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TT LUYN THI & BI DNG KIN THC NGY MI 18A/88 INH VN T - TP.

HI DNG
HOAHOC.ORG NG XUN QUNH
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TNG HP CC PHN NG CN GHI NH TRONG HA HC LP 10

I. Nhm Halogen:
I.1 Clo: Do l cht hot ng mnh nn Clo ch tn ti trong t nhin dng hp cht, ch yu l mui
clorua. Clo tan t trong nc , tan nhiu trong dung mi hu c. Kh clo c, ht nhiu c th b ngt.
- Clo c tnh oxy ha mnh, trong mt s phn ng clo th hin tnh kh
1/ Phn ng ca Clo:
t cao
2
2 3
t cao
2 2
as
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 4
2 2
2 3 2
3Cl + 2FeB
3Cl 2Fe 2FeCl
Cl + Cu CuCl
Cl +H 2HCl
Cl +H O HCl+HClO
Cl + H S S +2HCl
Cl + H O + SO H SO + 2HCl
Cl + 2KBr 2KCl + Br
3Cl + 2NH N + 6HCl
+

0
0
2 3 2
askt
2 4 3
as
2 6 6 6 6 6
2 2 2
15
2 2
70
2 3 2
2 2 2 2
r 2FeCl + 2Br
Cl + CH CH Cl + HCl
3Cl +C H C H Cl
Cl + C H 2C + 2HCl
Cl + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H O
Cl + KOH 5KCl + KClO + 3H O
Cl + Ca(OH) CaOCl + H O
3Cl
C
C

2 2 4 3 3
+ 6FeSO4 2Fe (SO ) +2FeCl

2/ iu ch:
a/ Trong phng th nghim:
o
t
2 2 2 2
4 2 2 2
3 2 2
2 2 2 2
4HCl + MnO MnCl + Cl + 2H O
16HCl + 2 KMnO 2MnCl + 5Cl + 2KCl + 8H O
KClO + 6HCl KCl + 3Cl +3 H O
CaOCl + 2HCl CaCl + Cl + H O
C
|
|
|
|

b/ Trong cng nghip:
dpdd, cmn
2 2 2
dpnc
2
2NaCl + 2H O H + 2NaOH + Cl
2NaCl 2Na + Cl
| |
|


I.2 Hp cht ca Clo
1/ Hidro clorua v axit clohidric:
a/ Hidro clorua: L kh khng mu, mi nng kh chu. Hidro clorua kh khng phn ng ngay c vi kim
loi hot ng mnh, nhng khi c vt kh m th phn ng xy ra mnh lit. Hidro clorua tan trong nc to
ra dung dch axit clohidric
-iu ch:
+Trong phng th nghim: (Phng php sunfat)
0
0
250
2 4 4
>400
2 4 2 4
NaCl(khan) + H SO am ac NaHSO + HCl
2NaCl + H SO am ac Na SO + 2HCl
C
C
|
|

+Trong cng nghip: (Phng php tng hp):
as
2 2
H + Cl 2HCl
Ch :
iu ch HBr v HI khng th dng phng php sunfat v HBr v HI c tnh kh mnh nn s
phn ng vi H
2
SO
4
m c l cht c tnh oxy ha
b/ Axit Clohidric: L axit mnh phn ng vi tt c cc kim loi ng trc hidro trong dy in ha v cc
hp cht (bazo, oxit bazo, mui ca axit yu)
TT LUYN THI & BI DNG KIN THC NGY MI 18A/88 INH VN T - TP. HI DNG
HOAHOC.ORG NG XUN QUNH
09798.17.8.85 09367.17.8.85 - netthubuon Website: www.hoahoc.org - admin@hoahoc.org
2 2 2 2
2 3 3 2 2 2
3 3 2 3 4 2 3 2
2 2 2
FeO + 2HCl FeCl + H O Fe + 2HCl FeCl + H
Fe O + 6HCl 2FeCl + 3H O CuO + 2HCl CuCl + H O
Fe(OH) + 3HCl FeCl + 3H O Fe O + 8HCl FeCl + 2FeCl + 4H O
Fe(OH) + 2HCl FeCl + 2H O A


3 3
2 3 2 2
4 2 2 2
gNO + HCl AgCl + HNO
Na CO + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO + H O
2KMnO + 16HCl 2MnCl + 5Cl + 2KCl + 8H O
+
|
|

c/ Mui ca axit clohidric (mui clorua): a s mui clorua d tan trong nc, mt vi mui hu nh
khng tan nh AgCl, PbCl
2
, CuCl (ring PbCl
2
tan nhiu trong nc nng)
AgCl tan trong nc amoniac: | |
3 3 2
2 ( ) AgCl NH Ag NH Cl
+

+
AgCl b phn hy ngoi nh sng:
2
1
2
as
AgCl Ag Cl + |
d/ Hp cht c oxi ca Clo:
-Oxit ca Clo: Cl
2
O (diclo oxit), Cl
2
O
5
(diclo pentaoxit), Cl
2
O
7
(diclo heptaoxit)
-Axit c oxy ca clo: HClO ( axit hipoclor); HClO
2
(axit clor); HClO
3
(axit cloric); HClO
4
Trong cc axit trn, tnh axit tng dn, tnh oxy ha gim dn.
- Cc mui c oxy cua clo:
+Natri hipoclorit (NaClO): l cht oxy ha mnh , trong khng kh n tc dng dn vi CO
2
to ra HClO
khng bn. NaClO c trong nc javel , c tinh st trng, ty trng bng v giy.
2 2 3
2 2 2 4
2 2
NaClO + CO +H O NaHCO +HClO
NaClO + SO +H O NaCl + H SO
Cl + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H O


+Clorua vi: (CaOCl
2
) : dng ty u , ty trng bng, giy, x l cht c, tinh ch du m
0
30
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 3 2
Cl +Ca(OH) bt CaOCl H O
CaOCl + 2HCl CaCl + Cl + H O
2CaOCl + CO +H O CaCO +CaCl + 2HClO
C
+
|


+Kali clorat (KClO
3
): c dng ch tao thuc n, sn xut pho hoa, ngi n v nhng hn hp d chy
khc. KClO
3
cn c dng trong cng nghip dim.
0
0
2
0
400 ,kho ng xu c tac
3 4
400 ,
3 2
70
2 3 2
KClO KClO
3
KClO KCl + O
2
3Cl + 6KOH KCl + KClO +3H O
C
C MnO
C


I.2.Flo: L cht oxi ha mnh, phn mnh lit vi nc ngay nhit thng, tc dng vi hu ht cc
kim loi k c Au , Pt v phi kim ( tr N
2
, O
2
), tc dng vi H
2
ngay trong bng ti nhit thp
2 2 2
dpnc
2
1
F + H O 2HF + O
2
F2 + H2 2HF
2KF 2K + F
|


Flo c dng lm cht oxi ha cho nhiu liu lng dng trong tn la. ng dng ln nht ca flo l iu
ch mt s dn xut hidrocacbon cha flo c tnh cht c o nh teflon l mt cht do chu c axit,
kim v cc ha cht khc
TT LUYN THI & BI DNG KIN THC NGY MI 18A/88 INH VN T - TP. HI DNG
HOAHOC.ORG NG XUN QUNH
09798.17.8.85 09367.17.8.85 - netthubuon Website: www.hoahoc.org - admin@hoahoc.org
Mt s hp cht ca Flo:
-Axit flohidric : l axit yu nhng ha tan c SiO
2
( c trong thnh phn ca thy tinh), Hf dng khc
ch ln thy tinh
2 4 2
2 2 4 4
4HF + SiO SiF + 2H O
CaF + H SO CaSO 2HF

+

I.3. Brom v Iot: I
2
b thng hoa. Br
2
v I
2
u tan trong nc v tan trong dung mi hu c nh benzen,
ru. Trong t nhin , brom v iot dng hp cht.

+
+

0
0
0
0
0
t
2 2
t
2 3 2 2
t
2
2 3
t
2 2
t cao
2 2
350 500 ,
2 2
2Al + 3Br2 2AlBr3 Br + H S 2HBr + S
2Fe + 3Br 2FeBr I + H S 2HI + S
Br + 2KI 2KBr + I 2Al + 3I 2AlI
Fe + I FeI
Br + H 2HBr
I + H 2HI
C
C
C
C
C Pt
( )

2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 3
Br + H O HBr + HBrO cha m
I + H O (kho ng pha n ng)
Br + 5Cl + 6H O 2HBrO + 10 HCl

Mt s hp cht ca Brom v Iot:
3 2 3 3
2 4 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
PBr + 3H O H PO + 3HBr
2HBr + H SO Br + SO + 2H O
4HBr + O 2Br + 2H O
2AgBr 2Ag + Br


0
300
2 2
2 4 2 2 2
3 2 2
2HI H + I
8HI + H SO 4I + H S + 4H O
2HI + 2FeCl 2FeCl + I + 2HCl
C


Ch :
HF < HCl < HBr < HI : c tnh kh tng dn v tnh axit tng dn