine - are legal if given by doctors to treat pain. Heroin is an illegal narcotic because it is has dangerous side effects and is very addictive. (Di Chiara, 1995: 95)

STIMULANT
A stimulant speeds up a person's body and brain. Stimulants, such as methamphetamines and cocaine, have the opposite effect of depressants. Usually, stimulants make a person feel high and energized. When the effects of a stimulant wear off, the person will feel tired or sick. (Di Chiara, 1995: 95)

6. KINDS OF DRUG
COCANE Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. It is one of the oldest known drugs. The pure chemical, cocaine hydrochloride, has been an abused substance for more than 100 years, and coca leaves, the source of cocaine, have been ingested for thousands of years. There are basically two chemical forms of cocaine: the hydrochloride salt and the "freebase." The hydrochloride salt, or powdered form of cocaine, dissolves in water and, when abused, can be taken intravenously (by vein) or intranasally (in the nose). Freebase refers to a compound that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride salt. The freebase form of cocaine is smokable.

Cocaine is generally sold on the street as a fine, white, crystalline powder, known as "coke," "C," "snow," "flake," or "blow." Street dealers generally dilute it with such inert substances as cornstarch, talcum powder, and/or sugar, or with such active drugs as procaine (a chemically-related local anesthetic) or with such other stimulants as amphetamines. Crack is the street name given to the freebase form of cocaine that has been processed from the powdered cocaine hydrochloride form to a smokable substance. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is smoked. Crack cocaine is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water, and heated to remove the hydrochloride. Because crack is smoked, the user experiences a high in less than 10 seconds. (McKim, 1997: 29) ECSTASY Ecstasy--an illegal drug often referred to as this decades version of LSDis, according to some of its users "the hottest drug going now" the growing furor surrounding the illegal use and abuse of the drug has overshadowed its potential as a legitimate, professionally monitored psychiatric treatment for such ailments as posttraumatic stress disorder. (McKim, 1997: 30)

LSD LSD (an abbreviation for "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide") is the drug most commonly identified with the term "hallucinogen" and the most widely used in this class of drugs. It is considered the typical hallucinogen, and the characteristics of its action and effects apply to the other hallucinogens, including mescaline, psilocybin, and ibogaine. The precise mechanism by which LSD alters perceptions is still unclear. Evidence from laboratory studies suggests that LSD, like hallucinogenic plants, acts on certain groups of serotonin receptors designated the 5-HT2 receptors, and that its effects are most prominent in two brain regions: One is the cerebral cortex, an area involved in mood, cognition, and perception; the other is the locus ceruleus, which receives sensory signals from all areas of the body and has been described as the brain's "novelty detector" for important external stimuli. (McKim, 1997: 30)

HEROIN Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive drug. It is both the most abused and the most rapidly acting of the opiates. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. It is typically sold as a white or brownish powder or as the black sticky substance known on the streets as "black tar heroin."

Although less diluted heroin is becoming more common, most street heroin is "cut" with other drugs or with substances such as sugar, starch, powdered milk, or quinine. Street heroin can also be cut with strychnine or other poisons. Because heroin abusers do not know the actual strength of the drug or its true contents, they are at risk of overdose or death. Heroin also poses special problems because of the transmission of HIV and other diseases that can occur from sharing needles or other injection equipment. (McKim, 1997: 31)

OPIOID ANALOGS Drug analogs are chemical compounds that are similar to other drugs in their effects but differ slightly in their chemical structure. Some analogs are produced by pharmaceutical companies for legitimate medical reasons. Other analogs, sometimes referred to as "designer" drugs, can be produced in illegal laboratories and are often more dangerous and potent than the original drug. Two of the most commonly known opioid analogs are fentanyl and meperidine (marketed under the brand name Demerol, for example). Fentanyl was introduced in 1968 by a Belgian pharmaceutical company as a synthetic narcotic to be used as an analgesic in surgical procedures because of its minimal effects on the heart. Fentanyl is particularly dangerous because it is 50 times more potent than heroin and can rapidly stop respiration. This is not a problem

during surgical procedures because machines are used to help patients breathe. On the street, however, users have been found dead with the needle used to inject the drug still in their arms. (McKim, 1997: 31)

MARIJUANA Marijuana - often called pot , grass , reefer , weed , herb , Mary

Jane , or MJ - is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded


leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis Sativa, the hemp plant. Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes called joints, among other names; some use pipes or water pipes called bongs. Marijuana cigars called blunts have also become popular. To make blunts, users slice open cigars and replace the tobacco with marijuana, often combined with another drug, such as crack cocaine. Marijuana also is used to brew tea and is sometimes mixed into foods. The major active chemical in marijuana is delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which causes the mind-altering effects of marijuana intoxication. The amount of THC (which is also the psychoactive ingredient in hashish) determines the potency and, therefore, the effects of marijuana. Between 1980 and 1997, the amount of THC in marijuana available in the United States rose dramatically. (McKim, 1997: 32)

METHAMPHETAMINE Methamphetamine is commonly known as "speed," "meth," and "chalk." In its smoked form, it is often referred to as "ice," "crystal," "crank," and "glass." It is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. The drug was developed early in this century from its parent drug, amphetamine, and was used originally in nasal decongestants and bronchial inhalers. Methamphetamine's chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine, but it has more pronounced effects on the central nervous system. Like amphetamine, it causes increased activity, decreased appetite, and a general sense of well-being. The effects of methamphetamine can last 6 to 8 hours. After the initial "rush," there is typically a state of high agitation that in some individuals can lead to violent behavior. (McKim, 1997: 32)

7. MEDICINES ARE LEGAL DRUGS


Medicines are legal drugs, meaning doctors are allowed to prescribe them for patients, stores can sell them, and people are allowed to buy them. But it's not legal, or safe, for people to use these medicines any way they want or to buy them from people who are selling them illegally. Cigarette is a kind of legal drugs. (In Pakistan, adults 18 and over can buy cigarettes) But excessive smoking is not healthy for adults and off limits for kids. (B. Barber, 1997: 19)

8. ILLEGAL DRUGS
When people talk about the "drug problem," they usually mean abusing legal drugs or using illegal drugs, such as marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, LSD, and heroin. (B. Barber, 1997: 19) Illegal drugs aren't good for anyone, but they are particularly bad for a kid or teen whose body is still growing. Illegal drugs can damage the brain, heart, and other important organs. Cocaine, for instance, can cause a heart attack - even in a kid or teen. While using drugs, a person is also less able to do well in school, sports, and other activities. It's often harder to think clearly and make good decisions. People can do dumb or dangerous things that could hurt themselves - or other people - when they use drugs. (B. Barber, 1997: 19) Sometimes kids and teens try drugs to fit in with a group of friends. Or they might be curious or just bored. A person may use illegal drugs for many reasons, but often because they help the person escape from reality for a while. If a person is sad or upset, a drug can - temporarily - make the person feel better or forget about problems. But this escape lasts only until the drug wears off. (McKim, 1997: 134) Drugs don't solve problems, of course. And using drugs often causes other problems on top of the problems the person had in the first place. A person who uses drugs can become dependent on them, or addicted. This means that the person's body becomes so accustomed to having this drug that he or she can't function well without it. Once a person is addicted, it's very hard to stop taking drugs. Stopping can cause withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting (throwing up), sweating, and tremors (shaking). These sick feelings continue until the person's body gets adjusted to being drug free again. (Wise, 1996: 134) McKim (1997) describes three models of why people become addicted to drugs, or engage in substance abuse to use the modern terminology:

the disease model the physical dependency model the positive reinforcement model

At one time people with problems associated with alcohol or other drugs were regarded as sinners or criminals, and any help they might receive came via the courts or the church. Towards the end of the 19th century the medical profession began to use the word addiction as both an explanation for, and diagnosis of, excessive drug use. This idea was formalized in the 1950s when the World Health Organization (WHO) and American Medical Association (AMA) classified alcoholism as a disease. One consequence of this change in attitude is the notion that the addict is not in control of their behaviour, that they require treatment rather than punishment. One problem with the disease model is that it not clear how one catches this disease. The presence of withdrawal symptoms led to the idea that the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms was the reason people continued to self-administer drugs. This is the essence of the physical dependency model

9. PHYSICAL DEPENDENCY MODEL


After repeated exposure to certain drugs, withdrawal symptoms appear if the discontinued. reactions that is Effects of Withdrawal heroin oppose the constipation relaxation drug Heroin withdrawal symptoms dysphoria diarrhoea & cramps Agitation

symptoms are compensatory euphoria primary effects of the drug.

Therefore they are the opposite of the effects of the drug.

Withdrawal effects are unpleasant and reduction in these effects would therefore constitute negative reinforcement. [Negative reinforcement is the reinforcement of behavior that terminates an aversive stimulus] Negative reinforcement could explain why addicts continue to take the drug. However some addicts will endure withdrawal symptoms (go 'cold-turkey') in order to reduce their tolerance so that they can recommence drug intake at a lower dose which costs less to purchase. s Concentrating on the role of physical withdrawal effects at the expense of other psychological factors led to the failure to recognize the addictive properties of cocaine. Cocaine does not produce physical dependency (tolerance and withdrawal symptoms) but it is more addictive than heroin. It is also important to emphasize that reduction in withdrawal symptoms does not explain why people take drugs in the first place. Negative reinforcement may account for initial drug taking in some situations. For example, someone who is suffering from unpleasant emotions may experience a reduction in these feelings (negative reinforcement) following drug administration. However the most likely reason for drug taking involves positive reinforcement.

10. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT MODEL

The reinforcing properties of a drug are thought to be reason why most people become addicted to drugs. Addictive drugs are positive reinforcers. (Carlson, 2001). Positive reinforcement can lead to learning a new response, and the maintenance of existing behaviours. It follows that the behaviours associated with taking an addictive drug (i.e. injecting or smoking it) will increase in probability. One way of testing this claim is to examine the reinforcing properties of drugs in animals. We already know that conventional reinforcers support bar-pressing in animals, therefore if a drug maintains a response such as bar-pressing in an animal, it is a reinforcing stimulus. At one time it was believed that animals could not be made addicted to drugs, but that view is now rejected because technical developments have shown that animals will learn new behaviours that cause injection of drugs into their body.

This diagram shows the apparatus used to study self-administration of drugs in laboratory animals. The rat will learn to press the lever which causes activation of the infusion pump by the program circuitry. The pump delivers drug solution through a catheter implanted in to a vein. This diagram shows the apparatus used to study self-administration of drugs in laboratory animals. The rat will learn to press the lever which causes activation of the infusion pump by the program circuitry. The pump delivers drug solution through a catheter implanted into a vein.Top of Form

Generally drugs that are self-administered by laboratory animals are also self-administered by humans, and vice versa. Drugs that are self-administered by laboratory animals

Drugs that are not self-administered by laboratory animals


alcohol amphetamine barbiturates caffeine cocaine nicotine opiates e.g. morphine procaine phencyclidine (PCP) THC (active component in marijuana)

imipramine mescaline phenothiazines scopolamine

Note that procaine (structurally similar to cocaine, normally used as a dental anaesthetic) is self-administered by laboratory animals, but it is not abused by humans. Mescaline is taken by humans, but animals will not self-administer it. (Wise, 1996: 123)

11. DRUGS AND BRAIN REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS


The most popular contemporary view of why humans self-administer potentially lethal drugs is that these chemicals activate the reinforcement system in the brain. This system is normally

activated by natural reinforcers such as food, water, sex etc. Reinforcers are thought to increase the effect of dopamine at receptors in the mesolimbic system which originates in the ventral tegmental area and terminates in the nucleus accumbens . Crack cocaine is thought to cause a massive and rapid activation of dopamine receptors in this system. Crack users report that the effects are much more intense than those produced by powerful reinforcers such as ejaculation or orgasm. (Di Chiara, 1995: 14). Reinforcers all share one physiological effect: They increase the release of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens. This effect can be produced by addictive drugs such as amphetamine, cocaine, opiates, nicotine, alcohol, PCP, and cannabis as well as natural reinforcers such as food, water and sexual contact (White, 1996: 158) As an example of this effect of reinforcers, Phillips found that that DA is released from the nucleus accumbens when a rat presses a lever that delivers reinforcing brain stimulation to its ventral tegmental area (VTA) (Phillips et al, 1992: 37). In this experiment:

an electrode (thin wire) was implanted with its tip in the VTA electrical stimulation is delivered through this electrode when the rat presses a lever the mesocorticolimbic system projects forwards from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens

DA is collected through a cannula (thin hollow tube) with its tip positioned in the nucleus accumbens notice how the release of DA coincides with the rat delivering reinforcing electrical stimulation to its VTA.

cells in frontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala send descending fibres that release DA and stimulate cells in the nucleus accumbens cell in the nucleus accumbens send descending fibres that release DA and stimulate cells in the VTA the mesocorticolimbic system consists of cells in the VTA which send ascending fibres that release DA and stimulate cells in the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex, amygdala and septum Display complete reward system

Cocaine and amphetamine increase activation of dopamine (DA) receptors and they are thought to act on

descending fibres from the nucleus accumbens which effect the ventral tegmental area and the mesocorticolimbic system which sends ascending fibres from the midbrain to the forebrain.

This dual-loop system is thought to be critical for reinforcement. The effects of opioid drugs (heroin and morphine) are less clear cut but they

stimulate opiate receptors on opioidergic neurons which in turn make synaptic connections with the mesocorticolimbic system thus opioid drugs modulate activity in the mesocorticolimbic system

If the mesocorticolimbic system is damaged most reinforcing drugs loose their reinforcing effects. Images of drug paraphenalia increase metabolic activity (revealed by PET scans) in areas receiving innervation by the mesocorticolimbic system Grant et al (cited in Carlson). This was accompanied by the

addicts reporting feelings of drug craving. There may be increased D3 DA receptor sensitity in these areas. Stress triggers the release of DA in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore stress may trigger drugcraving.(Koob, 1992: 177)

12. THE ROLE OF DOPAMINE IN REWARD


According to most textbooks when the dopamine pathway running from the ventral segmental area to the nucleus accumbens in the forebrain is activated, the release of dopamine into the forebrain nucleus accumbens is believed to cause feelings of pleasure. However this conventional view has been challenged by Dr. Mark Wightman and his colleagues (Garris et al, 1999) at the University of North Carolina (Center Line, 2000). They confirmed findings that:

previous

Artificially stimulating the ventral tegmental area at a regular or irregular rate released dopamine in the forebrain. Rats can be trained to electrically stimulate the ventral tegmental area. Rats were unable to learn to self-stimulate if the stimulation produced no dopamine release As predicted this self-stimulation is accompanied by the release of dopamine in the forebrain

However this effect does not last.

With continued training virtually no dopamine was released in response to self-stimulation of the ventral tegmental area, even though ventral tegmental stimulation remained rewardingthe animal continued performance of the bar pressing response.

Therefore the release of dopamine may not be critical for reinforcement once the task is learned. Wightman has suggested that dopamine may be a neural substrate for novelty or reward expectation rather than reward itself.

The World Health Organization (WHO) stress that drug dependence always includes "a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis". As we have seen the most popular contemporary view of why humans self-administer potentially lethal drugs is that these chemicals activate the reinforcement system in the brain. This mechanism may explain why some people initially take potentially addictive drugs, but there are several aspects of addiction that may not be explained by the theory. Robinson and Berridge (2003) point out that

although a significant number of people take potentially addictive drugs at some time during their lives, relatively few become addicts. We know relatively little about the psychological factors that are involved in the 'transition to addiction'. sometimes addicts take drugs to escape from drug-withdrawl states, but withdrawl states are not very powerful in motivating drug-seeking behaviours. As one addict put it: "No doc, craving is when you want itwant it so bad you can almost taste it ...but you aint sick ...sick is, well sick" (Childress et al.1988).

13. SYMPTOMS OF DRUG ABUSE


If someone is using drugs, we might notice changes in how the person looks or acts. Here are some of those signs, but it's important to remember that depression or another problem could be causing these changes. A person using drugs may: Lose interest in school Change friends (to hang out with kids who use drugs) Become moody, negative, cranky, or worried all the time Ask to be left alone a lot Have trouble concentrating Sleep a lot (maybe even in class) Get in fights Have red or puffy eyes Lose or gain weight Cough a lot Have a runny nose all of the time

14. HISTORY OF DRUGS AMERICAN HISTORY


Drugs have never been absent from American life, but the type and level of use have varied over time. Legal responses to drugs were profoundly influenced by the evolving interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, which, until the twentieth century, reserved to the states the police powers to regulate the health professions and drug availability. The result was a generally free economy in drugs until late in the nineteenth century when an ineffective patchwork of state ant drug laws was enacted.

Excluding alcohol and tobacco, opium was the major mood-altering substance available to Americans in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Crude opium, the dried juice of the poppy, has been available for millennia, and from it various medicines have been concocted. Alcoholic extracts of opium include laudanum and paregoric; extraction with acetic acid was known as black drop or Quaker's opium. Opium prepared for smoking was closely linked in popular thought with Chinese immigrants. About 10 percent of crude opium is the alkaloid morphine, its most powerful mood-altering ingredient. Morphine was isolated from opium in 1805 by the German pharmacist F. W. A. Sertuerner, although commercial production did not begin for about two decades. It was first produced in the United States in Philadelphia during the 1830s. The impact of the purified active ingredient was enormous. Morphine could be taken by mouth, as were crude opium compounds, but it could also be dusted into wounds, sprinkled on blistered skin, and after the development of the hypodermic syringe and needle, injected into the body's tissues with a powerful effect. Heroin, a derivative of morphine, was commercially introduced by the Bayer Company in 1898. The extraction of purified active ingredients and their direct injection into the body marked a fundamental change in the relationship of drugs to society. After popularization of the hypodermic syringe in the 1860s, the use of opiates rose by the 1890s to a per capita level

rivaled only by that of the early 1970s. Initially, physicians thought morphine by injection was a protection against addiction because the amount required for a given level of pain relief was less than when the drug was taken by mouth. That this erroneous belief persisted for about two decades illustrates the difficulty even trained observers have when evaluating new procedures. By the beginning of the twentieth century physicians were being widely blamed for having created addicts through careless prescribing. Both public and professional pressure thereafter led to extreme caution in the provision of pain relief to patients. Another drug in use for centuries was contained in the coca leaf, which people living in the growing regions of the high Andes chewed as a way to obtain more energy and endurance. Cocaine was isolated from coca leaves in 1860 by A. Niemann of Vienna. An alcoholic extract was introduced shortly thereafter by Angelo Mariani as Vin Mariani, a tonic that proved popular until about the turn of the century. Testimonials from such celebrities as Thomas Edison, as well as a gold medal from Pope Leo XIII, came to Mariani for his coca extracts. Coca-Cola was modeled after Vin Mariani except that the alcohol was removed to make it a temperance beverage. Cocaine was removed from the soft drink about 1900. Cocaine became available commercially in the 1880s and rapidly found favor with the public. The drug was taken in many forms, including hypodermic injection. Initially, there were no restrictions on

its sale or distribution. And as in the case of morphine, many physicians are- lieved that cocaine was harmless and so advised the public. Over a decade passed before concern about cocaine began to outweigh the assurances of safety. Due to cocaine's ability to stimulate violence and paranoia, the reaction against the drug was dramatic and changed the acclaimed tonic into an extremely feared substance by 1900. Americans, too, along with their other social concerns of the Progressive Era, were growing increasingly worried about narcotics being surreptitiously included in patent medicines (easily available through mail-order houses) and about their being wrongly prescribed or over prescribed by physicians. Some were also uneasy about opium smuggling into the newly acquired Philippine Islands. Partly because of this concern, but also to curry favor with the Chinese government, the United States convened the Shanghai Opium Commission in 1909. The thirteen nations assembled considered ways to help China with its opium problem, and although the conclusions were vague and not binding, the commission paved the way for an international conference, also called by the United States, which met two years later at The Hague. In January 1912, The Hague Opium Treaty, which also proposed to regulate cocaine, was completed by the dozen nations represented and submitted to all the world's powers for ratification.

The Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 was the United States' implementation of The Hague treaty. The act's restriction took the form of a tax, and its purpose was to stop careless prescribing and easy availability of opiates and cocaine. This attempt to establish a national antinarcotics law controlling the health professions encountered serious constitutional impediments, however, and was not upheld by the Supreme Court as a legal prohibition of simple addiction maintenance until 1919. The laws against narcotics at the local, state, and national levels early in the twentieth century reflected a strong antagonism to drug use. By 1937 intolerance and fear of drugs had reached such dimensions that the Marijuana Tax Act was passed with little debate. As use of drugs decreased, punishment increased until by 1955 the death penalty for providing heroin to anyone under eighteen was added to federal statutes. Narcotic use retreated to the margins of American society. But, beginning in the 1960s, drugs became increasingly popular for recreational use, particularly among young people. The favored drug was marijuana, but hallucinatory substances such as LSD and peyote, depressants such as barbiturates, and opiates, particularly heroin, were also widely used. The clash between the extremely punitive laws that had evolved since the Harrison Act and the large number of new drug users led to softened penalties and a

coalescence of federal drug laws under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Act of 1970. Toleration of drug use continued to rise until it reached a peak about 1978. Popular music and such entertainments as rock concerts and movies often glorified and sanctioned drug use. Campaigns to legalize drugs argued that they were harmless and that legalization would end black markets and reduce crime. They achieved a de facto decriminalization of marijuana for the user, but eradication and interdiction campaigns persisted. After the late 1970s fear of drug use rose while toleration of drugs decreased, partly as a result of observation of the effects of drug use. Extensive ant drug campaigns were conducted in the media and by activist groups collectively termed "the parents' movement." The Reagan administration strongly supported the ant drug mood and First Lady Nancy Reagan introduced the motto of the ant drug movement, "Just say no." During the 1980s the use of cocaine, especially a conveniently inhalable form called crack, reached alarming levels, and by 1989 public opinion polls were reporting that Americans believed that drugs were the most serious problem facing the nation. Increased homicides, violence, and damage to fetuses of crack-using pregnant women were common allegations. The fear of lifelong damage to children of drug-using mothers created a new concern in the war on

drugs. In 1986 and 1988 increasingly severe federal antidrug laws were enacted as Republicans and Democrats vied over whom the more was opposed to drug use. Between the 1960s and the 1980s attitudes had once again shifted: toleration turned into intolerance and a hope that some drug use might be beneficial gave way to a growing conviction that any drug use was damaging. (A. Burger, 1998: 94-96)

15. HISTORICAL BACKGROUNG OF DRUGS IN PAKISTAN Pakistan has a long history of the cultivation and use of opium and cannabis, as is the Case in many countries in the region. During the time of British colonial rule, when Pakistan was a part of the Indian subcontinent, the taxes and levies raised from opium Poppy proved an important source of revenue for the authorities. While opium Production flourished in various parts of India (such as Bengal and Kashmir) it was not so widespread in the Pakistan region, except in limited quantities in the tribal Areas. In the late 19th Century opium was often referred to as Afghan Opium and Amounted to around 40 tons annually (Hag 1996; Narcotics Control Division, Government of Pakistan (NCD) 1998). At that time, and for years later, most opium Used for addicts was imported from India and retailed through Government licenses Shops under regulation (NCD 1998). Traditionally, opium has been used for the relief of body aches and pains, diarrhea and various other ailments (UNDCP 1998). Soon after Pakistan achieved independence in 1947, commercial domestic farming of Opium began with selling taking place through legal opium vendors. Opium Production was encouraged throughout the 1950s to replace the opium imported from India (Sercombe 1995). Between 1955 and 1975, the annual licit production of opium was about 7.2 metric tons (NCD 1998). By 1979 an exceptional opium poppy crop produced about 800 metric tons (UNDCP 1998). At this time 80,000 to 100,000 hard Core opium users were estimated (Sercombe 1995; UNDCP 1998). Heroin use was virtually unknown although some researchers have suggested there may have been About 5,000 heroin users throughout the country (Sadeque 1992). In the late 1970s, The use of cheap licit drugs became more evident and increasing numbers of people Became dependent upon barbiturates, stimulants, hallucinogens or tranquillizers (Spencer and Navaratnam 1981). In 1979 the Prohibition Order was introduced by government authorities and ended the lawful production, sale and consumption of opium, alcohol and cannabis.

Although at the time there were thousands of chronic opium users regularly receiving their drug from government licensed opium vendors, there were virtually no support service available to accompany the new law and many drug users went in search of other substitutes (NCB 1998; UNDCP 1998). In 1980 the number of heroin users was negligible but by 1983 it was estimated at around 100,000 and by 1993 it had increased to around 1.5 million (NCD 1998; UNDCP 1998). In the early 1990s estimates suggested there were another million people consuming opium, marijuana and hashish (Sadeque 1992). In 1993 Pakistan conducted its one and only National Survey of drug use. The findings showed there were an estimated 3.01 million chronic drug users and the drug of choice was heroin (51%), followed by cannabis (29.5%) (UNDCP 1998). INCREASE IN POPPY CULTIVATION IN PAKISTAN IN 2003 Pakistan has been a producer of opium for exports and traditional domestic consumption since the time of Muslim rule and the British Empire. In 1979, however, the government of Pakistan responded to the problem of increased illicit opium production and trade by the enforcement of the Hadd Ordinance. The ordinance brought existing law into line with Islamic injunctions and prohibits trafficking, financing or possession of more than 10 grams of heroin or one kg of opium. In 1979, all poppy cultivation (licit and illicit) was banned and all government-controlled processing plants and retail outlets for licit opium were closed. As a result of Hadd ordinance and partly because of massive stock pilling of opium following a bumper harvest in 1979, opium cultivation and production sharply declined in the 1980s. The governments commitment to make Pakistan poppy-free, increased efforts in law enforcement, the impact of alternative development assistance from the international community, and a drop in retail prices for opium gum due to the massive increase in production in Afghanistan, are major factors that contributed to a further decline in opium cultivation since the mid-1990s. An analysis of poppy harvesting trends at the national level reveals a decline in the amount harvested from 9,441 hectares in 1992 to less than 284 hectares in 1999. Of the three main poppy growing areas, Dir district in north of Frontier province where the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) has been active since 1985, accounted for

approximately 60 percent of the opium harvested in the country. Over this period, the UNDCP spent 35 million US dollars on alternative development projects in Dir district. Alternative development interventions coupled with demonstrated government commitment led to a decrease in opium cultivation in Dir district from 3,500 hectares in 1992 to near zero in 2000, making Pakistan one of the most successful story as far as war on drugs was concerned. However, satisfactory results in the year 2000 proved short-lived as RECORD LAND HAS BEEN BROUGHT under poppy cultivation in Pakistans Balochistan province in general and the North West Frontier Province in particular this year breaking the 1998 figures of 950 hectares, which were the highest in the last five years. (UNODC, 2002) The illicit crop has been cultivated on a total of 3,000 hectares of land in the Frontier province, bordering Afghanistan in the west, while in Balochistan province also bordering Afghanistan and Iran, it has been cultivated on 2,000 hectares of land, according to figures released by the Pakistan government to the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). The poppy crop is either ready to be harvested or has already been harvested in some parts of the growing areas. The UNDCP sources say the lawenforcement agencies could destroy not more than one-third of the total standing crop in the NWFP until the first week of May. Meanwhile, the paramilitary force - Frontier Corps - claims it has destroyed the entire crop in Balochistan. The FC claim, however, has drawn a question mark. The FC told the UNDCP it had destroyed the entire crop. However, armed resistance in Balochistan was much higher than in the NWFP, particularly in the Gulistan area where the paras had a standoff with armed tribesmen using RPGs (rocket-propelled grenade launchers) and other small arms and light weapons to prevent paramilitary force from destroying their crop. Thomas Zeindl-Cronin, the UNDCP officer-in-charge in Islamabad, told me that as a matter of policy he could not challenge the FC claim. Through different sources I tried to get independent confirmation of the claim but failed to ascertain the situation accurately or verify the claim. The paramilitary force operation against poppy in Balochistans Gulistan, Chaman in Qilla Abdullah district, Zhob, Barkhan and Khuzdar areas started on April 16 and it lasted for about 14 days. Some people do claim that the

authorities in Balochistan province left poppy cultivated on some influential peoples lands untouched. The Khyber Agency tribal zone, bordering Afghanistan the in North West Frontier Province, has witnessed poppy cultivation on 868 hectares of land while the Kurrum Agency, also at the border with Afghanistan, cultivated poppy on 812 hectares of land. The Home and Tribal Affairs Department in Peshawar expressed inability to destroy the crop in Khyber Agency because of inaccessible terrain. Prime reason for unusually high acreage for poppy this year behind temptation among farmers to bring vast land under poppy cultivation was the pre-season high price of poppy per kilogram by the buyers. The preseason price of per kilo poppy was reported around Rs.50, 000 around 900 US dollars. Anti-drug enforcement agencies say the international drug mafia hiked up the price to induce more farmers into poppy cultivation. Interestingly, once a bumper crop is ensured, the buyers drop the price to more than half the original price knowing the growers will have little option but to sell the crop at the end of the season. According to anti-drug NGO in Peshawar, price of a kilo of old stock opium in Pakistan was recorded at Rs.36,000 [US$620] while in Afghanistan the price of old stock per kilo was Rs.34,000 [US$586] in the beginning of this year. The price, according to buyers, has gone down further in recent weeks. In some cases, the buyers provided the poverty-stricken farmers with poppy seeds and also cash money to maximize chances of good production this year. However, extremist religious groups emergence as a strong political force in the wake of October 2002 general elections in Pakistan was also regarded as one of the reasons behind the re-emergence of poppy cultivation. The Islamic groups, which used to call poppy crop as a weapon to use against the United States, did not denounce poppy cultivation, rather backed farmers to grow poppy. Official sources in Bajaur Agency tribal zone said that radical Islamic party Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Fazlur Rehman group) Salarzai area president Maulvi Fazel decreed that poppy cultivation was Islamic. However, the clerics call use of drugs un-Islamic. Since his decree, the political administration of Bajaur Agency has issued his arrest warrant, which forced him to avoid visiting Khar, agency headquarters of Bajaur, to escape arrest.

The Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or United Action Council, a conglomerate of six Islamic parties, legislators in the state assembly in North West Frontier Province have also backed farmers bid in the Kohistan district to grow poppy. The district, which is on main Silk Route linking Pakistan with China, has seen poppy fields for the first time. The government launched no operation yet and it was dependent on the MMA legislators help and support to negotiate destruction of poppy with growers. That appears coming slowly; Its mean the legislators support to the government. Malik Faiz Muhammad Khan of Dogram, an influential chieftain of both Sultankhel and Paindakhel tribes in Upper Dir district and also an active member of radical Islamic Jamiat-e-Islami party, defended poppy cultivation during an interview. General sahib, referring to President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan, has got us in the crosshairs to appease the United States, he said, defending the growers. He says his people would continue to grow poppy unless the government helped them financially. Growing anti-US feelings also seem to have contributed to the increase in land under poppy cultivation this. North and South Waziristan agencies, two tribal zones bordering Afghanistan, have witnessed poppy cultivation for the first time. The people in the two zones are very conservatives and have strong anti-American feelings and sympathies towards the Taliban. Mr Khan called upon the Muslims to use drugs as a nuclear bomb against the US since it attacks only the Muslim countries. Many people think the Muslim world can use drugs as a weapon against the United States, Jehanzeb Khan, chief of Whari country, told that his residence in Whari in the Dir district. A former member of a county in Dir district, Humayun Khan advocate, said that the clerics did not oppose poppy cultivation. Other different political parties also used the poppy issue to gain political points. He recalled that the Jamaat-e-Islami in the past used to describe poppy as a weapon against the United States and its belief seems unchanged. The UNDCP spent 35 million US dollars to make both Lower and Upper Dir districts poppy-free through the Dir District Development Project (DDDP) from 1986-87 to 1998. In 1998, the NWFP Chief Minister Mehtab Ahmed Khan Abbasi sanctioned Rs270 million [US$4.655 million] when the UNDCP stopped the grant.

Mr Khan and other farmers alleged very little money out of the 35 million US dollars and Rs270 million [$4.655 million] was spent on bettering the lot of the farmers. No alternative source of income was provided or there would have been no poppy today, says Khan. The US government is spending huge amount on efforts for poppy-free Pakistan. Narcotics Affairs Section [NAS] in the US Embassy in Islamabad believes Pakistan still needs years to make itself totally a poppy-free country. Experts at the NAS said unless communication facilities, mainly establishment of road networks, were provided in all the tribal zones poppy will be grown every year. The NAS helped the federal government construct 400 kilometres long roads in both Bajaur and Mohmand Tribal Zones. And because of road network law enforcing agencies were able to reach the area where poppy was grown and destroyed it. But on the other hand, where there is no road network in a tribal zone antipoppy operations were not launched. The Pakistan government made no efforts to destroy standing crop in Khyber Agency tribal zone as it did not want to annoy the tribal people in the backdrop of under construction road network. We let the poppy go undestroyed because doing so we might have put our road network construction projects in jeopardy, a senior government official said in Peshawar. But concentrating all energies on supply reduction efforts we are ignoring demand reduction factor. And since demand for drugs has increased considerably, production is also rising. According to latest figures about drug addicts in Pakistan, there are a total of 4.1 million drug addicts, which is 2.8 percent of the total population of Pakistan. Among the 4.1 million addicts, the proportion of heroin addicts was two million, which is 50 percent of the total drug addicts. The number of drug addicts is on the rise in Pakistan. According to a survey in 1992, total drug addicts were 1.3 million. But they increased to 3.1 million in 1993 forecasting a seven percent annual increase in the number of drug addicts. Among the drug addicts, 61% were literate, 54% were married, 26% were skilled workers, 25% were unskilled and 68% were laborers and sales personnel. NGOs treating drug addicts complain that donor agencies these days more interested in prevention of HIV AIDS spread than rehabilitation of drug users. They say grant was diverted to anti-AIDS campaign from treatment of drug addicts since the international community appears more interested in own goals than the country, which is facing serious drug problem. They say to provide moral justification for diversion of grant from rehabilitation of

drug users to anti-AIDS projects the UNDCPs 2000 survey claims there have been 0.5 million heroin users in Pakistan. These NGOs people say since drug addicts number is on the increase how the number of heroin users decreased. They call for demand reduction because if it does not happen drugs will be made available everywhere, including the US and many other countries. Aside from increased poppy cultivation this year and growing consumption of drugs in Pakistan, drug trafficking has also become a major problem again for Pakistan government. Drug smugglers are using Pakistan as transit route. Pakistans premier law-enforcement agency for drugs the USfunded Anti-Narcotics Force recorded seizures by all other law enforcement agencies in Pakistan. The report indicates that trafficking has increased. Heroin seizures increased from 4,973 kilograms in 1999 to 12,691 kilograms in 2002 while hashish seizures rose to 85,486 kilograms in 2002 from 81.458 kilograms in 1999. However, there has been marked decline in opium trafficking. In 2002, a total of 2,678 kilograms of opium were seized, which was 16,320 kilograms in 1999. But what really worries me is the fact that drug story is not being followed in Pakistan media for the last few years. And that is mainly because of arrest of chief editor of English-language The Frontier Post daily, Mr Rehmat Shah Afridi on heroin smuggling charge. He was awarded death sentence on two counts. I believe his arrest is politically-motivated. His newspaper printed incredible stories about drugs and through his arrest the authorities sent a strong signal to other journalists they need to learn lesson. I personally experienced this when my car was stopped and a police officer said: We have information that in this car heroin being smuggled (Mustikhan, 1999).

16. TIES TO AFGHANISTAN


Pakistan cannot remain unaffected by political, social and economical environment in neighbouring Afghanistan. Poppy has been grown in areas that mostly border with Afghanistan. Whenever there are a leftists, nationalists or fundamentalist-led government in Kabul, similar political parties in the North West Frontier Province are also encouraged. The fouryear Taliban rule in Afghanistan also resulted in strengthening of far-right Islamic groups in Pakistans Frontier province. The province is ruled by the alliance that supported the Taliban regime against the US attack after the 9/11 terrorists attacks in the US. The same alliance is pursuing some policies

for which the Taliban were known. So, the tribe that lives on Pakistan side also lives on the other side of the Durand Line, the international border between the two countries. Their religion, language, culture and traditions more or less the same. They are inter-linked with each other. For political pressure on Islamabad, almost all the successive governments in Kabul offered special incentives for tribal people living on Pakistan side. Since vast areas have been brought under poppy cultivation in Afghanistan that country imported skilled labourers from Pakistan this year to take care of the crop as Afghanistan was short of qualified labourers. Each labourre was paid Rs.300 [5.21 US dollars] a day, which is quite a big amount keeping in view low wages for labourers in Pakistan. Average wage a labourer gets in Pakistan is around Rs.100 [1.73 US dollars]. But when these labourers return home they talk to their own people to suggest that growing poppy is several hundreds times profitable than going for other crops. So, they bring back with them inspiration and local people really get inspired. Secondly, officially it was said one of reasons behind increased poppy cultivation in Pakistan was involvement of Afghan nationals. The Afghans took land on lease to grow poppy in several areas particularly in tribal areas. So, much also depends as to what is happening in Afghanistan if we look at the drug problem in Pakistan. One can say each country suffers from the situation in its neighbouring country. (UNODC, Mustikhan)

17. WOMEN DRUG ABUSE IN PAKISTAN


The use of legal and illegal drugs has a long history in Pakistan. Prior to partition opium was cultivated and sold under a licensing policy of the government. After independence in 1947, the same laws were followed by the government until February, 1979 when the Hadood Ordinance was imposed. This ordinance placed a ban on the cultivation, production, sale and use of narcotics within Pakistan. Although the ban closed down legal outlets for drugs, illegal availability and use continued. Until this period, the issue of drug abuse had not become a social policy consideration or a national concern. The dramatic increase in opium production in Afghanistan made Pakistan an important transit gateway for illegal drugs, especially heroin. As a result, drug abuse within Pakistan became a more pronounced problem. Since that time, the problem of drug abuse has not only persisted but has continuously increased. This growing use of legal and illegal drugs compelled the authorities to take the issue of drug abuse more seriously.

Various measures were adopted by the government of Pakistan to address the issue and conducting nation-wide research and surveys was one of them. The first National Survey on Drug Abuse (NSDA) was conducted in 1982 by the Pakistan Narcotics Control Board (PNCB). The results showed that heroin use was expanding on a significant scale and it was predicted that heroin consumption would continue to rise. Similar NSDAs were conducted in 1984 and 1986. Both these subsequent surveys indicated a rapid growth pattern of drug abuse in Pakistan. In 1988, another NSDA was carried out which presented further evidence of the growing numbers of drug users in Pakistan. This study estimated that there were 2.24 million drug addicts of which 48 percent were heroin abusers and nearly 32 percent were charas (marijuana) abusers. The last NSDA was conducted in 1993 and has been widely quoted. This survey revealed that there were 3.01 million chronic drug users in Pakistan and that this number was rising at a rate of nearly 7 percent annually. This meant that by the year 2000 the total number of chronic drug users was projected to rise to 4.8 million. Almost half of the total drug users were addicted to heroin. Those using charas totalled 0.9 million, while opium was used by 170,000 persons. The survey brought to light the fact that nearly 72 percent of drug users were under 35 years of age with the highest proportion in the 26-30 age brackets. All the NSD As until 1993 were constrained in the matter of interviewing women because the interviewing teams consisted exclusively of male researchers who were, therefore, not able to find easy access to women as a result of Pakistan's segregated society. Thus, in NSDA 1986, only a limited number of female drug users were interviewed and, due to their small number, it was reported that the proportion of interviewed female abusers was negligible at 0.4 percent. The same report in its summary says, There is thus no further mention of any sexual distinction in the following section as the description applies to male drug users alone. This pattern continued, as the 1993 NSDA also revealed that 97 percent of the drug users were men. The survey team once again was comprised solely of male members. The team did, however, make some efforts to interview female drug users, especially in the cities of Karachi and Quetta. Twentyeight (2.8 percent of the total survey sample) female drug users were interviewed and although this sample was too small to generalize from it did reveal some important information about the incidence of drug abuse among women. According to the survey 71 percent of the women were heroin abusers and 11 percent abused charas. The survey further revealed that 93

percent of the respondents were illiterate. The average personal income and family income of female drug users was exceptionally low. Nearly 52 percent of the respondents belonged to skilled, sales or other categories of occupation, while 48 percent identified themselves as beggars. This was significantly different from the figure of nearly 6 percent who identified themselves as beggars within the overall population of male and female drug users. The majority of the cases (57 percent) were introduced to drug use by family members and 32 percent by friends. It is important to note here that the sample population was extraordinarily small (28 women in this particular aspect of the study) and that, therefore, these figures should be considered not as generalizations but as indicative figures for a small, and perhaps not representative, group. Certainly, the issue of women and drug abuse is an important one and needs attention. A search of available research data reveal that not much information is available on drug abuse by women in Pakistan. There are few research studies conducted by agencies or students of national universities. One example, a survey undertaken in 1970, was a statistical survey of two communities in the districts of Rawalpindi and Swat designed to investigate general attitudes regarding the use of opium. This study could find only a few women respondents. A 1994-95 research paper addressed the issue of drug addiction and the social, economic and psychological impact on female family members of drug addicts. Generally, it has been found that if students conduct research on drug abuse their focus is male oriented. In the absence of an updated national report on the drug situation, the exact number of female drug users in Pakistan is not known. It is generally accepted, however, that their number is far less than that of men. While it may be correct that there are fewer female drug users than male users, the fact that field research studies and surveys do not always represent women adequately must be acknowledged and addressed.

18. CURRENT SITUATION OF PAKISTAN


Poppy cultivation and opium production in Pakistan has dropped substantially over the years. In 1996/1997 opium production was about 24 metric tonnes and by 2000 it was approximately 11 metric tonnes (NCD 1998; Narcotics 2001).

Year-wise potential production (metric tons) in Pakistan


1990 150 1991 160 1992 181 1993 161 1994 128 1995 112 1996 24 1997 24 1998 26 1999 9 2000 8 2001 5 2002 5

(United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2002: 126)

Year-wise poppy cultivation (hectares) in Pakistan


1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

7488

7962

9493

7329

5759

5091

873

874

950

284

260

213

622

(United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2002: 126) Most opium is cultivated in Pakistans North West Frontier Province in the Bara River Valley which Revisiting The Hidden Epidemic a situation assessment of drug use in Asia in the context of HIV/AIDS 161 borders Afghanistans Nangarhar province (Narcotics 2001). Ironically, while opium production has diminished in Pakistan, its neighbour Afghanistan has tripled its poppy cultivation since 1993. A consequence of this is large amounts of raw opium and heroin being transported across the mountains of the Afghanistan/Pakistan border which are generally unpoliced. In the late 1990s it was estimated that about 800 tons of the opium trafficked from Afghanistan into Pakistan was consumed annually (NCD 1998; Narcotics 2001). In late 2000, illicit drug seizures had increased significantly in comparison to 1999: 7.4 metric tons of heroin; 7.8 metric tons of opium and 108 metric tons of hashish (Narcotics 2001). While Pakistan is now considered a minor producer of opium it has become a large importer of opiates and a major transit country for the precursor chemical acetic anhydride trafficked to Afghanistans heroin laboratories. The number of laboratories destroyed in Pakistan diminishes each year and in 2000 none were destroyed. Most of the heroin smuggled out of SouthWest Asia through Pakistan goes to the European market, including Russia and Eastern Europe (Narcotics 2001). GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO DRUG USE AND HIV There is an acknowledgment by the Ministry of Health that IDUs are at a high risk of acquiring HIV and other blood born viruses, largely as a result

of the widespread sharing of injecting equipment. They are also aware the risks are not just associated with injecting, that IDUs can pose a risk to others through sexual transmission. Yet, at this stage, the government and the NGO sector have a limited capacity to respond. The focus is upon supply and demand reduction and the government is fully aware that a full range of services for drug users remains severely limited. Harm reduction has been considered as a way to address the current problems but it will require substantial financial support both from international and federal bodies and a strong political will (NCD 1998). There are currently no plans to introduce government funded needle syringe programs (NSP) although the government has permitted a NSP to operate in Lahore by the NGO Nai Zindagi. As a result of the NSP in Lahore, other such programs have now been initiated by the same NGO in collaboration with partner NGOs in Quetta, Rawalpindi, Karachi and Peshawar. The focus of these programs is to provide street outreach services to reduce HIV transmission and to provide referral for drug treatment (Zafar, 2001). There are currently no substitution therapy programs in the country. 19. DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT PROGRAMME FOR PAKISTAN The programme is part of an ongoing effort to strengthen the drug law enforcement capacity of the states surrounding Afghanistan. The progamme is divided into three phases: During Phase I (1999-2000), existing cooperation between Pakistan and Iran has been further promoted and cooperation with the Gulf States is being explored. Activities at the sub-regional level are being complemented through substantial efforts at the national level involving the strengthening of Pakistan?s Anti Narcotics Force and agencies with responsibilities for interdiction in the Federally and Provincially Administered tribal areas (FATAs and PATAs). Phase I also includes an improvement in the performance of the drug testing laboratories, and an assessment of the scale of money laundering. Phase II (2000-2001) will extend

assistance to other law enforcement agencies including Frontier Corps, Pakistan Rangers, Customs and Coast Guards. Phase III (2001-2002) will complete activities commenced under the previous phases and lay the ground for further expansion of the programme.

Drug law enforcement programe Pakistan has the following objectives: To improve the operational capacities of the law

enforcement agencies to enhance their activities in close collaboration with a fully functional, trained and equipped Anti-Narcotics Forces (ANF): To improve the operational capacities of the law enforcement agencies to enhance their activities in close collaboration with a fully functional, trained and equipped Anti-Narcotics Forces (ANF) Assessment of the law enforcement agencies? Situation Strengthening the National Intelligence Unit by preparing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) as a mechanism to establish a regular operational contact between the law enforcement agencies and the ANF Establishment of a Wide Area Network (WAN) Strengthening of Asset Investigation Units Identification, procurement and installation of equipment (vehicles, equipment) Development of a training strategy Provision of basic training courses and train-the trainercourses in law equipment. enforcement and in the utilization of computers, communications, specialized

Assessment of the money laundering situation and formulation of an action plan. To enhance drug testing capabilities to efficiently support the arrest and conviction of traffickers Review of the situation of drug testing laboratories in Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta and Rawalpindi for the improvement of their technical capacity national, regional and international levels. Procurement, equipment. Provision of Training in the use of instruments/equipment and in methods for the analysis of drugs in seized material. Establishment of a national/regional training reference center. Assistance to national drug testing laboratories to participate in the International Collaborative Exercise (I.C.E.) and in UNODC's International Quality Assurance Programme's protocol. Enhancement of national/regional /international cooperation in drug testing, harmonization of sample handling, testing and reporting procedures through guidelines and mechanisms of information sharing. To establish a networking chain of drug testing laboratories , including a database and newsletter, for the supply and installation of laboratory

collection and dissemination of information at national, sub-regional and international levels. To promote sub-regional cooperation to enhance the efforts against drug trafficking To facilitate cooperation between Iran and Pakistan through semi-annual meetings of the Inter-Governmental Technical Committee and of Senior Law Enforcement officers comprised of representatives from Iran, Pakistan, UNDCP and the Narcotic Sub-Directorate of ICPO Interpol. To promote operational cooperation between Pakistan and the Gulf States (formulation and implementation of a separate project planned).

20. NATIONAL AIDS POLICY


In 1987 the government established the Federal Committee on AIDS and in 1988 the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) was launched. The NAP plays an important role in increasing awareness about HIV/AIDS issues in Pakistan but many of its efforts have been thwarted as a result of inconsistent political resolve and a scarcity of financial resources (MOH and UNAIDS 2000). At end of 1999, NACP with various other bodies both government and nongovernment, expanded the National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework for 2001 to 2006. In this new framework nine priority areas are the focus including vulnerable and high-risk groups such as IDUs. One of the goals is to implement effective peer education programs and to initiate innovative comprehensive harm reduction programs for IDUs, which would also include income-generating initiatives (MOH 2000).

There are no specific details available about these harm reduction initiatives or how they should operate. With the ongoing social, economic and political difficulties in Pakistan it is difficult to determine how much of an impact these new approaches will have upon the very large drug using community of Pakistan.

21. NON GOVERNMENT RESPONSES TO DRUG USE AND HIV


It is acknowledged that the HIV epidemic cannot be addressed by the government alone and that NGOs have special access to groups at higher risk of HIV infection. Currently there are least 72 NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS related activities but very few are directly involved with working with drug users (MOH and UNAIDS 2000). The NGO Nai Zindagi based in Lahore, is a key agency working directly with drug users and IDUs with funds received from UNAIDS. Founded in 1990, they not only Revisiting The Hidden Epidemic a situation assessment of drug use in Asia in the context of HIV/AIDS 166 provide primary health care services, but drug treatment services, outreach, counseling, social services (bathing facility and drop in site) and in late 2000 a NSP commenced. In March 2001, 628 IDUs registered with the program. Since the NSP has been in operation, the daily average of IDUs using the service has been increasing. At the beginning of 2001 the daily average of IDU for the NSP was 70, two months later it increased to 95 clients. Even though it is permitted to operate the program is still the target of police raids, harassment of clients and arrests at least monthly. Nearby neighbors complain of those clients queuing up for the various services that are on offer, indicating a number of issues still need to be resolved (Nai Zindagi 2000; Nai Zindagi 2001). Currently there are over 4,000 drug users registered with Nai Zindagis programs in five cities and data and information related to the street drug using scene is becoming more available (Zafar, 2001).

22. THE ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION


After years of finger pointing between countries, the international community enters the new millennium with the unified will of

governments to eliminate the illegal drug trade worldwide. At the 1998 Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on the World Drug Problem, Member States pledged to significantly reduce both the demand for and supply of illegal drugs by 2008, as expressed in the Political Declaration. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's approach to the global drug problem is multifaceted. Prevention, treatment and rehabilitation programmes are designed to involve grassroots organizations and businesses as well as governments. Alternative development assistance provides new economic opportunities to regions that are transitioning from opium poppy, coca and cannabis cultivation. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime assists law enforcement worldwide by providing expert training in interdiction and investigation techniques and through the provision of operational equipment. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime collaborates with International Police and the World Customs Organization to curb illicit trafficking by sharing information on global trafficking trends, smugglers' modus operandi and drug courier profiles. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 's Global Programme against Money Laundering assists governments to confront criminals who launder dirty drug money through the international financial system. The Programme provides training in financial investigation to business, law enforcement and judicial professionals. It also builds stronger legal and institutional frameworks to counter money

laundering and lays the groundwork for the creation of Financial Intelligence Units. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 's Global Assessment Programme (GAP) supplies accurate and current statistics on illicit drug consumption worldwide. This is a crucial component in creating the best strategies for prevention. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 's Legal Advisory Programme works with States to implement drug control treaties by helping to draft legislation and train judicial officials. More than 1,400 key personnel have received legal training and over 130 countries worldwide have received legal assistance.

23. JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY


Women in our society did not enjoy equal rights to those of men. The foremost problems are limited decision-making powers; low or no economic independence; lack of educational facilities; undue social restrictions imposed on girls, parental indifference or negligence, limited communication with elders including parents and teachers, and a general lack of respect for women including sexual and physical harassment. In addition, it was agreed that women are denied rights over their own bodies and reproductive health. Financially, they have limited access to money. These were some of the reasons the girls attributed to women being pushed into drug use. When women, even the educated ones, are denied their rights, they may turn to drugs for temporary relief, escape or relaxation. In Pakistan, little attention has been paid to the issue of drug abuse on the basis of gender. Although the findings of various surveys postulate a very limited number of women with drug dependency problems, this assumption is open to question as official surveys and reports have never endeavored to represent women adequately. While it may be true that the number of female drug users is much lower than that of male drug users, it must be remembered that in Pakistani society, cultural constraints often lead to the concealment of problems related to women, including drug abuse, and this can cause difficulties in identification of drug abuse by health professionals and researchers. In the absence of an updated national report on the drug situation, the exact number of female drug users in Pakistan is not known. It is generally accepted, however, that their number is far less than that of men. While it may be correct that there are fewer female drug users than male users, the fact that field research studies and surveys do not always represent women adequately must be acknowledged and addressed. We need to educate our women on these issues so that they can spread the knowledge among other family members. There has been very little exposure in the media that can help to raise awareness and the government and non-government agencies must also play their role. Control and prevention can only come through mass Awareness. Rehabilitation of addicts also requires greater effort.

24. FOCUS OF STUDY


The focus of this research is set to provide insight into general issues of female drug abuse in Karachi city, the researcher has tried to:
o Examine general issues of drug use and abuse as it relates to

women of Karachi o Analyze the principal causes and consequences of drug use and abuse among a discrete group of women in Karachi o Determine various socio-economic, demographic and crimerelated indicators of female drug users o Create awareness and generate discussion regarding the issue of drug use and abuse among women The interview schedule formed for present study contains fifty-two questions focusing on the following aspects of female drug abusers:
o Demographic characteristics

o o o o o

Drug usage history Pattern and practice of drug usage Knowledge attitude and practice Rehabilitation Consequences/impacts of drug usage

25. MAIN OBJECTIVES OF STUDY


The basic objectives of this research are as follows: OBJECTIVE # 1: To find out the relationship between age of respondents and their reason for starting drug. OBJECTIVE # 2: To find out the relationship between educational qualification and awareness about side effects of drug abuse. OBJECTIVE # 3: To find out the relationship between occupation of respondents and their preference for safe sex. OBJECTIVE # 4: To find out the relationship between source of income to get drug and frequency of drug abuse. OBJECTIVE # 5: To find out the relationship between the type of drug use and suffering from memory disturbance.

26. HYPOTHESES OF STUDY


An explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigations. Something which is taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation. (Schmallenger, 1997:237) Hypotheses used in this research are as follows: HYPOTHESIS # 1: Age of the respondent is likely to be related with their reason for starting drug. HYPOTHESIS # 2: Educational qualification of the respondent is likely to be related with their awareness about side effects of drug abuse. HYPOTHESIS # 3: Occupation of respondent is likely to be related with their Preference for safe sex. HYPOTHESIS # 4: Source of income is likely to be related with Frequency of drug abuse. HYPOTHESIS # 5: Type of drug use is likely to be related with suffering from memory disturbance.

27. VARIABLES
Elements of the model are variables. Variables are measurable characteristics or properties of people or things that can take on different values. (Sharon, 2005:28)

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
The cause is called the independent variable (Sharon, 2005:28) Following independent variables are used in this research: Age of respondents Educational qualification of respondents Occupation of respondents Source of income of respondents to get drug Type of drug use by respondents

DEPENDENT VARIABLES
The effect is called the dependent variable. (Sharon, 2005:28) Following dependent variables are used in this research: Reason for starting drug Awareness about side effects of drug abuse Preference for safe sex Frequency of drug use Suffering from memory disturbance

28. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS


Frequency of drug use By the term frequency of drug use, the researcher means how often the respondent use drug that is daily, weekly, once in a month, occasionally and casually. The frequency of drug use can be considered one of the primary indicators of the problematic use of drugs. The higher the drug taking frequency the higher the level of problematic use of drugs. Age of respondents By the term age of respondent, the researcher means the present age of respondents at the time of interview. To record the response following age groups were formed: Below 15 years, 15 19 years, 20 24 years, 25 29 years, 30 34 years, 35 39 years, 40 44 years, 45 49 years and 50 years Above. Source of income of respondents to get drug It means how the respondent usually manage to arrange money for drug. In this regard provided options were: Personal saving, Family, Friends, Begging, Stealing, Robbery, and Other source. Reason for starting drug By the term reason for starting drug, the researcher means the basis which the respondents felt had caused them to begin to use drugs. Given responses includes: Pleasure, Stress-full life, Peer Pressure, Forced by Husband, Revenge, and Other reasons. Preference for safe sex It means whether the respondent prefer safe sex that is use condome. Always, Sometimes, Never, and No Response were the possible answers. Suffering from memory disturbance This term means whether the respondent had ever suffered from memory disturbance that is loss of long-term or short-term memory.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF PAST LITERATURE

2.1 PAST RESEARCHES


Certainly, the issue of women and drug abuse is an important one and needs attention. A search of available research data reveals that not much information is available on drug abuse by women in Pakistan. There are few research studies conducted by agencies or students of national universities. One example, a survey undertaken in 1970, was a statistical survey of two communities in the districts of Rawalpindi and Swat designed to investigate general attitudes regarding the use of opium. This study could find only a few women respondents. A 1994-95 research paper addressed the issue of drug addiction and the social, economic and psychological impact on female family members of drug addicts. Generally, it has been found that if students conduct research on drug abuse their focus is male oriented. 2.1.1 NATIONAL ASSESMENT SURVEYS ON DRUG ABUSE IN PAKISTAN
1. The first National Survey was conducted in 1982 by the Pakistan

Narcotics Control Board (PNCB). The results showed that heroin use was expanding on a significant scale and it was predicted that heroin consumption would continue to rise. Similar National Survey on Drug Abuse was conducted in 1984 and indicated a rapid growth pattern of drug abuse in Pakistan.
2. In National Survey on Drug Abuse 1986, only a limited number of

female drug users were interviewed and, due to their small number, it was reported that the proportion of interviewed female abusers was negligible at 0.4 percent. The same report in its summary says, There is thus no further mention of any sexual distinction in the following section as the description applies to male drug users alone. (Pakistan Narcotics Control Board, 1993)
3. In 1988, another National Survey on Drug Abuse was carried out

which presented further evidence of the growing numbers of drug users in Pakistan. This study estimated that there were 2.24 million drug addicts of which 48 percent were heroin abusers and nearly 32 percent were charas (marijuana) abusers. The last NSDA was conducted in 1993 and has been widely quoted. This survey revealed

that there were 3.01 million chronic drug users in Pakistan and that this number was rising at a rate of nearly 7 percent annually. Almost half of the total drug users were addicted to heroin. Those using charas totaled 0.9 million, while opium was used by 170,000 persons. The survey brought to light the fact that nearly 72 percent of drug users were under 35 years of age with the highest proportion in the 26-30 age brackets. (Pakistan Narcotics Control Board, 1993)
4. The 1993 National Survey on Drug Abuse revealed that 97 percent of

the drug users were men. The survey team once again was comprised solely of male members. The team did, however, make some efforts to interview female drug users, especially in the cities of Karachi and Quetta. Twenty-eight (2.8 percent of the total survey sample) female drug users were interviewed and although this sample was too small to generalize from it did reveal some important information about the incidence of drug abuse among women. According to the survey 71 percent of the women were heroin abusers and 11 percent abused charas. The survey further revealed that 93 percent of the respondents were illiterate. The average personal income and family income of female drug users was exceptionally low. Nearly 52 percent of the respondents belonged to skilled, sales or other categories of occupation, while 48 percent identified themselves as beggars. This was significantly different from the figure of nearly 6 percent who identified themselves as beggars within the overall population of male and female drug users. The majority of the cases (57 percent) were introduced to drug use by family members and 32 percent by friends. It is important to note here that the sample population was extraordinarily small (28 women in this particular aspect of the study) and that, therefore, these figures should be considered not as generalizations but as indicative figures for a small, and perhaps not representative, group. (Pakistan Narcotics Control Board, 1993)
5. Another National Survey on Drug Abuse was conducted in 2000

under the auspices of the Pakistan Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and the Pakistan Regional Office of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). This study reported that: Whilst Marijuana was the drug reported to be most commonly used in all locales it was not necessarily perceived to be causing major problems by respondents. Overall ratings suggest that its use was perceived as causing fewer problems than either heroin or alcohol. That being said,

Marijuana consumption was not regarded as non-problematic. Seventeen per cent of all key informants reported that major problems in their locale were caused by Marijuana, and just under half (47%) that some problems were due to the use of this drug type. All respondents in the study were asked about their experience of prison. Seven per cent of the treatment recruited sample and 18% of the street sample reported some prison attendance as a result of a drug-related offence. Overall about a third of respondents (35%) in the treatment and street samples had spent time in prison for a drug related offence. Those in the street sample more commonly reported drug related prison attendance than in the treatment sample (44% as compared to 29%, respectively). This again suggests, as reflected in their treatment history and dependence, that the street addicts were a particularly disadvantaged group. In terms of lifetime prevalence, heroin (97%) was the drug most commonly used by respondents, followed by Marijuana (87%), alcohol (52%), opium (38%), tranquillizers (30%) and synthetic opiates (14%). The use of cough syrups (for the purposes of intoxication) inhalants, and morphine, was relatively low (9%, 5% and 3% respectively) and no significant use of barbiturate or amphetamine use was detected.

As an important part of this study was to look at the overlap between the different populations of drug users studied, all respondents were asked about their experience of treatment (and prison) attendance. Previous contact with drug treatment facilities was relatively high among the prison and street samples with around 18% of both reporting contact in the 12 month prior to interview (or prior to entering prison in the case of the prison sample). It should be noted that the cities for this study where the interviewing took place have disproportionately more treatment facilities than other areas of Pakistan. As such, treatment contact figures are likely to be lower elsewhere. Lifetime contact with treatment services (of any sort) was even greater. Forty-four per-cent of respondents interviewed in a prison or street setting reported receiving treatment for a drug problem at some stage in their life, being just over half (52%) of those interviewed on the streets and just over a third (37%) of prison respondents reporting lifetime contact with treatment services. When recent drug use was considered the consumption patterns closely reflected patterns of lifetime use. The reader should note that this information applies to the month before entering prison or treatment for the samples contacted in those settings. Again heroin

was most commonly used, with virtually all respondents reporting using the drug in the last 30 days (96%). This was followed by Marijuana and then alcohol. Other significant current drug use included opium and tranquillizers, which were currently being used by a quarter of all respondents. Respondents were asked to identify the drug that had caused them the most problems in the year prior to interview (or, when relevant, in the 12 months before entering prison or treatment). No differences were observable between the groups on this question. Overwhelmingly (94%), respondents reported that heroin was the drug that had caused them the most problems. Other drugs, such as; hashish, opium, morphine, cough syrup and tranquillizers were mentioned by 1% or less, of respondents as their major problem drug, and slightly more (3%) cited synthetic opiates. Again, whilst the numbers of individuals in this study using this type of drug was small, the potential for synthetic opiates to cause problems of a comparable nature to heroin, among those who abuse them, is worthy of note. (UNODC, 2002)

2.1.2 SOME OTHER STUDIES ON DRUG ABUSE


1. In 2000 a study among female drug users in Lahore and Karachi

found that among the 98 participants the median age of initiation into

drug use was 23 years. Heroin (34%) and tranquillizers (43%) are the two most popular drugs and 28% reported poly drug use. Injecting was not reported among the heroin users but it was found among a few users of tranquillizers. The smoking of heroin in cigarettes is more popular among the men than inhaling the fumes (UNODC, 2000).
2. Studies which focus on IDUs in Pakistan are scant. In January 2000, a

study in Lahore found that half of the 200 respondents injected drugs less than one year after beginning to smoke or chase heroin and it has been suggested injecting has become increasingly popular in the early stages of drug dependency. Further, the study found that an increasing number of drug users are injecting a combination of legally procured inject able drugs. They included sedatives (diazepam), antihistamines (avil), anti-vomiting drugs and morphine. A popular drug purchased over the counter is Temgesic (a preparation buprenorphine); it was used by 59% of the participants (UNDCP and UNAIDS 2000). 3. In 2001 a study conducted in Quetta showed that among those people injecting drugs, 52% shared their needles with others and 64% of them cleaned their syringes with water before reuse. Of those injecting, only 28% changed their syringes after a single injection (Nai Zindagi 2001). 4. In 2001 a survey in Peshawar found that 49% of drug users begged, 41% were involved in labor, and for others it was theft (4%) and drug pushing (3%) (Nai Zindagi 2001).
5. In 2005 Syed Khuram Mehdi of Department of Criminology,

University of Karachi, conducted a study to detect causes and consequences of marijuana smoking in male adolescents of Karachi city. He found: o The mean age of respondents in this research is 19 years. o The majority of the respondents were of the age group 21 24 years and their percentage is 45.58 percent. o The majority of respondents were students and their percentage is 45.59 percent.

o o
o

o o o o o o o o o o o o o

The majority of the respondents were having middle birth order in family and their percentage is 48.3 percent. The majority of respondents were those having strict family religious attitude and their percentage is 44.89 percent. There was no addict in the parents of majority of respondents and their percentage is 68.04 percent. The majority of respondents were those who spend most of their time with Friends and their percentage is 52.38 percent. Their friends introduced the majority of respondents to marijuana and their percentage is 66.67 percent. The majority of respondents were 16-20 years old when they first use marijuana and their percentage is 55.78 percent. The majority of the respondents were those who start using marijuana for adventure and there percentage is 55.78 percent. The majority of respondents were those who take marijuana once in a day and their percentage is 28.57 percent. The daily dosage of majority of respondents was up to 1 gram and their percentage is 38.09 percent. The majority of respondents think that they use marijuana just to provide company to their friends and their percentage is 39.46 percent. The majority of respondents were not satisfied by their lives and their percentage is 57.14 percent. The majority of respondents were those who have not committed any crime under the influence of marijuana and their percentage is 66.64 percent. Among those who have committed crime under the influence of marijuana, the majority has violated the traffic signals and their percentage is 13.6 percent. The majority of respondents have not been victimized under influence of marijuana while and their percentage is 92.52 percent. Among those who have been victimized under the influence of marijuana, the majority has been victimized by physical assault and their percentage is 3.4 percent. The majority of respondents do not think that their chances to commit crime will be increases after using marijuana and their percentage is 78.23 percent.

o The majority of respondents think that they will not commit any crime to get marijuana and their percentage is 86.4 percent. o The majority of respondents were those who did not sold any drug while their percentage is 80.27 percent. o The majority of respondents reported that marijuana makes their moods pleasant and their percentage is 56.46 percent. o The majority of respondents does not feel problem with their memory and their percentage is 44.9 percent. o The majority of respondents reported that marijuana affects their auditory and visual functions and their percentage is 43.54 percent. o The majority of respondents feel more thoughtfulness after using marijuana and their percentage is 48.3 percent. o The majority of respondents feel relax after using marijuana and their percentage is 67.35 percent. o The majority of respondents feel false sense of time after using marijuana and their percentage is 63.27 percent. o The majority of respondents feel hungry after using marijuana and their percentage is 71.43 percent. o The majority of respondents during conversations sometimes forget suddenly what they were saying and their percentage is 45.58 percent. o The majority of respondents did not easily get sleep and their percentage is 57.14 percent. 2.1.3 A STUDY OF WOMEN DRUG USERS In December 1998 and January 1999, a research study of female drug users inLahore and Karachi was undertaken by the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) country office for Pakistan. The population sample consisted of 98 women. In spite of the relatively small number of respondents, this study represented the first significant effort to understand patterns of drug abuse among women in Pakistan. For the purposes of this study, drugs of abuse were considered to be alcohol, tranquillisers, charas, bhang, opium, heroin or any other pharmaceutical or illegal substance. The study revealed that after tranquillisers, the most preferred drug was heroin, which was used by 34 percent of respondents. The highest frequency of daily drug consumption was found among those

using heroin and tranquillisers, followed by those using charas and alcohol. A large proportion of respondents (28 percent)reported multiple, concurrent drug use of between two and five different drugs. Although limited to two urban centres with a relatively high level of female literacy, the study dispels the belief that drug abuse is restricted to women from a particular educational background. The data revealed that drug abuse was found among both literate and illiterate women. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents reported having formal educations with the most educated holding Master's degrees. Among the respondents, ages varied widely from 15 years to over 50. Unemployment levels were high among the respondents (41 percent), perhaps partially due to the fact that housewives (who comprised 31 percent of the sample) characterised themselves as unemployed. The study results identified home as the most preferred place for drug use with89 percent of respondents reporting using drugs there. This high percentage could be affected by the fact that 43 percent of women were using tranquillisers (with or without a medical prescription) and that these are most often ingested in the home. Besides their own home, women reported using drugs at the homes of their friends. A very small number of women were found to be using drugs at places outside the home, such as parks, schools, shrines and other places. Regarding the methods used for administration of drugs, the respondents indicated that almost all usage of opium, bhang and alcohol was orally ingested, whereas heroin and charas were mainly smoked or the fumes inhaled. The respondents indicated that, unlike men, they were generally not abusing heroin through intravenous injection. It is perhaps significant that 84 percent of the respondents claimed to have been unaware of any negative effects arising from drug abuse prior to their initial use of drugs. Forty-six percent were not aware that addiction treatment services were available should they wish to seek help for their addiction. Finally, the study looked at the perception and ideas of people from various socio-economic and professional backgrounds on the issue of women and drug abuse. There was a general consensus that the relatively underprivileged status of women in Pakistan can lead to social and health problems, one of these being drug abuse. Ignorance of the consequences and misinformation also play an important part in the processes of abuse and addiction especially where friends, husbands or general practitioners are the introducing sources. (UNDCP, 2000)

PAST STUDIES
Certainly, the issue of women and drug abuse is an important one and needs attention. A search of available research data reveals that not much information is available on drug abuse by women in Pakistan. There are few research studies conducted by agencies or students of national universities. One example, a survey undertaken in 1970, was a statistical survey of two communities in the districts of Rawalpindi and Swat designed to investigate general attitudes regarding the use of opium. This study could find only a few women respondents. A 1994-95 research paper addressed the issue of drug addiction and the social, economic and psychological impact on female family members of drug addicts. Generally, it has been found that if students conduct research on drug abuse their focus is male oriented. NATIONAL ASSESMENT SURVEYS ON DRUG ABUSE IN PAKISTAN
6. The first National Survey was conducted in 1982 by the Pakistan

Narcotics Control Board (PNCB). The results showed that heroin use was expanding on a significant scale and it was predicted that heroin consumption would continue to rise. Similar National Survey on Drug Abuse was conducted in 1984 and indicated a rapid growth pattern of drug abuse in Pakistan.
7. In National Survey on Drug Abuse 1986, only a limited number of

female drug users were interviewed and, due to their small number, it was reported that the proportion of interviewed female abusers was negligible at 0.4 percent. The same report in its summary says, There is thus no further mention of any sexual distinction in the following section as the description applies to male drug users alone. (Pakistan Narcotics Control Board, 1993)

8. In 1988, another National Survey on Drug Abuse was carried out

which presented further evidence of the growing numbers of drug users in Pakistan. This study estimated that there were 2.24 million drug addicts of which 48 percent were heroin abusers and nearly 32 percent were charas (marijuana) abusers. The last NSDA was conducted in 1993 and has been widely quoted. This survey revealed that there were 3.01 million chronic drug users in Pakistan and that this number was rising at a rate of nearly 7 percent annually. Almost half of the total drug users were addicted to heroin. Those using charas totaled 0.9 million, while opium was used by 170,000 persons. The survey brought to light the fact that nearly 72 percent of drug users were under 35 years of age with the highest proportion in the 26-30 age brackets. (Pakistan Narcotics Control Board, 1993)
9. The 1993 National Survey on Drug Abuse revealed that 97 percent of

the drug users were men. The survey team once again was comprised solely of male members. The team did, however, make some efforts to interview female drug users, especially in the cities of Karachi and Quetta. Twenty-eight (2.8 percent of the total survey sample) female drug users were interviewed and although this sample was too small to generalize from it did reveal some important information about the incidence of drug abuse among women. According to the survey 71 percent of the women were heroin abusers and 11 percent abused charas. The survey further revealed that 93 percent of the respondents were illiterate. The average personal income and family income of female drug users was exceptionally low. Nearly 52 percent of the respondents belonged to skilled, sales or other categories of occupation, while 48 percent identified themselves as beggars. This was significantly different from the figure of nearly 6 percent who identified themselves as beggars within the overall population of male and female drug users. The majority of the cases (57 percent) were introduced to drug use by family members and 32 percent by friends. It is important to note here that the sample population was extraordinarily small (28 women in this particular aspect of the study) and that, therefore, these figures should be considered not as generalizations but as indicative figures for a small, and perhaps not representative, group. (Pakistan Narcotics Control Board, 1993)

10. Another National Survey on Drug Abuse was conducted in 2000

under the auspices of the Pakistan Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and the Pakistan Regional Office of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). This study reported that: Whilst Marijuana was the drug reported to be most commonly used in all locales it was not necessarily perceived to be causing major problems by respondents. Overall ratings suggest that its use was perceived as causing fewer problems than either heroin or alcohol. That being said, Marijuana consumption was not regarded as non-problematic. Seventeen per cent of all key informants reported that major problems in their locale were caused by Marijuana, and just under half (47%) that some problems were due to the use of this drug type. All respondents in the study were asked about their experience of prison. Seven per cent of the treatment recruited sample and 18% of the street sample reported some prison attendance as a result of a drug-related offence. Overall about a third of respondents (35%) in the treatment and street samples had spent time in prison for a drug related offence. Those in the street sample more commonly reported drug related prison attendance than in the treatment sample (44% as compared to 29%, respectively). This again suggests, as reflected in their treatment history and dependence, that the street addicts were a particularly disadvantaged group. In terms of lifetime prevalence, heroin (97%) was the drug most commonly used by respondents, followed by Marijuana (87%), alcohol (52%), opium (38%), tranquillizers (30%) and synthetic opiates (14%). The use of cough syrups (for the purposes of

intoxication) inhalants, and morphine, was relatively low (9%, 5% and 3% respectively) and no significant use of barbiturate or amphetamine use was detected. As an important part of this study was to look at the overlap between the different populations of drug users studied, all respondents were asked about their experience of treatment (and prison) attendance. Previous contact with drug treatment facilities was relatively high among the prison and street samples with around 18% of both reporting contact in the 12 month prior to interview (or prior to entering prison in the case of the prison sample). It should be noted that the cities for this study where the interviewing took place have disproportionately more treatment facilities than other areas of Pakistan. As such, treatment contact figures are likely to be lower elsewhere. Lifetime contact with treatment services (of any sort) was even greater. Forty-four per-cent of respondents interviewed in a prison or street setting reported receiving treatment for a drug problem at some stage in their life, being just over half (52%) of those interviewed on the streets and just over a third (37%) of prison respondents reporting lifetime contact with treatment services.

When recent drug use was considered the consumption patterns closely reflected patterns of lifetime use. The reader should note that this information applies to the month before entering prison or treatment for the samples contacted in those settings. Again heroin was most commonly used, with virtually all respondents reporting using the drug in the last 30 days (96%). This was followed by Marijuana and then alcohol. Other significant current drug use included opium and tranquillizers, which were currently being used by a quarter of all respondents. Respondents were asked to identify the drug that had caused them the most problems in the year prior to interview (or, when relevant, in the 12 months before entering prison or treatment). No differences were observable between the groups on this question. Overwhelmingly (94%), respondents reported that heroin was the drug that had caused them the most problems. Other drugs, such as; hashish, opium, morphine, cough syrup and tranquillizers were mentioned by 1% or less, of respondents as their major problem drug, and slightly more (3%) cited synthetic opiates. Again, whilst the numbers of individuals in this study using this type of drug was small, the potential for

synthetic opiates to cause problems of a comparable nature to heroin, among those who abuse them, is worthy of note. (UNODC, 2002)

SOME OTHER STUDIES ON DRUG ABUSE


6. In 2000 a study among female drug users in Lahore and Karachi

found that among the 98 participants the median age of initiation into drug use was 23 years. Heroin (34%) and tranquillizers (43%) are the two most popular drugs and 28% reported poly drug use. Injecting was not reported among the heroin users but it was found among a few users of tranquillizers. The smoking of heroin in cigarettes is more popular among the men than inhaling the fumes (UNODC, 2000).
7. Studies which focus on IDUs in Pakistan are scant. In January 2000, a

study in Lahore found that half of the 200 respondents injected drugs less than one year after beginning to smoke or chase heroin and it has been suggested injecting has become increasingly popular in the early stages of drug dependency. Further, the study found that an increasing number of drug users are injecting a combination of legally procured inject able drugs. They included sedatives (diazepam), antihistamines (avil), anti-vomiting drugs and morphine. A popular drug purchased over the counter is Temgesic (a preparation buprenorphine); it was used by 59% of the participants (UNDCP and UNAIDS 2000). 8. In 2001 a study conducted in Quetta showed that among those people injecting drugs, 52% shared their needles with others and 64% of them cleaned their syringes with water before reuse. Of those injecting, only 28% changed their syringes after a single injection (Nai Zindagi 2001). 9. In 2001 a survey in Peshawar found that 49% of drug users begged, 41% were involved in labor, and for others it was theft (4%) and drug pushing (3%) (Nai Zindagi 2001).
10. In 2005 Syed Khuram Mehdi of Department of Criminology,

University of Karachi, conducted a study to detect causes and

consequences of marijuana smoking in male adolescents of Karachi city. He found: o The mean age of respondents in this research is 19 years. o The majority of the respondents were of the age group 21 24 years and their percentage is 45.58 percent. o The majority of respondents were students and their percentage is 45.59 percent. o The majority of the respondents were having middle birth order in family and their percentage is 48.3 percent. o The majority of respondents were those having strict family religious attitude and their percentage is 44.89 percent. o There was no addict in the parents of majority of respondents and their percentage is 68.04 percent. o The majority of respondents were those who spend most of their time with Friends and their percentage is 52.38 percent. o Their friends introduced the majority of respondents to marijuana and their percentage is 66.67 percent. o The majority of respondents were 16-20 years old when they first use marijuana and their percentage is 55.78 percent. o The majority of the respondents were those who start using marijuana for adventure and there percentage is 55.78 percent. o The majority of respondents were those who take marijuana once in a day and their percentage is 28.57 percent. o The daily dosage of majority of respondents was up to 1 gram and their percentage is 38.09 percent. o The majority of respondents think that they use marijuana just to provide company to their friends and their percentage is 39.46 percent. o The majority of respondents were not satisfied by their lives and their percentage is 57.14 percent. o The majority of respondents were those who have not committed any crime under the influence of marijuana and their percentage is 66.64 percent. o Among those who have committed crime under the influence of marijuana, the majority has violated the traffic signals and their percentage is 13.6 percent. o The majority of respondents have not been victimized under influence of marijuana while and their percentage is 92.52 percent.

o Among those who have been victimized under the influence of marijuana, the majority has been victimized by physical assault and their percentage is 3.4 percent. o The majority of respondents do not think that their chances to commit crime will be increases after using marijuana and their percentage is 78.23 percent. o The majority of respondents think that they will not commit any crime to get marijuana and their percentage is 86.4 percent. o The majority of respondents were those who did not sold any drug while their percentage is 80.27 percent. o The majority of respondents reported that marijuana makes their moods pleasant and their percentage is 56.46 percent. o The majority of respondents does not feel problem with their memory and their percentage is 44.9 percent. o The majority of respondents reported that marijuana affects their auditory and visual functions and their percentage is 43.54 percent. o The majority of respondents feel more thoughtfulness after using marijuana and their percentage is 48.3 percent. o The majority of respondents feel relax after using marijuana and their percentage is 67.35 percent. o The majority of respondents feel false sense of time after using marijuana and their percentage is 63.27 percent. o The majority of respondents feel hungry after using marijuana and their percentage is 71.43 percent. o The majority of respondents during conversations sometimes forget suddenly what they were saying and their percentage is 45.58 percent. o The majority of respondents did not easily get sleep and their percentage is 57.14 percent. A STUDY OF WOMEN DRUG USERS In December 1998 and January 1999, a research study of female drug users in Lahore and Karachi was undertaken by the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) country office for Pakistan. The population sample consisted of 98 women. In spite of the relatively small

number of respondents, this study represented the first significant effort to understand patterns of drug abuse among women in Pakistan. For the purposes of this study, drugs of abuse were considered to be alcohol, tranquillizers, charas, bhang, opium, heroin or any other pharmaceutical or illegal substance. The study revealed that after tranquillizers, the most preferred drug was heroin, which was used by 34 percent of respondents. The highest frequency of daily drug consumption was found among those using heroin and tranquillizers, followed by those using charas and alcohol. A large proportion of respondents (28 percent)reported multiple, concurrent drug use of between two and five different drugs. Although limited to two urban centers with a relatively high level of female literacy, the study dispels the belief that drug abuse is restricted to women from a particular educational background. The data revealed that drug abuse was found among both literate and illiterate women. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents reported having formal educations with the most educated holding Master's degrees. Among the respondents, ages varied widely from 15 years to over 50. Unemployment levels were high among the respondents (41 percent), perhaps partially due to the fact that housewives (who comprised 31 percent of the sample) characterized themselves as unemployed. The study results identified home as the most preferred place for drug use with89 percent of respondents reporting using drugs there. This high percentage could be affected by the fact that 43 percent of women were using tranquillizers (with or without a medical prescription) and that these are most often ingested in the home. Besides their own home, women reported using drugs at the homes of their friends. A very small number of women were found to be using drugs at places outside the home, such as parks, schools, shrines and other places. Regarding the methods used for administration of drugs, the respondents indicated that almost all usage of opium, bhang and alcohol was orally ingested, whereas heroin and charas were mainly smoked or the fumes inhaled. The respondents indicated that, unlike men, they were generally not abusing heroin through intravenous injection. It is perhaps significant that 84 percent of the respondents claimed to have been unaware of any negative effects arising from drug abuse prior to their initial use of drugs. Forty-six percent were not aware that addiction treatment services were available should they wish to seek help for their addiction. Finally, the study looked at the perception and ideas of people from various

socio-economic and professional backgrounds on the issue of women and drug abuse. There was a general consensus that the relatively underprivileged status of women in Pakistan can lead to social and health problems, one of these being drug abuse. Ignorance of the consequences and misinformation also play an important part in the processes of abuse and addiction especially where friends, husbands or general practitioners are the introducing sources. (UNDCP, 2000)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is more of a strategy for formulation a research design, its philosophy and rationale. Therefore, the concept of research methodology may be interpreted as decision-making regarding all the essential required for a research study. Research methodology includes decision making about the in search problem, design and process. (Frankfort, 1994: 17). Methodology is defined as: (1) "a body of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline", (2) "a particular procedure or set of procedures", or

(3) "the analysis of the principles or procedures of inquiry in a particular field" (MerriamWebster). A methodology offers the research principles which are related closely to a distinct paradigm translated clearly and accurately, down to guidelines on acceptable research practices (Sarantakos, 1998: 33). First of all the researcher is required to work out a research design, which provides for the collection of relevant evidence by the researcher for his data. This is known as methodology. These techniques are consists of the type of study, universe, sampling, tabulation and many others. There are certain essential criterions, which must be fulfilled for any study that can be called scientific. There are objectivity, reliability and validity. Besides these, the study must fulfill the nation of prediction, and conflict.

Types of Social Research


Several research models have been introduced and practiced by many social researchers, some being unique. The diverse practices and use of social research are shown in the following list: Exploratory research Explanatory research Casual research Theory-testing research Theory-building research Quantitative research Basic research Applied research Longitudinal research Qualitative research Descriptive research Classification research Comparative research Action research o Participatory action research (Sarantakos, 1998: 7) o o o o o o o o o o o o o o The instance study is exploratory study. This research design is applied when the researcher is not acquainted with the problem or the community he wants to study. Therefore, it aims to gain familiarity with the problem, or situation or the community not known before. It helps in discovery of ideas and insights that helps in understanding and formulating a problem for the development of hypothesis and for its more precise investigation. Exploratory research is flexible enough to permit the consideration of many aspects of phenomena. It is highly instructed. In other research design we begin with specific hypothesis which we aim to lest but in exploratory research development of hypothesis come at the end. Exploratory research often ends up with development of specific systematic research project. (Sharma, 1992: 529)

In the present research, the researcher has tries to explore basic causes and consequences related to the female drug abuse in Karachi. The interview schedule formed for present study contains fifty-two questions focusing on the following: o o o o o o Demographic characteristics of the respondents Drug usage history Pattern and practice of drug usage Knowledge attitude and practice Rehabilitation Consequences/impacts of drug usage

UNIVERSE
The place from where the relevant data is called the Universe. The term universe and population are interchangeable. In simple words, a population or universe can be define as nay collection persons or objects, events in which one is interested. The word universe is used to denote the aggregate from which the sample is chosen. A population is the aggregate of all cases that conform to some designated set of specifications (Thakur, 1993: 247). The place from where the researcher has collected data for the conducting of the research in called the universe. This study was conducted in the major city of Pakistan, Karachi. This city is the capital of the province of Sindh. Because Karachi represents a more cosmopolitan atmosphere than other areas of Pakistan, women are more socially visible and therefore somewhat more accessible. Because of the multi-ethnic and multi-lingual cultures of these urban areas it was felt that a broader survey sample could be found.

THE SAMPLE
It is a sub unit of the universe or population possessing all the characteristics of the general population. In the present study, female drug users were taken as the sample. A sample is a proportion of the population as its name implies, it is small representation of the large whole (Sarantakos, 1998: 125) In present study a sample of 200 female drug users was the target number for the purposes of this study. A total of 157 respondents completed the questionnaires but after data cleaning and checking seven interviews where excluded and 150 interviews were analyzed and thereby became the total survey sample. Respondents' participation in the survey was sought through a combination of direct request by the researcher, through reference by key informants and through peer referral. Respondents from following areas were interviewed: o o o o o o o o o o o GULBERG P.E.C.H.S NAPIER ROAD SADDAR LIYARI MALIR D.H.A GULSHAN-E-IQBAL GULISTAN-E-JAUHAR MOOSA COLONY ESSA NAGRI

SAMPLING
Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen. (Sharma, 1992: 147) Sampling can be categorized into two types i. Probability Sampling

ii.

Non-Probability Sampling

The researcher has taken the technique of non-probability sampling in the present research. In this type of sampling, the selection of the elements is not based on probability theory but personal judgment plays an important role in the selection of a sample. The examples of non-probability sampling are the judgmental sampling, purposive sampling, quota sampling, convenience sampling and accidental sampling . (Thakur, 1993: 219). In the present study, due to unknown population size the Snowball Sampling is used. Snowball sampling is a method of recruiting new cases through a process of onward referral from known cases. Starts with known individuals meeting criteria. Nominations Nominees contacted and interviewed. (Hartnol, 2000: 15)

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


There are three methods for collecting data in social research. 1- Interview Schedule. 2- Questionnaire. 3- Observation. Mostly the questionnaire and the interview schedule are frequently used a tools in gathering a variety of data. (Babbie, 1990: 143). In this present research the data is collected through the interview schedule consisted of demographic characteristics of the respondents, their drug usage history, their pattern and practice of drug usage, their knowledge attitude and practice about drug use, rehabilitation, and consequences/impacts of drug usage. This is the most structured form, in which the questions, their wording, and their sequence are fixed and are identical for every respondent. This is done to make sure that any variations between responses can be attributed to the actual differences between the respondents and not to variations in the interview. The researcher attempts to reduce the risk that changes in the

wording of questions, for example, might elicit differences in responses. (Frankfort, 1994: 224)

PRE-TESTING
The purpose of the pre-testing is to remove errors and ambiguities from the interview schedule. Pre-test are small tests of single elements of the research instrument and are predominantly used to check eventual mechanical problems of these instruments, usually involves interviewing a relatively few respondents to see if the questions used need revision or addition (Sarantakos, 1998: 292) Ten interviews were carried out and some additions were done. In question number 2B, option 4 was added, option 9 was added in question number 3G, in question number 6E, option 5 was added and In question number 7H, option 3 was added.

CODING
Coding is the process where by which responses are classified into meaningful categories (Frankfort, 1994: 322) The researcher has adopted such a coding scheme in this research that the responses under the question are given a code that is 1 for literate, 2 for illiterate and so on.

TABULATION
Tabulation is an initial process in summarizing all the data from individuals on any simple item. (Thakur, 1993: 239). After coding and tabulation the data was transferred on Tele sheet then the researcher arrange the row data in simples tables showing frequency and percentage according to the questions asked in the interview schedule. In order to test the hypothesis simple tables were transferred into contingency tables by combining simple tables according to hypotheses.

Simple Tables
Simple table describes one variable and presents its values in the form of frequency and percentage(Thakur, 1993: 239).

Contingency Tables
Contingency tables are used for investigating the assertion between the two variables. (Thakur, 1993: 239).

STATISTICAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS


The most crucial stage of research design is the analysis and interpretation of data. After the data have been collected the social scientist teams give full attention to their analysis and interpretation a process consisting of a number of closely related operations. A satirical induction nothing is proved in any absolute sense. It can never be ascertained with all certainty that is true or not about the universe from which data has been drawn. However by satirical method one can come closer to prove that something is not true about a universe or in alternative that some thing is true. On the basis of these tests the hypothesis are ultimately accepted or rejected. The selection of a suitable method depends on the quality of data. (Sarantakos, 1998: 324) In the present study chi-square was applied to verify the relationship between variables.

CHI-SQUARE (TEST OF INDEPENDENCE)


It is a measure of the compatibility between an observed frequency of an event or property and a theoretical frequency expected on the basis of an assumed distribution for this purpose we set up level of significant what point the hypothetical universe mean of no charge will be rejected.(Hakeem, 1994: 267) The value of Chi-square can be calculated by using the formula below

Where: fo = actual frequency = Calculated value of Chi-square fe = expected frequency = Sum Total A low value of is an indicator of independence. As can be seen from the formula, is e for every cell.
2 2

always positive or 0, and is 0 only if f o = f

DEGREE OF FREEDOM
In order to compute the value of chi-square from a contingency table, the number of Degree of freedom must also be known before the table is used, as it gives the proper reference of row of the table of critical values. Degree of freedom = (C-1) (R-1) C = Total number of column of contingency table. R = Total numbers of rows of contingency table. (Sarantakos, 1998: 406)

SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL
The significance level indicates the risk of rejecting Ho when it should have been accepted, which we are prepared to take. The value most commonly used by social researchers is 0.05, which means that there is a 5 percent probability of rejecting a true Ho.

The researcher, in this study, has applied the value of chi-square for 0.05 level of significance. (Sharma, 1992: 406)

ANALYSIS
AND INTERPRETATION OF

DATA

TABLE # 1A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their age group. AGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 12.66% 15 19 19 30% 20 24 45 22% 25 29 33 17.33% 30 34 26 10% 35 39 15 7.99% 40 Above 12 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 12.6 percent were of age group 15-19, 30 percent were of 20-24, 22 percent were of 25-29, 17.3 percent were of 30-34, 10 percent were of 35-39, and only 7.99 percent were of age group 40above. A graph of above table is as follows:

51 Frequency 41 31 21 11 1 15 19 20 24 25 29 30 34 35 39 40 Above 19 45 33 26 15

12

Age of respondents

TABLE # 1B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their education Status. EDUCATIONAL FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE STATUS 69.33% Literate 104 30.66% Illiterate 46 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 69.33 percent were literate whereas the rest of 30.66 percent were illiterate. A graph of above table is as follows:

140

Frequency

100

104

60 46

20 Literate Illiterate Educational Status

TABLE # 1C Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their education. EDUACTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 21.33% Primary 32 20% Secondary 30 16% Higher 24 Secondary Graduation Master Illiterate 13 5 46
8.65% 3.33% 30.66%

TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the educational qualification of 21.3 percent was primary, 20 percent was secondary, 16 percent was higher secondary, 8.6 percent was graduation, 3.33 percent was master, where as the question is not applicable for 30.6 percent respondents. A graph of above table is as follows:
55 46 Frequency 37 28 19 10 1
Pr im ar y ry ar y io n te r da co nd du at M as on

46

32

30 24 13 5
li c ab ot A N pp le

Se c

ig h

er

Educational Qualification

G ra

Se

TABLE # 1D Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their Occupation. OCCUPATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 26.66% Unemployed 40 4.66% Govt. Service 7 4.66% Private service 7 5.33% Own Business 8 12% Student 18 6.66% Drug Peddler 10 16.66% Sex worker / 25 Dancer 20% Bagger 30 3.33% House Wife 5 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 26.6 percent were unemployed, 4.6 percent were government servant, 4.66 percent were in private service, 5.33 percent were self employed, 12 percent were student, 6.66 percent were drug peddler, 16.66 percent were sexworker/dnacer, 20 percent were bagger, while 3.33 percent were house wife. A graph of above table is as follows:
45 Frequency 35 25 15 5
m pl oy ed ice Se rv

40 25 18 7
se rv ice

30

7
es s Bu si n

8
nt le r de ed d

10
ce r ge ife se W r

5
Ba g

St u

D an

Un e

Pr iv at

w n

D ru

Occupation

Se x

or

ke r/

ov

Ho u

t.

TABLE # 1E Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their monthly family income. INCOME FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (Rs.) 6.66% No Income 10 53.33% Below 5000 80 20% 5001 8000 30 13.33% 8001 -10000 20 6.66% Above 10 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the monthly income of 6.66 percent were nothing, 53.33 percent were below 5000 rupees, 20 percent were between 5001 8000 rupees, 13.33 percent were between 8001-10000 rupees, and 6.66 percent were above 10000 rupees. A graph of above table is as follows:

95 85 80 75 FREQUENCY 65 55 45 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 No Income Below 5000 5001 8000 8001 -10000 INCOME Above 10

TABLE # 1F Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their Marital Status. MARITAL FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE STATUS 13.33% Married 20 23.33% Unmarried 35 30% Separated 45 6.66% Widow 10 26.6% Divorced 40 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the 13.33 percent were married, 23.33 percent were unmarried, 30 percent were separated, and 6.66 percent were widow, while 26.6 percent were divorced. A graph of above table is as follows:

81

FREQUENCY

61

41 35 21 20

45 40

10 1 Married Unmarried Separated Widow Divorced MARITAL STATUS

TABLE # 1G Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their nature of marriage. NATURE OF MARRIAGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 33.33% Arrange 50 43.33% Love 65 TOTAL 115 76.66 % Out of 150 respondents the nature of marriage of 33.3 percent was arrange, 43.33 percent was love where as the rest of 22.33 percent respondents were unmarried. A graph of above table is as follows:

70 65 Frequency

50

50

30 Arrange Nature of merriage Love

TABLE # 1H Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their dependents. DEPENDENTS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 46.66% Children 70 13.33% Parents 20 10% Grand Parents 15 10% Husband 15 20% Other 30 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the dependents of 46.66 percent are their children, 13.33 percent are their parents, 10 percent are their grand parents, 10 percent are their husband, where 20 percent respondents have other dependents. A graph of above table is as follows:
100 90 80 70 Frequency 60 50 40 30 20 10 Children Parents Grand Parents Dependents Husband Other 20 15 15 30 70

TABLE # 2A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their age at Initial/First use of drug. AGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 6.66% Below 15 10 30% 15 19 45 36.66% 20 24 55 10% 25 29 15 6.66% 30 34 10 6.66% 35 39 10 3.33% 40 above 5 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the age at initiation of drug of 6.66 percent was below 15 years, 30 percent was 15-19, 36.66 percent was 20-24, 10 percent was 25-29, 6.66 percent was 30-34, 6.66 percent was 35-39, 3.33 percent was 40-44 years. A graph of above table is as follows:

55 46 ency 37 45

TABLE # 2B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their reason for starting drug. REASON FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 26.66% Pleasure 40 33.33% Stress-full life 50 20% Peer Pressure 30 6.66% Forced by 10 Husband 6.66% Revenge 10 6.66% Other 10 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the reason of starting drug was pleasure for 26.66 percent, stress full life for 33.33 percent, peer pressure for 20 percent, forced by husband for 6.66 percent, revenge for 6.66 percent, and other for 6.66 percent. A graph of above table is as follows:
55 50 45 Frequency 40 35 30 25 15 10 5 Pleasure Stress-full life Peer Pressure Forced by Husband Revenge Other 10 10

Reason for starting drug

TABLE # 2C Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to who introduce them to drug. INTRODUCER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 53.33% Friends 80 6.66% Husband 10 10% Relative 15 3.33% General 5 practitioner 10% Faience 15 16.66% Other 25 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the introducer of drug was friend for 53.33 percent, husband for 6.66 percent, relative for 10 percent, general practitioner for 3.33 percent, faience for 10 percent, and other for 16.66 percent. A graph of above table is as follows:

100 80 Frequency 60 40 80

TABLE # 2D Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have any drug user in their family. USER IN FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE FAMILY 40% Yes 60 60% No 90 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 40 percent have at least one drug user in their family, while the rest of 60 percent dont have any drug user in their family. A graph of above table is as follows:
100

90

90

Frequency

80

70

60

60

50 Yes User in Family No

TABLE # 3A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their present drug of abuse. DRUG FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20% Heroin 30 6.66% Bhang 10 6.66% Opium 10 10% Alcohol 15 20% Tranquilizers 30 36.66% Marijuana 55 (Charas) TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the present drug of abuse of 20 percent is heroin, of 6.66 percent is bhang, of 6.66 percent is opium, of 10 percent is alcohol, of 20 percent are tranquilizers, and of 36.66 percent is marijuana(charas). A graph of above table is as follows:
55 45 Frequency 35 30 25 15 10 5
Al co ho l Bh an g H ha ra s) (C er oi n liz er s pi um

55

30

15 10

Tr an qu i

Present drug of abuse

ar iju an a

TABLE # 3B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they are poly drug user or not. POLY DRUG FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE USER 58% Yes 87 42% No 63 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 58 percent were poly drug user, while the rest of 42 percent were not. A graph of above table is as follows:

90 Frequency

87

70 63 50 Yes Poly drug user No

TABLE # 3C Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their choice of poly drugs. CHOICE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE H+T 3.33% 5 H+T+O+C 3.33% 5 H+A+T 3.33% 5 H+C+T 6.66% 10 H+O 3.33% 5 C+A+T 26.66% 40 C+B 3.33% 5 C+A 33.33% 50 C+T 6.66% 10 A+T 3.33% 5 Other 3.33% 5 Not 3.33% 5
Applicable

TOTAL 150 100 % T = Tranquilizers, H = Heroin, O = Opium, B = Bhang


C = Charas, A = Alcohol.

Out of 150 respondents the choice of poly drugs of 3.33 percent respondents is heroin plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent is heroin plus tranquilizers plus opium plus charas, of 3.33 percent is heroin plus alcohol plus tranquilizers, of 6.66 percent is alcohol plus charas plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is heroin plus opium, of 26.66 percent respondents is charas plus alcohol plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is charas plus bhang, of 33.33 percent respondents is charas plus alcohol, of 6.66 percent respondents is charas plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is alcohol plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is other, where as the question is not applicabale for 3.33 percent of respondents.

TABLE # 3D Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their mode of intake. MODE OF FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE INTAKE 20% Oral 30 13.33% Injection 20 20% Inhaling 30 46.66% Smoking 70 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents the mode of intake is oral for 20 percent respondents, injection for 13.33 percent, inhaling for 20 percent, and smoking for 46.66 percent. A graph of above table is as follows:
80 70 60 Frequency 50 40 30 20 10 Oral Injection Inhaling Smoking MOde of Intake 30 20 30 70

TABLE # 3E Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their usage of Syringe. USAGE OF FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE SYRINGE 2.66% Sterilize 4 6.66% Share 10 needle 4% New 6 Needle 86.66% Not 130 Applicable TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 2.66 percent sterilize the needle every time before use, 6.66 percent share syringe with others, 4 percent use new syringe every time. The question is not applicable for 86.66 percent of respondents. A graph of above table is as follows:

140 120 Frequency 100 80 60 40 20 0 4 Sterilize 10 Share needle 6 New Needle

130

Not Applicable

Usage of Syringe

TABLE # 3F Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their frequency of drug use. EXTENT FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE OF USE 53.33% Daily 80 26.66% Weekly 40 4.66% Monthly 7 8.66% Causally 13 6.66% Occasionally 10 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 53.33 percent use drug daily, 26.66 percent use weekly, 4.66 percent use once in a month, 8.66 percent use causally and 6.66 percent use drugs only on occasions. A graph of above table is as follows:
95 85 80 75 65 Frequency 55 45 40 35 25 15 5 Daily Weekly 7 Monthly Causally 13

10 Occasionally

Extent of Drug Use

TABLE # 3G Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their place of using drug. PLACE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 6.66% Own Home 10 20% Friends 30 home 10% Public Park 15 13.33% Under Bridge 20 6.66% Pipe Lines 10 3.33% Work place 5 20% Shrines 30 10% Bathrooms 15 10% School/colleg 15 e TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent use drugs at their home, 20 percent at friends home, 10 percent at public park, 13.33 percent under bridge, 6.66 percent in pipe lines, 3.33 percent at their workplace, 20 percent at shrines, 10 percent in bathroom, and 10 percent at school/college. A graph of above table is as follows:
46 Frequency 37 28 19 10 1 10 30 15 20 10 5 30 15 15

H om Fr e ie nd s ho m e Pu bl ic Pa U rk nd er Br id ge Pi pe Li ne s W or k pl ac e Sh ri n es Ba th ro om Sc s ho ol /c ol le ge

Place of drug use

TABLE # 3H Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have ever committed any crime to get drug. COMMITTE D CRIME FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE FOR DRUG 33.33% Yes 50 40% No 60 26.66% No Response 40 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 33.33 percent have committed any crime to get drug 40 percent did not committed any offense to get drug, 26.66 percent respondent did not respond. A graph of above table is as follows:
80

70

Frequency

60

60

50

50

40

40

30 Yes No Ever committed crime for drug No Response

TABLE # 3I Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have ever committed sexual intercourse to get drug. COMMITTED SEXUAL INTERCOURSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE FOR DRUG 26.66% Yes 40 33.33% No 50 40% No Response 60 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 26.66 percent committed sexual intercourse for drug, 33.33 percent did not, whereas 40 percent did not respond.

A graph of above table is as follows:


80 70 Frequency 60 50 40 30 Yes No No Response Ever committed sexual intercourse for drug 40 50 60

TABLE # 3J Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to with whom they have committed sexual intercourse for drug. PERSON FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 1.33% Friend 2 5.33% Drug 8 peddler 2% Stranger 3 10% Law 15 enforcement personnel 8% Relative 12 TOTAL 40 100 % Out of 150 respondents 1.33 percent had sexual inter course with friends to get drug, 8 percent with drug peddlers, 2 percent with strangers, 10 percent with law enforcement personnel, 8 percent with relative where as 40 percent did not respond to this question and 33.33 percent respondents did not ever committed sexual intercourse for drug. A graph of above table is as follows:
20

15 Frequency 12 10 8

2 0 Friend Drug peddler

3 Stranger Law enforcement personnel Relative

Ever commited Sexual intercourse fot drug

TABLE # 3K Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they prefer safe sex. SAFE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE SEX 13.33% Always 20 33.33% Sometime 50 s 23.33% Never 40 30.0% No 40 Response TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondent 13.33% always prefer safe sex, 33.33 percent sometimes and 23.33 percent never had safe sex where as 30 percent did not reply. A graph of above table is as follows:
60

50

50

Frequency

40

40

40

30

20

20

10 Always Sometimes Never No Response Prefer Safe Sex

TABLE # 4A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their daily expenses on drug(s). AMOUNT FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (Rs.) 26.66% 10 50 40 40% 51 100 60 20% 101 500 30 4.66% 501 1000 7 8.66% Above 13 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 26.66 percent spent Rs: 10-50 daily, 40 percent spent Rs: 51-100, 20 percent spent Rs: 101-500, 4.66 percent spent Rs: 501-1000 and 8.66 percent spent Rs: 1001 and above. A graph of above table is as follows:
70 60 50 Frequency 40 30 20 10 0 10 50 51 100 101 500 501 1000 Above Dail expenses on Drugs (Rs.) 13 7 40 30 60

TABLE # 4B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their source of income to get drug. SOURCE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20% Personal 30 saving 10% Family 15 6.66 Friends 10 33.33% Begging 50 13.33% Stealing 20 6.66% Robbery 10 10% Other 15 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 20 percent addicts use their personal savings on drugs, 10 percent use family sources, 6.66 percent friends, 33.33 percent begging, 13.33 percent steal, 6.66 percent go for robbery whereas 10 percent use other means to get drug. A graph of above table is as follows:
60 50 40 30 20 15 10 0 Personal saving Family Friends Begging Stealing Robbery Other 10 10 30 20 15 50

Frequency

Source of income to get Drug

TABLE # 4C Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their expected financial status. EXPECTED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE STATUS 20% Much Better 30 46.66% Better 70 20% Same 30 5.33% Worst 8 8% No 12 Response TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 20 percent believe that their financial status would have been much better, 46.66 percent say only better, 20 percent responded same, 5.33 percent said worst whereas 8 percent did not respond. A graph of above table is as follows:
80 70 60 Frequency 50 40 30 20 10 0 Much Better Better Same Worst No Response 8 12 30 30 70

Financial position if not using drug

TABLE # 5A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they think that drug abuse is right. OPINION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 19.33% Yes 29 48.66% No 73 18.66% To some 28 extent 13.33% No 20 response TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 19.33 percent believe that drug abuse is right, 48.66 percent said no, 18.66 percent replied to some extent, whereas 13.33 percent did not respond. A graph of above table is as follows:
90 80 70 Frequency 60 50 40 30 20 10 Yes No To some extent No response Drug abuse is right 29 28 20 73

TABLE # 5B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their awareness about side effects of drug abuse. AWARENESS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 26.66% Yes 40 20% No 30 53.33% To some 80 extent TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 26.66 percent were aware of drug effects prior to initiation, 20 percent were not aware whereas 53.33 percent responded to some extent. A graph of above table is as follows:
90

80

80

70

Frequency

60

50

40

40

30

30

20 Yes No To some extent Aware about ill effects of drug abuse

TABLE # 5C Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their knowledge about treatment facilities. KNOWLWDGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20% Yes 30 26.66% No 40 53.33% To some extent 80 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 20 percent were aware of treatment facilities, 26.66 percent were not whereas 53.33 percent have knowledge to some extent. A graph of above table is as follows:
90 80 70 Frequency 60 50 40 30 20 Yes No To some extent Knowledge about Treatement Facilities 30 40 80

TABLE # 5D Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have ever tried to overcome drug use. TRIED TO FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE OVERCOME 40% Yes 60 60% No 90 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 40 percent tried to overcome drug use and 60 percent did not try. A graph of above table is as follows:
90 90

80 Frequency

70

60

60

50 Yes No Ever tried to overcome drug use

TABLE # 5E Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to what method they have adopted to overcome drug use. METHOD FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 5.33% Self 8 Control 10% Govt. 15 Hospital 6.66% Private 10 clinic 18% N.G.O 27 60% Not 90 Applicable TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150respondents 5.33 percent adopted self control method, 10percent Govt. Hospital, 6.66 percent private clinic, 18 percent NGOs and 60 percent did not adopt any method. A graph of above table is as follows:

100 90 80 Frequency 60 40 20 8 0 Self Control Govt. Hospital Private clinic N.G.O Not Applicable 27 15 10

Adopted Method to Overcome Drug Use

TABLE # 5F Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their overall abstinence period before relapse to drug use. ABSTINENCE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE PERIOD 13.33% Less than 1 20 month 6.66% 2 3 months 10 10% 4 6 months 15 5.33% 7 12 months 8 1.33% 1 2 years 2 3.33% More than 2 5 years 60% Not Applicable 90 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 13.33 percent relapsed before one month, 6.66 percent within 2-3 months, 10 percent 4-6 months, 5.33 percent 7-12 months, 1.33 percent 1-2 years, and 3.33 percent relapsed after more than 2 years. A graph of above table is as follows:

TABLE # 6A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have admitted in any rehabilitation/treatment center. ADMITTED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 40% Yes 60 60% No 90 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 40 percent were admitted rehabilitation/treatment centre whereas 60 percent were not. A graph of above table is as follows:
100

in

90

90

Frequency

80

70

60

60

50 Yes No Ever admittd in rehabilitation Center

TABLE # 6B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to how much time they have spent in rehabilitation center. PERIOD FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 5.33% Less than 8 1 week 14.66% 15 days 22 8.66% 1 month 13 8% 6 months 12 3.33% 7 12 5 months 60% Not 90 Applicable TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 5.33 percent remained admitted less than one week, 14.66 for 15 days, 8.66 for 1 month, 8 percent for 6 months, 3.33 for 7-12 months and 60 percent comes under not applicable. A graph of above table is as follows:
100 90 80 Frequency 60 40 20 8 0 Less than 1 week 15 days 1 month 6 months 22 13 12 5 7 12 months Not Applicable

Period Spent in Rehabilitation

TABLE # 7A Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they think drug use is destroying their health. DRUG DESTROYING FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE HEALTH 60% Yes 90 40% No 60 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 60 percent think that drug use is destroying their health whereas 40 percent do not agree. A graph of above table is as follows:

90

90

Frequency

70

60

50 Yes No Drug is destroying their Health

TABLE # 7B Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have suffered from any disease due to drug use. SUFFERED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE FROM DISEASE 100% Yes 150 0% No 0 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 100 percent replied they suffered disease due to drug use. A graph of above table is as follows:
160 150

120

Frequency

80

40

0 Yes Suffered from any disease due to drug

0 No

TABLE # 7C Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to the disease they Suffered. DISEASE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 6.66% HIV 10 33.33% Hepatitis 50 20% T.B 30 11.33% STD 17 15.33% Joindous 23 13.33% Other 20 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent suffered HIV, 33.33 percent Hepatitis, 20 percent T.B, 11.33 percent S.T.D, 15.33 percent Joindous where as 13.33 suffered other disease.

A graph of above table is as follows:


60 50 40 Frequency 30 20 10 0 HIV Hepatitis T.B S TD Joindous O ther Dise a se 10 30 23 17 20 50

TABLE # 7D Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have observed negative impact of drug use. OBSERVED NEGATIVE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE IMPACTS 46.66% Yes 70 20% No 30 33.33% No Response 50 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 46.66 percent observed negative impact of drug use, 20 percent did not whereas 33.33 percent gave no response.

A graph of above table is as follows:

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Yes No Obserbed Negative Impacts No Response 30 50 70

Frequency

TABLE # 7E Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their observed negative impact of drug use. IMPACT FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20% Health 30 7.33% Family 11 6% Education 9 9.33% Marital 14 Life 4% Social 6 TOTAL 70 100 % Out of 150 respondents 20 percent observed negative impact on health, 7.33 percent family, 6 percent education, 9.33 percent marital life and 4 percent on social aspect where as 33.33 percent respondents did not respond to the question and 20 percent did not observed any negative impact of drug use. A graph of above table is as follows:

60 50 40 cy

TABLE # 7F Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to who knows about their drug use. PERSON FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 8.66% Relative 13 64.66% Friends 97 11.33% Family 17 member 15.33% Colleges 23 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 8.66 percent replied that their relatives knows about their drug use, 64.66 percent friends, 11.33 percent family members and 15.33 percent their colleagues know about their drug use. A graph of above table is as follows:

105 95 85 75 Frequency 65 55 45 35 25 15 5 Relative Friends Family member Colleges Who knows about their drug use 13 17 23 97

TABLE # 7G Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have ever arrested for drug use. ARRESTED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20% Yes 30 60% No 90 20% No response 30 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150respondents 20 percent were arrested for drug use, 60 percent were not whereas another 20 percent did not respond. A graph of above table is as follows:
100 90 80

Frequency

60

40 30 20 30

0 Yes No Ever arrested for drug use No response

TABLE # 7H Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to how much time they have spent in jail. DURATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (Weeks) 6.66% 19 10 10% 10 18 15 3.33% 19 -27 5 TOTAL 30 100 % Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent spent 1-9 weeks in jail, 10 percent 10-18 weeks, 3.33 percent 19-27 weeks whereas 80 percent comes under not applicable category. A graph of above table is as follows:

140 120 100 ncy 80

TABLE # 7I Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have made sexual relationship during arrest period. SEXUAL FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE RELATION 6.66% Yes 10 13.33% No 20 80% No 120 Response 100 % TOTAL 150 Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent made sexual relationship during arrest period, 13.33 percent did not and 80 percent were not applicable. A graph of above table is as follows:

120 90

TABLE # 7J Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether drug use creates family problems with them. FAMILY FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE PROBLEMS 60% Yes 90 40% No 60 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 60 percent answered it creates family problems whereas 40 percent said it do not.

A graph of above table is as follows:


100

90

80 Frequency 60

60

40 Yes No Family Proble ms due to drug use

TABLE # 7K Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether drug use creates relation problems with their peers. PEERS RELATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE EFFECTED 20% Yes 30 80% No 120 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 20 percent replied in positive and 80 percent in negative. A graph of above table is as follows:

130 120 110 90

Frequency

70 50 30 10 Yes No Probledrug usems with Peers 30

TABLE # 7L Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether their drug use have effected their relations with neighbors. NEIGHBOR S FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE RELATION EFFECTED 40% Yes 60 60% No 90 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 40 percent replied drug use effects their relations with neighbors and 60 percent said it did not. A graph of above table is as follows:

100

90

80 Frequency 60

60

40 Yes Problems with neighbours No

TABLE # 7M Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether drug use creates problems related to their friendship. FRIENDSHIP EFFECTED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 20% Yes 30 80% No 120 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 20 percent said drug use does not effect their friendship and 80 percent said it did not effect. A graph of above table is as follows:

130 120 110 90 Frequency 70 50 30 10 Yes No F r ie n d s h ip E f f e c t e d 30

TABLE # 7N Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether drug use effects their sexual relation. SEXUAL RELATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE EFFECTED 46.66% Yes 70 53.33% No 80 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 46.66 percent accepted that drug use effects their sexual relations whereas 53.33 percent said it did not.

A graph of above table is as follows:

90 80 70 70

Frequency

50 Yes No S e x u a l r e la t io n s E f f e c t e d

TABLE # 7O Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they have sleep problem. SLEEP PROBLEMS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 80% Yes 120 20% No 30 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150 respondents 80 percent have sleep problem and 20 percent did not. A graph of above table is as follows:

130 110 90 Frequency 70 50 30 10

120

30 Y es No S le e p P ro b le m s

TABLE # 7P Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether they suffered from memory disturbance. MEMORY DISTURBANCE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 73.33% Yes 110 26.66% No 40 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150respondents 73.33 percent answered positive and 26.66 percent replied in negative.

A graph of above table is as follows:

120 110 100 Frequency

80

60

40

40

20 Yes Memory Disturbance No

TABLE # 7Q Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to whether drug use effects their appetite. APPETITE EFFECTED FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 86.66% Yes 130 13.33% No 20 TOTAL 150 100 % Out of 150respondents 86.66 percent replied that drug use effects their appetite and 13.33 replied in negative. A graph of above table is as follows:

130

130

100 Frequency

70

40

20 10 Yes Appetite Distubance No

SIMPLE TABLES

HYPOTHESIS # 01 HO: There is no relationship between the age of respondents and their reason for starting drug. HA: Age is likely to be related with reason for starting drug. CONTINGENCY TABLE FOR THE "HYPOTHESIS # 01" FREQUENCY OF DRUG ABUSE AGE Peer pressure OF Stressful Forced by husband RESPONDENT Pleasure l Revenge TOTAL (In Years) Life Other 19 15 19 7 8 4 (5.06) (6.33) (7.6) 45 20 24 10 13 22 (12) (15) (18) 33 25 29 7 5 21 (8.8) (11) (13.2) 26 30 34 6 14 6 (6.93) (8.66) (10.4) 15 35 39 5 5 5 (4) (5) (6) 40 Above 5 5 2 12 (3.2) (4) (4.8) TOTAL 40 50 60 150

Degree of freedom = 10 Level of significance = 0.05 Table Value of Chi-square = 18.307 Calculated value of Chi-square = 21.212 As the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value of chisquare at 10 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis " There is no relationship between age of respondents and their reason for starting drug" is rejected and the actual hypothesis " Age is likely to be related with reason for starting drug " is accepted.

HYPOTHESIS # 02 HO: There is no relationship between Educational qualification of the respondents and their awareness about side effects of drug abuse. HA: Educational qualification is likely to be related with awareness about side effects of drug abuse. CONTINGENCY TABLE FOR THE "HYPOTHESIS # 02" EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENT Illiterate Primary Secondary Higher Secondary Graduation and Above TOTAL AWARENESS OF SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE YES 5 (12.26) 8 (8.53) 12 (8) 9 (6.4) 6 (4.8) 40 NO 7 (9.2) 6 (6.4) 5 (6) 7 (4.8) 5 (3.6) 30 TO SOME EXTENT 34 (24.53) 18 (17.06) 13 (16) 8 (12.8) 7 (9.6) 80 TOTAL 46 32 30 24

18 150

Degree of freedom = 8 Level of significance = 0.05 Table Value of Chi-square = 15.507 Calculated value of Chi-square = 16.678 As the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value of chisquare at 8 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between Educational qualification and

awareness about side effects of drug abuse " is rejected and the actual hypothesis " Educational qualification is likely to be related with awareness about side effects of drug abuse " is accepted.

HYPOTHESIS # 03

HO: HA:

There is no relationship between Occupation of respondents and their preference for safe sex. Occupation is likely to be related with preference for safe sex.

CONTINGENCY TABLE FOR THE "HYPOTHESIS # 03" OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENT Unemployed/ Housewife Work Student Peddler/ Sex Worker/ Dancer/ Begging TOTAL PREFERENCE FOR SAFE SEX Always 5 (6) 5 (2.93) 5 (2.4) 5 (8.66) 20 Sometime s 21 (15) 6 (7.33) 5 (6) 18 (21.66) 50 TOTAL Never 10 (12) 5 (5.86) 3 (4.8) 22 (17.33) 40 No Response 9 (12) 6 (5.86) 5 (4.8) 20 (17.33) 40 45 22 18 65

150

Degree of freedom = 9 Level of significance = 0.05 Table Value of Chi-square = 16.919 Calculated value of Chi-square = 12.97 As the calculated value of chi-square is smaller than the table value of chisquare at 9 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between Occupation of respondents and their preference for safe sex" is accepted and the actual hypothesis " Occupation is likely to be related with preference for safe sex " is rejected.

HYPOTHESIS # 04

HO: HA: abuse.

There is no relationship between source of income of respondents to get drug and frequency of drug abuse. Source of income is likely to be related with frequency of drug

CONTINGENCY TABLE FOR THE "HYPOTHESIS # 04 FREQUENCY OF DRUG ABUSE Monthly Casually No Response Daily Weekly Occasionally TOTAL 18 (16) 11 (13.33) 32 (26.6) 19 (23.99) 80 7 (8) 6 (6.66) 12 (13.33) 15 (12) 40 5 (6) 8 (5) 6 (10) 11 (9) 30 30 25 50 45 150

SOURCE OF INCOME TO GET DRUG Personal Saving Family/ Friends Begging Stealing/ Robbery/ Others TOTAL

Degree of freedom = 6 Level of significance = 0.05 Table Value of Chi-square = 12.592 Calculated value of Chi-square = 7.872 As the calculated value of chi-square is smaller than the table value of chisquare at 6 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between source of income of respondents to get drug and frequency of drug abuse" is accepted and the actual hypothesis " Source of income is likely to be related with frequency of drug abuse " is rejected.

HYPOTHESIS # 05

HO: There is no relationship between the type of drug use by respondents and their suffering from memory disturbance. HA: Type of drug use is likely to be related with suffering from memory disturbance. CONTINGENCY TABLE FOR THE "HYPOTHESIS # 05" SUFFERED FROM MEMORY DISTURBANCE TYPE OF DRUG USED Heroin Bhang Opium Alcohol Tranquilizers Marijuana TOTAL TOTAL Yes 15 (22) 6 (7.33) 5 (7.33) 9 (11) 25 (22) 50 (40.33) 110 No 15 (8) 4 (2.66) 5 (2.66) 6 (4) 5 (8) 5 (14.66) 40 30 10 10 15 30 55 150

Degree of freedom = 5 Level of significance = 0.05 Table Value of Chi-square = 11.070 Calculated value of Chi-square = 23.646 As the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value of chisquare at 5 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between the type of drug use by

respondents and their suffering from memory disturbance" is rejected and the actual hypothesis "There is no relationship between the type of drug use by respondents and their suffering from memory disturbance" is accepted.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND SUGGESTIONS

SUMMARY
In June 2006, Jawed Aziz Masudi a student of Criminology Department, Karachi University completed a research study of female drug users in Karachi. The population sample consisted of 150 women. In spite of the relatively small number of respondents, this study represented significant effort to understand patterns of drug abuse among women in Pakistan. A sample of 150 respondents is, of course, too small to represent the drug abuse situation in Karachi, a diverse city both socially and geographically. It should, therefore, not be considered representative of the national situation, but only suggestive of certain patterns and trends among female drug users. The importance of this issue, however, demands a much larger sample size with broad representation from rural and urban areas. Due to social, cultural and religious restrictions, most of the female drug users are hard to identify and are kept in situations which hinder efforts at research and investigation. Most of the interviews for this study were conducted by the efforts of doctors, key informants and close associates of the respondents. At many locations, even though female drug users were identified, they refused to come forward and talk to the researcher. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into general issues of female drug abuse in Karachi city, the researcher has tried to examine general issues of drug use and abuse as it relates to women of Karachi, analyze the principal causes and consequences of drug use and abuse among a discrete group of women in Karachi, determine various socio-economic, demographic and crime-related indicators of female drug users and create awareness and generate discussion regarding the issue of drug use and abuse among women. The interview schedule formed for present study contains fifty-one questions focusing on the demographic characteristics, drug usage history, pattern and practice of drug usage, knowledge attitude and practice, rehabilitation and consequences/impacts of drug usage by females in Karachi city. For the purposes of this study, drugs of abuse were considered to be alcohol, tranquillizers, charas, bhang, opium, heroin or any other pharmaceutical or illegal substance. The study was intended to be a comprehensive report based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results

of the study provide detailed information on the levels of drug abuse among women of various socioeconomic strata and the patterns and trends of drug use among them. The study provides a general profile of a group of female drug users, the broad social and economic impact of drug abuse and the nature, extent and quality of prevention and treatment services for women.

FINDINGS OF SIMPLE TABLES


Out of 150 respondents 12.6 percent were of age group 15-19, 30 percent were of 20-24, 22 percent were of 25-29, 17.3 percent were of 30-34, 10 percent were of 35-39, and only 7.99 percent were of age group 40-above.

Out of 150 respondents 69.33 percent were literate whereas the rest of 30.66 percent were illiterate.

Out of 150 respondents the educational qualification of 21.3 percent was primary, 20 percent was secondary, 16 percent was higher secondary, 8.6 percent was graduation, 3.33 percent was master, where as the question is not applicable for 30.6 percent respondents. Out of 150 respondents 26.6 percent were unemployed, 4.6 percent were government servant, 4.66 percent were in private service, 5.33 percent were self employed, 12 percent were student, 6.66 percent were drug peddler, 16.66 percent were sex worker/dancer, 20 percent were bagger, while 3.33 percent were house wife. Out of 150 respondents the monthly income of 6.66 percent were nothing, 53.33 percent were below 5000 rupees, 20 percent were between 5001 8000 rupees, 13.33 percent were between 8001-10000 rupees, and 6.66 percent were above 10000 rupees. Out of 150 respondents the 13.33 percent were married, 23.33 percent were unmarried, 30 percent were separated, and 6.66 percent were widow, while 26.6 percent were divorced. Out of 150 respondents the nature of marriage of 33.3 percent was arrange, 40 percent was love, where as the question is not applicable for 26.66 percent respondents.

Out of 150 respondents the dependents of 46.66 percent are their children, 13.33 percent are their parents, 10 percent are their grand parents, 10 percent are their husband, where 20 percent respondents have other dependents. Out of 150 respondents the age at initiation of drug of 6.66 percent was below 15 years, 30 percent was 15-19, 36.66 percent was 20-24, 10 percent was 25-29, 6.66 percent was 30-34, 6.66 percent was 3539, 3.33 percent was 40-45.

Out of 150 respondents the reason of starting drug was pleasure for 26.66 percent, stress full life for 33.33 percent, peer pressure for 20 percent, forced by husband for 6.66 percent, revenge for 6.66 percent, and other for 6.66 percent.

Out of 150 respondents the introducer of drug was friend for 53.33 percent, husband for 6.66 percent, relative for 10 percent, general practitioner for 3.33 percent, faience for 10 percent, and other for 16.66 percent. Out of 150 respondents 40 percent have at least one drug user in their family, while the rest of 60 percent dont have any drug user in their family. Out of 150 respondents the present drug of abuse of 20 percent is heroin, of 6.66 percent is bhang, of 6.66 percent is opium, of 10 percent is alcohol, of 20 percent are tranquilizers, and of 36.66 percent is marijuana(charas). Out of 150 respondents 58 percent were poly drug user, while the rest of 42 percent were not. Out of 150 respondents the choice of poly drugs of 3.33 percent respondents is heroin plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent is heroin plus tranquilizers plus opium plus charas, of 3.33 percent is heroin plus alcohol plus tranquilizers, of 6.66 percent is alcohol plus charas plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is heroin plus opium, of 26.66 percent respondents is charas plus alcohol plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is charas plus bhang, of 33.33 percent respondents is charas plus alcohol, of 6.66 percent respondents is

charas plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is alcohol plus tranquilizers, of 3.33 percent respondents is other, where as the question is not applicable for 3.33 percent of respondents. Out of 150 respondents the mode of intake is oral for 20 percent respondents, injection for 13.33 percent, inhaling for 20 percent, and smoking for 46.66 percent. Out of 150 respondents 2.66 percent sterilize the needle every time before use, 6.66 percent share syringe with others, 4 percent use new syringe every time. The question is not applicable for 86.66 percent of respondents. Out of 150 respondents 53.33 percent use drug daily, 26.66 percent use weekly, 4.66 percent use once in a month, 8.66 percent use causally and 6.66 percent use drugs only on occasions. Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent use drugs at their home, 20 percent at friends home, 10 percent at public park, 13.33 percent under bridge, 6.66 percent in pipe lines, 3.33 percent at their workplace, 20 percent at shrines, 10 percent in bathroom, and 10 percent at school/college. Out of 150 respondents 33.33 percent have committed any crime to get drug 40 percent did not committed any offense to get drug, 26.66 percent respondent did not respond. Out of 150 respondents 1.33 percent had sexual inter course with friends to get drug, 8 percent with drug peddlers, 2 percent with strangers, 10 percent with law enforcement personnel, 8 percent with relative where as 40 percent did not respond to this question and 33.33 percent respondents did not ever committed sexual intercourse for drug. Out of 150 respondents 20 percent had sexual inter course with friends to get drug, 13.33 percent with drug peddlers, 26.66 percent with strangers, 16.66 percent with law enforcement personnel, 5.33 percent with relative whereas 18 percent did not like to respond.

Out of 150 respondent 13.33% always prefer safe sex, 33.33 percent sometimes and 23.33 percent never had safe sex where as 30 percent did not reply. Out of 150 respondents 26.66 percent spent Rs:10-50 daily, 40 percent spent Rs:51-100, 20 percent spent Rs:101-500, 4.66 percent spent Rs:501-1000 and 8.66 percent spent Rs:1001 and above. Out of 150 respondents 20 percent addicts use their personal savings on drugs, 10 percent use family sources, 6.66 percent friends, 33.33 percent begging, 13.33 percent steal, 6.66 percent go for robbery whereas 10 percent use other means to get drug. Out of 150 respondents 20 percent believe that their financial status would have been much better, 46.66 percent say only better, 20 percent responded same, 5.33 percent said worst whereas 8 percent did not respond. Out of 150 respondents 19.33 percent believe that drug abuse is right, 48.66 percent said no, 18.66 percent replied to some extent, whereas 13.33 percent did not respond. Out of 150 respondents 26.66 percent were aware of drug effects prior to initiation, 20 percent were not aware whereas 53.33 percent responded to some extent. Out of 150 respondents 20 percent were aware of treatment facilities, 26.66 percent were not whereas 53.33 percent have knowledge to some extent. Out of 150 respondents 40 percent tried to overcome drug use and 60 percent did not try. Out of 150respondents 5.33 percent adopted self control method, 10percent Govt. Hospital, 6.66 percent private clinic, 18 percent NGOs and 60 percent did not adopt any method. Out of 150respondents 20 percent relapsed before one month, 40 percent within 2-3 months, 13.33 percent 4-6 months, 12 percent 7-12

months, 8 percent 1-2 years, and 6.66 percent relapsed more than 2 years. Out of 150 respondents 40 percent were admitted rehabilitation/treatment centre whereas 60 percent were not. in

Out of 150 respondents 5.33 percent remained admitted less than one week, 14.66 for 15 days, 8.66 for 1 month, 8 percent for 6 months, 3.33 for 7-12 months and 60 percent comes under not applicable. Out of 150 respondents 60 percent think that drug use is destroying their health whereas 40 percent do not agree. Out of 150 respondents 100 percent replied they suffered disease due to drug use.

Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent suffered HIV, 33.33 percent Hepatitis, 20 percent T.B, 11.33 percent S.T.D, 15.33 percent Joindous where as 13.33 suffered other disease.

Out of 150 respondents 46.66 percent observed negative impact of drug use, 20 percent did not whereas 33.33 percent gave no response.

Out of 150 respondents 20 percent observed negative impact on health, 7.33 percent family, 6 percent education, 9.33 percent marital life and 4 percent on social aspect where as 33.33 percent did not respond to this question and 20 percent respondents did not observed any negative impact of drug use.

Out of 150 respondents 8.66 percent replied that their relatives knows about their drug use, 64.66 percent friends, 11.33 percent family members and 15.33 percent their colleagues know about their drug use. Out of 150respondents 20 percent were arrested for drug use, 60 percent were not whereas another 20 percent did not respond. Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent spent 1-9 weeks in jail, 10 percent 10-18 weeks, 3.33 percent 19-27 weeks whereas 80 percent comes under not applicable category.

Out of 150 respondents 6.66 percent made sexual relationship during arrest period, 13.33 percent did not and 80 percent were not responded.

Out of 150 respondents 60 percent answered it creates family problems whereas 40 percent said it do not. Out of 150 respondents 20 percent replied in positive and 80 percent in negative. Out of 150 respondents 40 percent replied drug use effects their relations with neighbors and 60 percent said it did not. Out of 150 respondents 20 percent said use of drug does not effect their friendship and 80 percent said it did not effect. Out of 150 respondents 46.66 percent accepted that drug use effects their sexual relations whereas 53.33 percent said it did not. Out of 150 respondents 80 percent have sleep problem and 20 percent did not. Out of 150respondents 73.33 percent answered positive and 26.66 percent replied in negative. Out of 150respondents 86.66 percent replied that drug use effects their appetite and 13.33 replied in negative.

CONCLUSION
RESULT # 01: As the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value of chi-square at 10 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis " There is no relationship between age of respondents and their reason for starting drug" is rejected and the actual hypothesis " Age is likely to be related with reason for starting drug " is accepted. RESULT # 02: As the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value of chi-square at 8 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between Educational qualification and awareness about side effects of drug abuse " is rejected and the actual hypothesis " Educational qualification is likely to be related with awareness about side effects of drug abuse " is accepted. RESULT # 03: As the calculated value of chi-square is smaller than the table value of chi-square at 9 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between Occupation of respondents and their preference for safe sex" is accepted and the actual hypothesis " Occupation is likely to be related with preference for safe sex " is rejected.

RESULT # 04: As the calculated value of chi-square is smaller than the table value of chi-square at 6 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between source of income of respondents to get drug and frequency of drug abuse" is accepted and the actual hypothesis " Source of income is likely to be related with frequency of drug abuse " is rejected.

RESULT # 05: As the calculated value of chi-square is greater than the table value of chi-square at 5 degree of freedom and 0.05 significance level therefore, the null hypothesis "There is no relationship between the type of drug use by respondents and their suffering from memory disturbance" is rejected and the actual hypothesis "There is no relationship between the type of drug use by respondents and their suffering from memory disturbance" is accepted.

SUGGESTIONS
As a result of this study, it is clear that the issues of women and drug abuse need immediate attention. The following recommendations and suggestions are made by the Researcher (Jawed Aziz Masudi) for the consideration of policy makers, potential donors and all other interested parties. Separate treatment facilities for female drug addicts should be made part of all existing and future treatment centres and hospitals. Separate drug prevention strategies need to be adopted for literate and illiterate groups. Special attention should be given to the prevention of usage of heroin and tranquillizers among women, both of which types of abuse are rapidly increasing. General practitioners should be properly trained in the rational use of potentially addictive medication and the prescription of tranquillizers should be monitored. Over-the counter sale and purchase of tranquillizers should prohibited. There is an urgent need to conduct a new National Survey on Drug Abuse, to look at the current, emerging trends in drug abuse, with a special focus on women. Drug education programmes should be established for schools and colleges. Proper programs should be planned for youth, including peer education and the promotion of sports activities leading towards an atmosphere of healthy competition. Relevant organizations should be encouraged to start a service providing telephone help-lines and counseling for drug users. Research and studies pertaining to the issues of drug use/abuse should be encouraged in all higher-level educational institutions from medical as well as socio-economic and cultural perspectives. Educational institutions should encourage research, debate and discussion on various aspects of drug abuse, and should also consider using theatre and art to promote awareness of the issue. There must be more studies and research that focus on gender disparities at all levels of the society. There is an urgent need to look more closely at the basic issues of poverty, inequality and unemployment.

Women's perceptions of themselves, their own lives, their broader social reality and their struggles and aspirations must be acknowledged. Efforts should be made to encourage an understanding in society that women's work in the house is a legitimate form of labour and should be considered as such. Efforts should also be made to use drug awareness programs as general health promotion messages. Sensitize policy makers. Introduce drug abuse prevention methods that are communitycentered. Provide support to various youth and women organizations; Develop and distribute drug abuse prevention material targeted at the youth. Awareness-raising through the media. Conduct studies on methods of drug-abuse prevention. Awareness raising on drug prevention issues (including issues related particularly to women and families) among policy makers. Involvement of youth organizations in drug prevention, especially girl guides and boys scouts. Awareness raising on drug abuse prevention through electronic and print media specifically targeting women and the youth. In-depth studies on issues related to women and drug abuse based on the Rapid Situation Assessment on drug abuse in Pakistan. Our religion can play an important role as Ulema, in mosques and Madaris, can help create awareness against the menace. Addition of narcotics in curricula from primary classes would help create awareness among youths against the evil as teachers could effectively prevent them from falling prey to drug addiction. The electronic and print media could also play an important role in highlighting the havoc created by drug abuse.

The first step should be to declare the country found involved in exporting drugs dangerous. Financial assistance to such countries should be stopped.

LIMITATIONS
Due to social, cultural and religious restrictions, most of the female drug users are hard to identify and are kept in situations which hinder efforts at research and investigation. Most of the interviews for this study were conducted by the efforts of doctors, key informants, N.G.Os, rehabilitation/treatment centres and close associates of the respondents. At many locations, even though female drug users were identified, they refused to come forward and talk to the researcher. Resources were limited. Shortage of time was also a limitation for this study.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Burger, 1998, Drugs and People: Medications, Their History and

Origins, and the Way They Act, T ousand Oaks. Sage Publication,
Agha S., 2000, Potential for HIV transmission among truck drivers in Pakistan, Journal of Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology Vol 14 No15, pp 2404 2406. ANF, 2000, Drug Dealers Convicted and Acquitted, Newsletter, Volume II, Issue VI. Anti Narcotics Force, Pakistan. Babbie, 1994, Research Methodology, Singapore, McGraw-Hill Inc. Baqi S, Nabi N, Hasan S, Khan A.J, Pasha O. et al., 1998, HIV antibody seroprevalence and associated risk factors in sex workers, drug users and prisoners in Sindh, Pakistan, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology. 18:73-79. B. Barber, 1997, Drugs and Society, New Jersey, American Medical Association, Bozarth, 1994, Pleasure systems in the brain, In D.M. Warburton (ed.), Pleasure: The politics and the reality (pp. 5-14), New York, John Wiley & Sons, Carlson, 2001, Physiology of Behavior, Boston, Allyn and Bacon. Center Line, 2000, New insights on the neural basis of brain reward and alcohol drinking, In Center Line Volume 11, UNC Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Publication. Constable P., 2000, Pakistan: the threat of the needle, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology. Dawn Newspaper, Tuesday, 27 June, 2000, Pakistan: International Drug Day Over 48 tons of Narcotics, Karachi Dawn Newspaper.

Deany P., 2000, HIV and Injecting Drug Use: a new challenge to sustainable human development. New York UNDCP HIV and Development Program. Deneau et al, 1996, Psychopharmacologia, Berlin. 16, 30-48. Di Chiara, 1995, Drug and Alcohol Dependency, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publication. Frankfort Nachmias, chava Nachmias, 1994, Research methodology in the social sciences, London, St. Martin Press. Ghaffar A, Kazi B.M and Salman M., 2000, An overview of the health care system in Pakistan, Journal of Public Health Medicine, Pakistan. Vol. 22:1 pp 38-42. Gillis J.S and Mubbahar M.H., 1995, Risk factors for drug abuse in Pakistan: a replication, Psychological Reports. 76: 99-108. Haq I., 1996, Pak-Afghan drug trade in historical perspective, Asian Survey, October. Vol 36. No 10 pp 945-964. Hartnol, 2000, Handbook of Snowball sampling, New York, United Nations office on drugs and crime. Husain M., 1984, Provisions in the laws of Pakistan to combat serious drugrelated offences, Bulletin on Narcotics, Narcotic Control Division, Pakistan, Vol. XXXVI: 3 pp 15-17. Hyder A.A and Khan O.A., 1998, HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: the context and magnitude of an emerging threat, Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 52: pp 579-585. Julien, 1995, A Primer of Drug Action, 7th Ed, New York, Freeman. Kazi B.M, Ghaffar A and Salman M., 2001 Health care systems in transition III, Part II. Pakistans response to HIV-AIDS, Journal of Public Health Medicine, Pakistan, Vol. 22:1 pp 43-47.

Khawaja Z.A, Gibney L, Ahmed A.J. and Vermund S. H., 1997, HIV/AIDS and its risk factors in Pakistan, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 11: 843-848. Koob, Sanna, Bloom, 1998, Neuroscience of Addiction, Neuron, Vol. 21, 467-476. McCormick J. 1995. A general description of HIV and intravenous drug use and needle use in Karachi, Pakistan. Programme onsubstance abuse. WHO Drug Injecting Project Planning Meeting Phase II. Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 September. McKim, 1997, Drugs and Behavior, 6th Ed, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. UNAIDS, 2000, HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: a situation and response analysis, Ministry of Health and United Nations Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Islamabad, Pakistan. NACP, The National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework: an overview, Ministry of Healths National AIDS Control Programme Islamabad, Pakistan. Mustikhan A., Tuesday 29 June, 1999, Pakistans heroin addiction bomb, WorldNet Daily. Nai Zindagi, 2000, Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Services, Islamabad, Pakistan, Nai Zindagi Publication. Nai Zindagi, 2001, Reach out II: drug demand and harm reduction programs in 5 major cities of Pakistan being implemented by Nai Zindagi, Islamabad, Pakistan, Nai Zindagi publication. UNDCP, 1998, Drug Abuse Control Master Plan for Pakistan 1998 2003, Narcotic Control Division (NCD), Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, with the assistance of UNDCP. NCSR, 1998, Pakistan: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1997, Narcotics Control Strategy Report released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State Washington, D.C.

NCSR, 2000, Pakistan: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Narcotics Control Strategy Report released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Washington, D.C, U.S Department of State. NCSR, 2001, Pakistan: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Narcotics Control Strategy Report released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Washington, D.C , U.S Department of State. NAPCP, 1994, National AIDS Prevention and ControlProgramme Pakistan, National Institute of Health, Pakistan. Nestler, February 2002, The Genetic Basis of Addiction, Psychiatric Times, Vol. XIX Issue 2. Niaz K., 1999, Drug abuse monitoring system: Rawalpindi/Islamabad October 1998 to March 1999, Islamabad, Pakistan, Unpublished paper. Phillips et al, 1992, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, New York Academy of Sciences, 654, 199-206. Pistoi, May 11, 2001, Study Reveals Why People Might Crave Cocaine, Scientific American. Powledge, January 15, 2002, Beating Abuse: Glutamate may hold a key to drug addiction, Scientific American. Robbins and Everitt, 1999, Drug addiction: bad habits add up, Nature 398:567-570. Robinson and Berridge, 2003, Addiction, Annual Reviews of Psychology, Vol 54. Sadeque. N., 1992, Gods medicine bedeviled, In Smith M.L, Thongtham C.N, Sadeque N, Bravo A.M, Rumrrill R et al, Why People Grow Drugs: Narcotics and Development in the Third Worl, London, Panos Publications Ltd. Sarantakos S., 1998, Social research, New York, Mcmillan press.

Seccombe R., 1995, Squeezing the balloon: international drugs policy, Drug and Alcohol Review. 14, pp 311-316. Shah S.A, Khan O.A, Kristensen S and Vemund S.H, 1999, HIV-infected workers deported from the Gulf States: impact on southern Pakistan, International Journal of STD & AIDS. Vol. 10: 12 pp 812-814. Spencer C.P. and Navaratnam V., 1981, Drug Abuse in East Asia, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press. Sullivan and Hagen, 2002, Psychotropic substance seeking:

evolutionary pathology or adaptation, Trends in Pharmacologic


Sciences, 13, p177. Thakur D., 1993, Research methodology, New Delhi, Deep and Deep publication. UNAIDS, 1999, Pakistan Country Profile 1999, Islamabad, Pakistan, United Nations Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. UNDCP and UNAIDS, 1999, Baseline study of the relationship between injecting drug use, HIV and Hepatitis C among male injecting drug users in Lahore, United Nations Drug Control Program and United Nations Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, World Drug Report, London, Oxford University Press. UNDCP, 1998, Pakistan: Status of Knowledge of drug addition in Pakistan, United Nations Drug Control Program Regional Office for South West Asia Islamabad, Pakistan. UNDCP, 2000, Pakistan Country Profile, Islamabad, Pakistan, United Nations Drug Control Program Pakistan Regional Office. UNO, 1997, Pakistan in the 21st century: a renewed alliance, From the Heads of United Nations Agencies resident in Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, United Nations Publication.

UNODC, 1998, Guide to Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drugs, New York, United Nations office on Drugs and crime. White, 1996, Annual Review of Neurosciences, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press. WHO and UNAIDS, 2000, Pakistan, Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, Update, Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, and World Health Organization. Wise, 1996, Neurobiology of addiction, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.

WEBLOGRAPHY
http://www.anf.gov.pk/newsletter.htm http://dawn.com http://hivnet.ch:800/asia/bagladesh/ http://www.state.gov/global/narcotics_law/1998_narc_report/index.html http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcrpt/1999/ http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2000/ http://www.un.org.pk/gend-proj/undcp-2.htm http://WorldNetDaily.com http:// Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.com