683 views

Uploaded by shahzeb afridi

- Classes Chapter05
- ASSIGNMENT4-Prove Method to Set
- Laws of Production
- 7 Excel ‘If’ Function Techniques
- Theory of Production
- first montly add math f4
- 1982-622-2-Bergson
- Macroeconomics Study Guide
- Firm
- belong Run Prod Function
- Ejemplo de Multirespuesta
- sra ed 337
- rice cost
- p86.pdf
- 75911764-SPM-2011-PAPER-1
- Chap 012
- mission making exponential and logarithmic relevant
- GE2112-QB
- ECM6Lecture8Vietnam_2014
- Advanced Mechanics of Silids Worksheet#02

You are on page 1of 6

partialeg.tex April 12, 2004 Let start with production functions. A production function is one of the many ways to describe the state of technology for producing some good/product. Assume the firm produces a single output, x, using two inputs, labor, l, and captial k. The production function x fk, l l 0, k 0 identifies the maximium output, x, that can be produced with any nonnegative combination of labor and capital. Visualize this production function in two-dimensional space. Physics requires that f0, 0 0. Note that a production function is only one of many ways to describe the state of technical knowledge for producing a good Other ways include the input requirement set k, l : fk, l x, l 0, k 0 the production possibilities set X, where X is the set of all technically feasible output input combinations, x, k, l. Note that X is a subset of R , where R n 3 denotes n-dimensional nonnegative space. the cost function is another way to represent the state of technical knowledge for producing x. I will show that later.

Consider the specific production function x fk, l al k 1 where a 0 is a constant and 0 1 is another constant. This particular production function is called the Cobb-Douglas production function with constant returns to scale. The partial derivatives of a production function have fancy economic names: Definition: The marginal product of labor is 1

fk, l l For the Cobb-Douglas, The marginal product of labor is fk, l al 1 k 1 mp l k, l l mp l k, l For the Cobb-Douglas, is the marginal product of labor always positive? Definition: The marginal product of capital is fk, l k For the Cobb-Douglas, The marginal product of capital is fk, l a1 l k mp k k, l k mp k k, l For the Cobb-Douglas, it is also always positive. For this Cobb-Douglas, what happens to the marginal product of labor as labor increases? mp l k, l 2 fk, l 1al 2 k 1 0 Why is it always negative? l l 2 That is, the marginal product of labor, while always positive, always decreases as l increases. The marginal product of capital also always decreases as k increases. mp k k, l 2 fk, l a1 l k 1 0 2 k k For this Cobb-Douglass, the law of diminishing marginal productivity applies. Said generally, the law applies to fk, l with respect to both inputs if f ll k, l 0 and f kk k, l 0

Note that the law does not require the marginal products to always be positive. The Cobb-Douglas form is sufficient but not necessary for the law to hold. Not that the law is not really a law. It more something that we often, but not always, observe.

For this Cobb-Douglas production function what happens to the marginal product of labor (capital) as the quantity of capital (labor) increases. Does the marginal product of labor increase when k increases? mp l k, l 2 fk, l 1 al 1 k 0 lk k How do we know it is always positive? As k increases, labor becomes more productive. Do you think the Cobb-Douglas production function is an accurate description of the state of technical knowledge for producing any real-world products? No. We study it because it is simple, not because it is realistic. Typically firms use more than two inputs. In which case, one might represent the production function as x fl 1 , l 2 , . . . , l N where l i is the quantity of input i. The production functions that economists estimate are typically much more complicated than this simple Cobb-Douglas form. Before computers, we were restricted to simple functional forms such as the Cobb-Douglas, but this is no longer the case. There are lots more economic examples of partial derivatives in the review questions. One of the problems with marginal product functions is that the marginal product is sensitive to the units in which x, l, and k are measured. For example, changing the ouput from pounds of stuff to tons of stuff will drastically change the numerical values of the marginal products. It would be nice to be able to denote the productivity of the a marginal unit of input in a way that was not sensitive to the units that the inputs and output were measured. Can we come up with such a measure? Yes. They are called elasticities

3

maximum.

Imagine a mountain in the room y fx 1 , x 2 . we want to find the values of x 1 and x 2 that maximize y. Consider two individuals: Lewis and Clark. Both are smart and logical. But, they both have perception disabilities. Lewis can only see and perceive in the directions North and South. Clark has the same problem but he is an east-west kind of guy. It is, as if east west does not exist for Lewis and north south does not exist for Clark. Both guys can wander around in both dimensions, but both lack shorterm memory; that is, they cant remember what it was like the last place they were at. Each of you pick a partner. You are Lewis and Clark. Your job is to write down a rule that you can use to find the the values of x 1 and x 2 that max y The rule: keep moving and looking until each of you is at a point that is a max in your direction, and you are both standing on the same point. That point will be the max.

fx o ,x o 1 2 x 1

Could you use partial derivatives to find this point? At the max

fx o ,x o 1 2 x 2

0, and

0.

Use partial derivatives the find the values of x 1 and x 2 that max fx 1 , x 2 2x 2 x 2 4x 1 4x 2 3 1 2

2x 2 x 2 4x 1 4x 2 3 1 2

-4 2

-2 0

-2

-4 2

-50 z

fx 1 ,x 2 x 1 fx 1 ,x 2 x 2

4x 1 4 2x 2 4

find the values of x 1 and x 2 where both of these partials is zero. That is solve 4x 1 4 0 2x 2 4 0 In this simple case each can be solved separately. x 0 1 and x 0 2 1 2

Use partial derivative to find a likely candidate for those values of x 1 and x 2 that maximize fx 1 , x 2 2x 2 2x 1 x 2 2x 2 36x 1 42x 2 158 1 2

-4 2

-2 0

-2

-4 2

-200 z -400

fx 1 ,x 2 x 1 fx 1 ,x 2 x 2

4x 1 2x 2 36 2x 1 4x 2 42

4x 1 2x 2 36 0 2x 1 4x 2 42 0

, Solution is: x 1 5, x 2 8

- Classes Chapter05Uploaded byKev107
- ASSIGNMENT4-Prove Method to SetUploaded byanon_708783974
- Laws of ProductionUploaded byrichamanjhi153858
- 7 Excel ‘If’ Function TechniquesUploaded byhassan_a_k
- Theory of ProductionUploaded byMuhammad Akif Sarwar
- first montly add math f4Uploaded byNato Abdul Rahim
- 1982-622-2-BergsonUploaded bykelvin yogi
- Macroeconomics Study GuideUploaded bywilder_hart
- FirmUploaded byNadeem Afzal
- belong Run Prod FunctionUploaded byŘüđĥirSiddham
- Ejemplo de MultirespuestaUploaded byVladimiro Ibañez Quispe
- sra ed 337Uploaded byapi-248778922
- rice costUploaded byVaradarajan Komanduri
- p86.pdfUploaded bypenelopegerhard
- 75911764-SPM-2011-PAPER-1Uploaded bytheuniquecollection
- Chap 012Uploaded byWensen Chu
- mission making exponential and logarithmic relevantUploaded byapi-407257956
- GE2112-QBUploaded bykannanvishnu
- ECM6Lecture8Vietnam_2014Uploaded byduyvu
- Advanced Mechanics of Silids Worksheet#02Uploaded byfaizan ashique
- Jawapan NyeUploaded byjnal79
- Rectangular Pulse Convolution-updateUploaded bykhaled lotees
- portfolio 2Uploaded byapi-356505889
- 3BSE049230-510 E en System 800xA Engineering 5.1 Process GraphicsUploaded byCristian Illanes Cartes
- davebakesapie-wolfsonUploaded byapi-265951793
- Cfx9970 Chapter08 EnUploaded byYavuz Keleş
- errores maple.pdfUploaded by1snake2
- Precalculus Enhanced With Graphing Utilities 6th Edition Sullivan Solutions ManualUploaded bya732815968
- Relations-and-Functions-Quiz-Review.pdfUploaded byArianneKibadMaguen
- CACFC2.pdfUploaded byLea Balabat Famulagan

- The Sourcing Continuum - Article by Dave WolskiUploaded byDavid Wolski
- F02 Project Status Purchased Parts QR83 2011 Version 1-0-01Uploaded bysujay13780
- Prince2 - Foundation Papers.pdfUploaded byHarktheDark
- JidokaUploaded byXung Lệnh Hồ
- Chapter 7_quality Systems in Chemical LaboratoriesUploaded byLily ERc Peter
- Future of Product DesignUploaded byJorge Miranda
- Material Handling Planning ChartUploaded byNitin Pradhan
- Sme ForgingUploaded byatxega
- Production Planning & ControlUploaded byRabia Zulqarnain
- Sdlc PhasesUploaded bymanika
- 01-01-11Uploaded bysajithv78
- Fast Reactive FashionUploaded byBetty Tang
- CSVUploaded bytamtomo
- ASME SEC III D 3Uploaded byRoberto Chang Palma
- FMEA TemplateUploaded byHiếu Trần
- Assessment of Wire EDM Parameters on Aluminum - Wan Ahmad Shahir b. Wan Musa - TJ1191.W33 2009 24 PagesUploaded byfotick
- Chartered Accountant Final ExaminationUploaded byAtul Mittal
- brochure.pdfUploaded bymans1987
- Bowman - OiliteUploaded byJoao Mendes
- Cost AccountingyyttUploaded byAnkit Bhatia
- Project Initiation DocumentationUploaded byKelvin de Waele
- Plant Maintenance and Inspection Chapter 1Uploaded byJohn
- Resume of QualificationsUploaded byDON
- Cladding MetalworkingUploaded bycal2_uni
- Mechanical Engineer SolidWorks Designer in Los Angeles CA Resume Michael BassoUploaded byMichaelBasso
- Managing Projects.pdfUploaded bycadcam01
- Operations Management Midterm - Chapter Notes.docxUploaded byg
- 031-035Uploaded bymsyukor
- Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management Chapter 11Uploaded byd
- data bukuUploaded byTanesia Sinaga