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23 2013 .

1
1.1 . . . . . .
1.2 .
1.3 . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . .
1.5 . . . . . .
1.6 . . . . . . .
1.7 . . . . . . .
2
2.1 . . . .
2.2 .
2.3 . .

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3
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14
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3
3.1 . .
3.2
3.3 .
3.4 .
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18
18
19
20
20
22

4
23
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5
25
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

: nike32@abv.bg, http://justmathbg.info/.

26

1.1

(Trigonometric functions).
(Sine)
sin(), (, ), [1, 1]
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Cosine)
cos(), (, ), [1, 1]
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

sin()
, (/2, /2), (, )
cos()
(/2, ( + 2)/2), (, ), = 1, 3, 5, . . .

(Tangent) tan() =

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: ) (Cotangent)
cos()
cot() =
, (0, ), (, )
sin()
(, ( + 1)), (, ), = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: ) (Secant)
1
, (/2, /2), (, 1] [1, )
sec() =
cos()
(/2, ( + 2)/2), (, 1] [1, ), = 1, 3, 5, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: ) (Cosecant)
1
csc() =
, (0, ), (, 1] [1, )
sin()
(, ( + 1)), (, 1] [1, ), = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.2

(Inverse trigonometric functions). Arc


(Arc stands for arcus).
(Inverse sine)
arcsin(), [1, 1], [/2, /2]
[1, 1], [/2, ( + 2)/2], = 1, 3, 5, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Inverse cosine)
arccos(), [1, 1], [0, ]
[1, 1], [, ( + 1)], = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Inverse tangent)
arctan(), (, ), (/2, /2)
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: ) (Inverse cotangent)

arccot() = arctan(), (, ), (0, )


2
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: ) (Inverse secant)
arcsec() = arccos(1 ) = arccos(1/)
(, 1], (/2, ] [1, ), [0, /2)
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: ) (Inverse cosecant)
arccsc() = arcsin(1 ) = arcsin(1/)
(, 1], [/2, 0) [1, ), (0, /2]
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.3

(Hyperbolic functions).
(Hyperbolic sine)

sinh() =
, (, ), (, )
2
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Hyperbolic cosine)
+
cosh() =
, (, ), [1, )
2
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Hyperbolic tangent)
sinh()

2 1
=
=
, (, ), (1, 1)
tanh() =
cosh()
+
2 + 1
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: tanh) (Hyperbolic cotangent)


cosh()
+
coth() =
=
, (, 0) (0, ), (, 1) (1, )
sinh()

3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: cosh) (Hyperbolic secant)


2
1
=
, (, ), (0, 1]
sech() =
cosh()
+
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(: sinh) (Hyperbolic cosecant)


2
1
=
, (, 0) (0, ), (, 0) (0, )
csch() =
sinh()

3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.4

() (Inverse (area) hyperbolic functions).


Ar (Ar stands for area).

(Inverse hyperbolic sine)
arsinh() = ln( + 2 + 1), (, ), (, )
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(I : +, IV : ) (Inverse
hyperbolic cosine)

arcosh() = ln( 2 1), [1, ), (, )


3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(Inverse hyperbolic tangent)


1 1+
artanh() = ln
, (1, 1), (, )
2 1
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

10


(: artanh) (Inverse hyperbolic cotangent)
( )
1
1 +1
arcoth() = artanh
= ln
, (, 1) (1, ), (, 0) (0, )

2 1
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(I : +, IV : ) (:
arcosh) (Inverse hyperbolic secant)
( )
1
1 1 2
, (0, 1], (, )
= ln
arsech() = arcosh

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

(I : +, III : ) (:
arsinh) (Inverse hyperbolic cosecant)
( )
1 1 + 2
1
arcsch() = arsinh
= ln
, (, 0)(0, ), (, 0)(0, )

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.5

11

1
sin(x)
0
cos(x)
-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.5

cosh(x)

sinh(x)

0.5

ex/2

e-x/2

-ex/2

-e-x/2

-0.5

-1

-3

-2

-1

(Exponential function)
= , (, ), (0, )
(Natural logarithm)
= ln(), (0, ), (, )
3

-1

-2

-3
-6

-4

-2

1.6

12

:
=

1
1

:
= ln() = (= 1 ())
1
1
( ) =
= =
=

(ln())
1/
:
= arctan() = tan()
1
1
1
1
2
(arctan()) =
=
cos
()
=
=
=
2
(tan())
1/ cos2 ()
1 + tan ()
1 + 2
:
(sin()) = cos(), (cos()) = sin(),
(tan()) =

1
1

,
(cot())
=

,
2
cos2 ()
sin ()

(sec()) = sec() tan() =

sin()
cos()
, (csc()) = csc() cot() = 2 ,
2
cos ()
sin ()

1
1
(arcsin()) =
, (arccos()) =
,
1 2
1 2
(arctan()) =

1
1
, (arccot()) =
,
2
1+
1 + 2

1
1
(arcsec()) =
, (arccsc()) =
,
2 1
2 1
(sinh()) = cosh(), (cosh()) = sinh(),
(tanh()) =

1
1
, (coth()) =
,
2
cosh ()
sinh2 ()

(sech()) = sech() tanh(), (csch()) = csch() coth(),


(arsinh()) =
(artanh()) =

1
2

+1

, (arcosh()) =

1
2

1
1
, (arcoth()) =
,
2
1
1 2

1
1
, (arcsch()) =
,
(arsech()) =
2
1
1 + 2
( ) = ln(), ( ) = ,
(log ()) =

1
1
, (ln()) = ,
ln()

( ) = 1 , () = , = 0.

1.7

13

:
=

3
4
3

10

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

2 4, 2 2. 2 , . 2 , .
, .
10

10

-5

-5

-10
-10

-5

10

-10
-10

-5

10

2, . , .
, (/ ).


, .

2.1

2 + 2 = 1 = = cos(), = sin()
2 2
2 + 2 = 16 2 + 2 = 1 = = 4 cos(), = 4 sin()
4
4

2 ( 5)2
+
= 1 = = 7 cos(), = 7 sin() + 5
7
7
( 10)2 ( 10)2
+
= 1 = = 5 cos() + 10, = 5 sin() + 10
25
25
{gnuplot: plot cos(t), sin(t), 4*cos(t), 4*sin(t),
sqrt(7.)*cos(t), sqrt(7.)*sin(t) + 5, 5*cos(t) + 10, 5*sin(t) + 10}
20
4
15
2
10
0
5
-2
0
-4
-5
-4

-2

-5

10

15

20

2 2
+
= 1 = = 3 cos(), = 2 sin()
9
4
2 2
+
= 1 = = 2 cos(), = 3 sin()
4
9
2
2
( 5)
+
= 1 = = 5 cos() + 5, = 3 sin()
25
9

( 10)2 ( 10)2
+
= 1 = = 8 cos() + 10, = 7 sin() + 10
8
49
{gnuplot: plot 3*cos(t), 2*sin(t), 2*cos(t), 3*sin(t),
5*cos(t) + 5, 3*sin(t), sqrt(8.)*cos(t) + 10, 7*sin(t) + 10}
20
4
15
2
10
0
5
-2
0
-4
-5
-4

-2

-5

10

15

20

2.2

15

1
, = tan()
cos()
1
( 5)2 ( 10)2 = 1 = =
+ 5, = tan() + 10
cos()
1
2 2 = 1 = = tan(), =
cos()
1
+5
( 5)2 ( 15)2 = 1 = = tan() + 15, =
cos()
{gnuplot: plot 1/cos(t), tan(t), 1/cos(t) + 5, tan(t) + 10,
tan(t), 1/cos(t), tan(t) + 15, 1/cos(t) + 5}
2 2 = 1 = =

20

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5

10

15

20

-5

-5

10

15

20

3
2
2 = 1 = =
, = tan()
9
cos()
( 5)2 ( 10)2
3

= 1 = =
+ 5, = 4 tan() + 10
9
16
cos()

( 5)2 ( + 2)2
8

= 1 = = 2 tan() 2, =
+5
8
2
cos()

( 15)2 ( 10)2
7

= 1 = =
+ 15, = 11 tan() + 10
7
11
cos()
{gnuplot: plot 3/cos(t), tan(t), 3/cos(t) + 5, 4*tan(t) + 10,
sqrt(2.)*tan(t) - 2, sqrt(8.)/cos(t) + 5, sqrt(7.)/cos(t) + 15, sqrt(11.)*tan(t) + 10}
20

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5
-5

10

15

20

-5

10

15

20

16

cosh() sinh(). :
cosh2 () sinh2 () = 1
2 2 = 1 :
= cosh(), = sinh()
:
2 2 = 1 = = cosh(), = sinh()
( 5)2 ( 10)2 = 1 = = cosh() + 5, = sinh() + 10
,
:
= cosh(), = sinh()

= cosh() + 5, = sinh() + 10

20

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5

10

15

20

-5

-5

10

15

20

( 7)2
= 1 = = cosh(), = 8 sinh() + 7
8
2
( 14)
( 7)2

= 1 = = 3 sinh() + 14, = 2 cosh() + 7


9
4
:

= cosh(), = 8 sinh() + 7
= 3 sinh() + 14, = 2 cosh() + 7
2

20

15

10

-5

-5

10

15

20

2.3

17

= 2 = = , = 2
= ( 5)2 = = + 5, = 2
5 = ( 5)2 = = + 5, = 2 + 5
2 = = = 2 , =
( 5)2 = + 2 = = 2 2, = + 5
( 15)2 = 15 = = 2 + 15, = + 15

{gnuplot: plot t, t**2, t + 5, t**2, t + 5, t**2 + 5,


t**2, t, t**2 - 2, t + 5, -t**2 + 15, t + 15}
20

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5

10

15

20

-5

-5

10

15

20

= 82 = = , = 82

2 = 8 = = 2 , = 8
4( 8) = 3( 6)2 = = 2 + 6, = 32 + 8

4( 2)2 = 7( 12) = = 42 + 12, = 7 + 2


{gnuplot: plot t, 8*t**2, t**2, sqrt(8.)*t,
2*t + 6, 3*t**2 + 8, -4*t**2 + 12, sqrt(7.)*t + 2}
20

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5

10

15

20

-5

-5

10

15

20

: ( ), (
).
,
.

3.1

(): = = .
(): = .
: = = .
{gnuplot: , , splot cos(u)*cos(v), sin(u)*cos(v), sin(v)}
2 2 2
+ 2 + 2 =1
2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-1-0.8
0
-0.6-0.4
-0.2
-0.2 0
-0.4
-0.6
0.20.4
0.60.8 -1-0.8
1

1
0.5
-1

-0.5

.
2 2 2
+ 2 + 2 = 1
2

().
2 2 2
+ 2 + 2 =0
2

0
0

0.5

-0.5
1-1

3.2

19

( , ). : = .
{gnuplot: , , splot cos(u)/cos(v), sin(u)/cos(v), tan(v)}
2 2 2
+ 2 2 =1
2

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3
-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

( , ).
{gnuplot: , , splot cos(u)*tan(v), sin(u)*tan(v), 1/cos(v)}
2 2 2
+ 2 2 = 1
2

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3
-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

(-: 2 + 2 = 2 ).
{gnuplot: , , splot cos(u)*v, sin(u)*v, v}
2 2 2
+ 2 2 =0
2

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3

-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3
-3

-2

-1

3-3

-2

-1

3.3

20

. : = .
{gnuplot: , , splot cos(u)*v, sin(u)*v, v**2}
2 2
+ 2 =
2

25
20
15
10
5
0

25
20
15
10
5
0

1
-5 -4
0
-3 -2
-1
-1 0
-2
-3
1 2
3 4 -5-4
5

4
2
-4

-2

-2
-4

().
{gnuplot: , , splot u, v, u**2 v**2}
2 2
2 =
2

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25

20
10
0
-10
-20

-6

3.4

-4

-2

6-6

-4

-2

4
2
-4

-2

-2
-4

: = . : = .
{gnuplot: splot cos(u), sin(u), v}
2 2
+ 2 =1
2

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-1-0.8
0
-0.6-0.4
-0.2
-0.2 0
-0.4
-0.6
0.20.4
0.60.8 -1-0.8
1

1
0.5
-1

-0.5

0
0

0.5

-0.5
1-1

21

.
2 2
+ 2 = 1
2

(0, 0, ) ().
2 2
+ 2 =0
2

.
{gnuplot: splot 1/cos(u), tan(u), v}
2 2
2 =1
2

4
2
0
-2
-4

4
2
0
-2
-4
4

2
-4

-2

-4

-2

-2

-4

-2

-4

.
{gnuplot: splot tan(u), 1/cos(u), v}
2 2
2 = 1
2

.
2 2
2 =0
2

.
{gnuplot: splot u, u**2, v}
2 =

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
25
20
-6

-4

15
-2

10
2

5
60

-6

-4

-2

60

10

15

20

25

30

3.5

22

( = 0). {gnuplot: splot u, v, 0}


( = 0). {gnuplot: splot u, 0, v}
1

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

0.5
0
-0.5
-1

-6

-4

-2
x

6-6

-4

-2

1
0.5
-6

-4

-2
x

0
0

-0.5
6-1

( = 0). {gnuplot: splot 0, u, v}

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

-1

-0.5
x

0.5

1-6

-4

-2

4
y

6
-6

-4

-2
x

6-6

-4

-2

4
y

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_31-11#Coordinate_systems
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_coordinate_system#Cartesian_coordinates
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobian_matrix_and_determinant

4.1

2 + 2 = 2 ( = ):
= cos(),
= sin().

2 2
+ 2 = 2 ( = ):
2

= cos(),
= sin().

(Jacobian) ,
.
1.5

1.5

0.5

4.2

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

r = 0.5
= 135

0.5

1.5

-1.5
-1.5

r = 0.4
= 90
r = 0.3
= 45

r = 0.6
= 180

r=1
= 360

r = 0.7
= 225
r = 0.9
= 315

r = 0.8
= 270

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

: ,
. .
( = ):
= cos(),
= sin(),
= .
( = ):
= cos(),
= sin(),
= .

24
z

z
y

0.5

0.5

r
x

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1
1

0.5
-1

4.3

0.5
-1

-0.5

-0.5

-0.5

0.5

0.5

1-1

-0.5
1-1

: ( ),
; , .
, , (
).
2 + 2 + 2 = 2 ( = 2 sin()):
= sin() cos(),
= sin() sin(),
= cos().
0 .
( ):
= 0 cos(),
= 0 sin().
( ):
0 = sin(),
= cos().
z
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2

-0.2

z
y
y

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

r0

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2

r0
r

r0

1-0.2

0.6 0.8
0.2 0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1-0.2

x
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

2 2 2
2 + 2 + 2 = 2 ( = 2 sin()):

= sin() cos(),
= sin() sin(),
= cos().

: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_vector,
Dot_product, Cross_product, Triple_product.

5.1

= 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 = .
:

= | || | cos() cos() =

|
|| |
: :

2
2
2
| | = 1 + 2 + 3 , | | = 21 + 22 + 23 .
( ).
.

5.2

1 2

1 3
2 3

+
= .

= 1 2 3 =
1 2
1 3
2 3
1 2 3
:

|
| = |
|| | sin().
.
.

5.3

( )
( ) :

1 2 3


= (
)
= 1 2 3 = .
1 2 3
, .
( ).


: . (,)
: . (), . ()
: . (), . ()
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