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QUESTIONS What are three basic operations in cryptography? What is hash function and what can it be used for? How can a security framework assist in the design and implementation of a security infrastructure? Explain the followingConfidentiality Integrity Availability Non repudiation Explain "Meet me" using hill cipher with key 9457(row wise). Also decrypt the same. Explain S-DES. What do you mean by Network Security? Explain security principle Explain two primary ways by which we can convert plaintext message into ciphertext. What is a counter mode? List various advantages of CTR mode over other modes of operation. What is an intruder? Explain its classes. What are the intrusion detection techniques? Describe conventional encryption model. What are the requirement for secure use of conventional encryption. What are key principles of security? Also discuss the services provided by information security systems. What are block cipher modes of operation? hOW PHYSICAL SECURITY of computer and information system is achieved? Explain the principles of information security. Define : DNS Spoofing Differentiate between : (i) Steganography and cryptology (ii) Private and Public Key (iii) Cryptanalysis and Cryptography Short note: (i) Transposition Cipher (ii) DES

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QUESTIONS What are six components of public key infrastructure(PKI)? What drawbacks to Symmetric and assymetric encryption are resolved by using a hybrid method like diffie-hellman? What is the difference between digital signatures and digital certificates? What is the fundamental difference between symmetric and asymmetric encryption? What is public key cryptography? Explain. Bring out the difference between conventional encryption and public key encryptio Explain the schemes for distribution of public keys. Explain Diffie-Helllman key exchange algorithm. For a Diffie-Hellman scheme with a common prime q=11 and a primitive root alpha=2: (i) Show that 2 is a primitive root of 11. (ii) If user A has public key YA=9, what is A's private key XA ? (iii) If user B has public YB=3, what is shared key K,shared with A? What do you mean by Blum-Blum Shub (BBS) generator? Explain automatic key distribution for connection oriented protocol What are the main feature of RSA algorithms? If p = 7 and Q=17, then calculate value of e and d and also encrypt SIR. Explain Diffie-Helllman key exchange algorithm. Calculate secret shared key if h=17, g=13, x=3 and y=7. Also explain man-in-middle attack. Briefly Explain elliptic curve encryption/decryption using suitable examples. Define simple hash functions using bitwise XOR. Explain direct digital signature. What are some threats associated with a direct digital signature scheme? What do you mean by DSS? Give in detail the digital signature algorithm. How security is depend on key size of encryption algorithm? Also explain limitation of key size and its trade-off with bandwid What is Steganography? What are various drawbacks and advantages of steganography What do you mean by RSA algorithms? In a public key system using RSA, you intercept the cipher text C=11 sent to user whos What do you mean by birthday attack? Explain why the security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large numbers. Perform encryption and decryption using the RSA algorithm for the following: (i) p=17, q=31,e=7,m=2 (ii) p=11, q=13,e=11,m=7 Compare the following: (i) Direct Digital signature vs arbitrated digital signature What are the principle elements of public key crptosystem? What are the roles of the public key and private key? Short note: Hash functions On the elliptic curve over the real numbers y2=x3-36x, let P=(-3.5,9.5) and Q=(-2.5, 8.5). Find P+Q and 2P. What requirements must a public key crypto system fulfil to be a secure algorithm? Briefly explain each of them with exampl Differentiate between : Direct Digital signature and arbitrated digital signature Short note: RSA Algorithm What property does a digital signature provide that an HMAC does not? Discuss. How does Asymmetric key encryption ensure "Non repudiation" ? Explain with an example. In RSA , if p and q are 3 and 7 respectively, the encryption exponent e is 11, find the following: (i) The least positive decryption exponent d (ii) Public and private key (iii) Cipher text when the plain text P is encrypted using the public key Describe how digital signature can be used for ensuring message integrity in distributed System? How does Digital signature prevent e-mail spoofing? Explain Short Note:

Elliptic Curve Cryptography Digital Signature Standard

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QUESTIONS IP sec can be used in two modes. What are they? Using a modern pentium 4 computer, how long would it take to crack a cryptosystem that is based on a 32-bit key,56 -bit key Explain what is authentication and its types. What do you mean by transport layer security(TLS)? Explain. Explain SHA-1 algorithm. What basic arithmetic and logical functions are used in SHA-1? Explain Secure Socket Layer architecture and the SSL Record protocol. Give the format of encapsulating security payload. Explain its Transport and Tunnel modes. Give the difference between version 4 and version 5 of kerberos. What are kerberos designed for? Explain operation of kerberos. Justify utility of kerberos for online real time applications. What do you mean by kerberos? Compare it with digital signature. What do you mean by strength of MD5? Compare MD4 and MD5. Why are message authentication code derived from a cryptographic hash function being preffered over authentication code d What do you mean by IP security? Compare MDS vs SHA-1 What entities constitute a full kerberos environment and what is a realm? Differentiate between : MD5 and SHA-1 What are the applications and benefits of IP security and explain the archeitecture of IP security? Consider the following threat to web security and describe how each is counteered by a aparticular feature of SSL? (i) Brute Force Cryptanalysis Attack (ii) Replay Attack (iii) Packet Sniffing (iv)Password Cracker (v) SYN Flodding How IP sec can be used to create VPN? Explain message authentication code

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QUES. NO. QUESTIONS 1 What security protocols are predominantly used in web based electronic commerce? 2 Explain the terms phishing attacks,SQL injection attacks and format string attacks. 3 What security protocols are used to protect e-mail? 4 What is the most popular symmetric encryption system used over web? 5 Explain various software threats. 6 What are typical phases of a worm or virus operations? What are the different types of viruses? 7 Explain: 8 E-mail viruses 9 Trojan horses 10 Zombie 11 Logic Bomb 12 Trap doors 13 Morris worm 14 What are the types of malware? Briefly explain each of them. 15 Define: Worm

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QUESTIONS What are web security problems? Explain. Explain intrusion detection system (IDS). What is the role of application level gateway? Explain the functionality of firewalls. What are the characteristics of firewall? What are various firewall configurations? Explain. Also give limitations of firewalls. Explain the following terms: Masqueradeor Misfeasor Clandestine user Base rate fallacy Explain statistical anomally detection method for intrusion detection. What do you mean by secure electronic transactions? Explain in brief. Explain: (i) Characteristics of Firewall (ii) Bastion Host (iii) Digital imune System (iv) Shifting (v)Ethical Hacking What is Honey -pot? Compare the types of security threats faced in using the web. What do you mean by Firewall design principles? Also explain its characteristics. What do you mean by multilevel security? Also explain trusted systems What are weanesses of a packet filtering router? What do you mean by application level gateway and circuit level gtateway? What are the various web traffic security approaches? What are intruders? Explain benefits that can be provided by an intrusion detection. Short note: Trusted Systems What do you mean by firewalls? Explain filter based and proxy based firewalls.

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