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Ika Sukmawati Off.

A / 109341421811

ARTICLE CRITICAL ANALYSIS

1. Source Mao, Song Ling, and Chun Yen Chang. 1999. Impacts of an Inquiry Teaching Method on Earth Science Students Learning Outcomes and Attitudes at the Secondary School Level. Department of Earth Sciences National Taiwan Normal University Taiwan, R.O.C. Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC (D). Vol. 8, No. 3, 1998. Pp93-101 2. Authors Objectives The authors are willing to inform the reader about their research result of inquiry teaching. They are willing to inform about the impacts of an inquiry teaching method on earth science students learning outcomes and attitudes at secondary level. They compare the teaching that used inquiry model and traditional model and see what is the impact of implementing inquiry to learning outcomes and attitudes.

3. Unique Facts a. Some previous research has shown that an inquiry-oriented instructional method can improve students science process skills and content achievement. Research done by Starr (1995) also shown that using inquiry-oriented method and cooperative learning strategies can improve the achievement and enhance the students attitudes toward science. b. Flick (1995) stated that: Research on inquiry-oriented instruction has produced mixed results with the clearest effects occurring with more capable students, who have well trained teachers, and a supportive classroom environment. c. The Earth Science Achievement Test was constructed and designed to measure Earth science content achievement and to assess knowledge, comprehensive, and application level objectives of the cognitive domain.

d. The Attitudes toward Earth Science Inventory consisted of 13 items designed to measure student attitudes toward Earth science, including class participation, confidence level on the subject of Earth science, and learning interest in Earth science. e. The experimental design for these two studies was a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design described by Campbell & Stanley (1966). The only variable for these studies was the inquiry-based instruction versus the traditional teaching method. f. The inquiry-oriented instruction used in these two studies emphasize on student inquiry, interpretation of data, group discussions, and cooperative learning; these strategies might help develop students higher mental skills, improve their attitudes toward Earth science, facilitate learning of Earth science concepts and, therefore, raise their levels of Earth science content achievement. The result of this pair of studies support this idea.

4. Questions After I read and analyze this article, I have some questions about this article. The questions are: a. This research is done to know the impact of inquiry teaching method to the learning outcomes and the attitudes of student. Is the word attitudes here same with the affective aspect? If its not, how is the measurement? b. The studies said that there is also an emphasize on group discussion and cooperative learning. Why did not the researcher put the cooperative method to the research too? Why only the inquiry method that is described and emphasized here? c. In this research journal I found the word phase I that used astronomy material and phase II that used meteorology material in the implementation of inquiry teaching. Is the word phase here similar with the cycle in CAR? But it is the quasi experiment research. What the word phase here means?

5. Main Concepts This articles of research journal has some main concepts. This research is to know the impact of inquiry to learning outcomes and attitudes of student in earth science. The inquiry-oriented instruction used in these two studies emphasize on student inquiry, interpretation of data, group discussions, and cooperative learning that might help develop students higher mental skills, improve their attitudes toward Earth science, facilitate learning of Earth science concepts and, therefore, raise their levels of Earth science content achievement.

6. Reflection After I read and analyze this article, I found more knowledge about inquiry teaching method in research of education. I now sure that inquiry teaching method can be combined with cooperative learning to improve not only the learning outcomes but also here in this study to affect the attitudes of student. It is said here that with the inquiry, the learning outcome and attitude is higher than the traditional teaching. But I still dont clearly understand about the attitude. I now want to know more about inquiry, especially that combined with cooperative learning that affect also to the motivation and critical thinking skill to help me in my research.