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Pythagorean triple finder (TI-86): Finds all primitive Pythagorean triples with hypotenuses within a given range. Pythagorean triple generator (TI-86): Gives the Pythagorean triple generated by two numbers. List of Primitive Pythagorean Triples Pythagorean Triples Project

I. Introduction

The Pythagorean theorem carries the name of the Greek mathematician Pythagoras, who lived in the 6th century BCE, though the theorem had been known elsewhere for some time before. Although the Pythagorean theorem arose in geometry, we will be concerned strictly with the number theoretic properties of the Pythagorean equation, using the connection to geometry only as a jumping off point. Theorem 1 (Pythagorean Theorem and converse) Let x, y, and z be positive reals. Then z is the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with side lengths x, y, and z if and only if (1) A Pythagorean triple is an ordered triple (x, y, z) of three positive integers such that x2 + y2 = z2. If x, y, and z are relatively prime, then the triple is called primitive. Let us first note the parity of x, y, and z in primitive triples, that is their values modulo 2. Since 02 0, 12 1, 22 0, and 32 1 mod 4, the only squares modulo 4 are 0 and 1. Letting X = x2, Y = y2, and Z = z2, we have the following solutions to X + Y Z mod 4: 0+00 0+11 1+01 (1 + 1 2 is not a solution because 2 is not a square modulo 4.) The first of these solutions corresponds only to nonprimitive triples x, y, and z are all divisible by 2. Therefore any primitive triple corresponds to one of the other two solutions. In either case, Z is odd, and exactly one of X and Y is always odd. Thus z is odd, and exactly one of x and y is odd. To establish a convention, let us say that x is always odd and y is always even, since otherwise we can rename the variables of a given triple to obtain this. A primitive Pythagorean triple therefore has a

unique representation (x, y, z), where y is even and x and z are odd. Let a = z x and b = z y. Substituting for x and y into (1) gives

or

In fact, only one of these values for z holds. The solution results in x or y being negative, so we take (2)

Define

(3)

Solving

(4)

The generators r and s will provide the basis of study for primitive triples. Most texts use the more common generators m and n, where x = m2 n2, y = 2mn, and z = m2 + n2. Though I believe r and s as defined above are more natural choices (since they emphasize symmetry in the generators and not in the side lengths), the analysis is the same in the end, as m = r + s and n = r.

Theorem 2 A Pythagorean triple is primitive if and only if r and s are integers, s is odd, and (r, s) = 1. Proof. Let (x, y, z) be a primitive Pythagorean triple (with even y). The quantities z + y and 2y are relatively prime because z and y are relatively prime in primitive triples and z + y is odd. We

have

so z + y and z y are relatively prime (because any common divisor would also divide 2y). The Pythagorean relation (1) implies that

so z + y and z y must both be squares because they are relatively prime. Therefore is an odd integer. By (4), r is also an integer because

is even. Now that we have established that r and s are integers for primitive triples, we will show that they are relatively prime. Let m = (r, s). Since m divides both r and s, m divides x, y, and z by (3). But since x and y (in particular) are relatively prime, this means m = 1. For the converse, assume s is odd and (r, s) = 1. Because , we have that (r, z) = 1, since any divisor of both r and z is a divisor of s but r and s are relatively prime. By the definition of r, x + 2r2 = z, so similarly (x, z) = 1. Therefore the triple (x, y, z) is primitive. Corollary The number of primitive Pythagorean triples is countably infinite. Proof. Since each relatively prime pair (r, s) with odd s gives a unique primitive triple, it suffices to consider the cardinality of the set S = {(r, s) | r and s are relatively prime and s is odd}. This set is infinite since for each odd s there is at least one r relatively prime to s, but S is no larger than the rationals (by mapping S injectively into the rationals by sending (r, s) to r / s). Therefore the set S is countably infinite.

Next we will prove several results regarding triples modulo 3, 4, and 5. Remark 1 If (x, y, z) is a primitive Pythagorean triple, then y 0 mod 4, z 1 mod 4, exactly one of {x, y} satisfies k 0 mod 3, and exactly one of {x, y, z} satisfies k 0 mod 5. Proof. From (3), y = 2r (r + s). Either r is even or r + s is even (since s is odd), so 4 divides y. As shown above, the only squares modulo 4 are 0 and 1. Since z = r2 + (r + s)2 is a sum of two squares and s is odd, there are two possibilities. If r is odd then z 1 + 0 1 mod 4, and if r is even then z 0 + 1 1 mod 4. The only squares modulo 3 are 0 and 1. With X = x2, Y = y2, and Z = z2, the congruence X + Y Z

mod 3 has the following solutions: 0+00 0+11 1+01 The first case is nonprimitive, so either x2 or y2 is divisible by 3, and this implies that either x or y is divisible by 3. The only squares modulo 5 are 0, 1, and 4, so X + Y Z mod 5 has solutions (up to permutation of X and Y): 0+00 0+11 0+44 1+40 Again, the first case is nonprimitive so exactly one side is divisible by 5. To convince yourself that these are the only three generalizations we can make like this, experiment with different prime moduli with the Tripes Modulo p JavaScript program. Larger numbers (7, 11, 13,...) yield no obvious statements about the divisors of the respective triple members.

Definition Two triples are siblings if they have a common hypotenuse. The first such pair of primitive triples stem from the hypotenuse 65 (332 + 562 = 632 + 162 = 652): x y z r s

13 84 85 6 1 77 36 85 2 7 If we search larger numbers, we can find larger sets of siblings. There are, for example, four primitive triples with hypotenuse 1105: x 817 943 1073 y z r s 1

744 1105 12 19 9 23 4 29

In general, the number of primitive Pythagorean triples of hypotenuse n is dependent on the number of prime factors of n that are congruent to 1 modulo 4. It turns out that only powers of 2 appear as these numbers. The numbers in the sequence 5, 65, 1105, 32045, 1185665, 48612265, 2576450045,... are the smallest hypotenuses that harbor 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,... primitive Pythagorean triples. The terms are given by multiplying successive primes that satisfy p 1 mod 4:

2277 31964 32045 122 8283 30956 32045 109 17253 27004 32045 21093 24124 32045 23067 22244 32045 27813 15916 32045 31323 6764 32045 86 74 67

46 127 19 159

32037

716 32045

2 177

But why do primitive triples form only in sets of 2, and what is the connection to primes p 1 mod 4? Let us look at the prime factors of n more closely. By examining the data, it appears that the prime factors of each hypotenuse satisfy p 1 mod 4. Further, each prime hyptenuse holds only one triple, and the more factors a hypotenuse has, the more triples it holds. Specifically, if (n) is the number of distinct prime factors of n and all of the prime factors of n satisfy p 1 mod 4, then n appears to be the hypotenuse of exactly 2(n) 1 primitive Pythagorean triples. (If n has any prime factors p 2 or 3 mod 4, then n is not the hypotenuse of any primitive triples.) In light of this, it makes sense that the first sibling sets of order 2 will be found on the multiples of the first primes that satisfy p 1 mod 4. Of course, explaining where 2(z) 1 arises is more tricky. Some experimentation shows that, for n with the above criteria, (3) has 2(n) 1 positive integral solutions for r and s. We are interested in solutions to n = r2 + (r + s)2 where r and r + s are relatively prime (or, equivalently, (r, s) = 1). To see what is happening, first let us quote a theorem attributed to Fermat, the proof of which we leave to a book covering introductory number theory. Theorem 3 (Fermat) Let p be a prime such that p 1 mod 4. Then p can be expressed uniquely as a sum of two squares. By "uniquely" it is meant that there exist unique integers a and b such that 0 < a < b and p = a2 + b2. Using Fermat's theorem, we decompose a number n into is prime factors and write each prime as a sum of two squares. We then make use of the Fibonacci identity, (5) by which we can write the product of sums of two squares again as the sum of two squares. Multiplying together the sum of squares representations for the prime factors of n gives a sum of squares representation for n, and since the hypotenuse of a primitive triple is a sum r2 + (r + s)2 of two squares (by (3)), we will be able to generate primitive triples of hypotenuse n simply by knowing the sum of squares representations of the prime factors of n. For example, for n = 1105,

This solution corresponds to r = 23, s = 1, which generate the triple (47, 1104, 1105). The other solutions to 1105 = r2 + (r + s)2 can be obtained by changing the order in which the factors are multiplied together and by reversing the sum of squares expressions of some factors.

Actually counting the solutions that we get in this way is cumbersome, however. The system is not a very natural one, and "Fibonacci multiplication" is in fact not even associative. Much better are the Gaussian integers complex numbers of the form a + bi, where a and b are ordinary integers and i2 = 1. By Fermat's theorem, each prime factor p 1 mod 4 of n conveniently has the representation p = a2 + b2 = (a + bi) (a bi). Multiplying two Gaussian integers exactly results in the Fibonacci identity:

Rather than multiplying sum of squares representations, we will multiply Gaussian integers. We obtain the four solutions to 1105 = r2 + (r + s)2 by multiplying (Gaussian) "halves" of its (integer) factors p = (a + bi) (a bi) . For each of the three primes dividing 1105, we have two choices of which Gaussian factor to take. Complex conjugation of a solution does not change the sum of squares representation, so we can choose the first such factor to have positive imaginary part. The solutions are then

By multiplying each by its complex conjugate, these correspond to the four representations of 1105 as a sum of two relatively prime squares (and thus to the four primitive triples with hypotenuse 1105). Proposition Let n > 1 be a natural number whose prime factors all satisfy p 1 mod 4. Then the number of distinct ways that n can be expressed as a sum a2 + b2 of two squares with a and b are relatively prime is 2(n) 1, where (n) is the number of distinct prime factors of n. This result allows us to count triples of a given hypotenuse: Because z has 2(z) 1 sum of squares representations when all its factors satisfy p 1 mod 4, there are 2(z) 1 distinct solutions to (3). In each of these solutions, r and s are relatively prime (because r + si is not divisible by any integer prime) and s is odd (because an even s results in an even z). Therefore z is the hypotenuse of exactly 2(z) 1 primitive Pythagorean triples. Not only does it allow counting, however, but it provides an algorithm to actually construct the triples given the sums of square representations of its prime factors. A simple program can readily compute, for example, the 214 = 16384 primitive triples with hypotenuse n = 16880412096169215173498945, which is the product of the first fifteen primes that satisfy p 1 mod 4.

Until now we have considered triples based only on z; with what we have learned it is now easy to understand them sorted also by x or by y (where "P" denotes a prime leg and "P" denotes a prime power leg):

x 3 P

y 4

z 5

r s 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1

x 2 1 2 1

r s 3

y P P

z 5 17 13 37

r s 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 5

x 45

y 2 8

z 53

r s 2 5

20 29 2

3 4 15 8 5 35 63 21 99 7 1 2 1 2

5 P 12 13 7 P 24 25 9 P 40 41

22 22 1 1 0 1 0

19 2 5 8

19 1 1 7 3

2 26 26 1 1 P 3 4 5 1 2 P 31 31 1 1 5 2 3 2 2 P 36 36 1 1 7 4 5 3 2 42 42 1 1 P 9 0 1 4 3 48 48 1 1 P 1 0 1 5 3 3 3 3 56 65 4 3

25 3 P 25 1 1 5 2 7 5 77 3 6 85 2 7

1 5 1 P 60 61 1 1 6 1 P 84 85 3 1 5 1 5 8 17 1 3

1 P 1 65 7 6 2 0 2 0 2 4 29 2 3

32 3 3 6 9 4 0

32 1 1 5 7 41 4 1

10 1 9 1 25 3 1

39 4 9 0 11 4 7 4 48 4 3 4

40 1 1 1 9 12 2 9 5 48 1 2 5 1

11 11 7 1 2 3

1 14 14 8 1 P 7 4 5 1 18 18 9 1 P 9 0 1

54 54 1 1 4 5 6

14 2 3 4

14 1 1 5 1

Very similar to the case of z, the prime factors of a given x determine how many triples have x as a leg (without the restriction that the prime factors must satisfy p 1 mod 4): If x 1 mod 2, then x is a leg of 2(x) 1 primitive triples. And if y 0 mod 4, then y is a leg of 2(y) 1 primitive triples. Theorem 3 Let (n) be the number of distinct prime factors of a natural number n > 1. The number of primitive Pythagorean triples of which n is a member is

(8)

We now generalize the problem of counting to include nonprimitive triples. (For a nonprimitive triple, r and s are irrational unless the common factor of the triple is a square.)

with pi 1 mod 4 for all i and qj 3 mod 4 for all j, then z is the hypotenuse of exactly

(9)

Pythagorean triples. Proof. Let z be a natural number. Since primes q 3 mod 4 and the prime 2 do not contribute to primitive triples, these factors in z do not contribute to the total number of triples with hypotenuse z (i.e., removing all of these factors from a given z results in an integer that is the hypotenuse of the same number of triples as z). Therefore it suffices to consider natural numbers of the form with pi 1 mod 4 for each i. The number of divisors of z that can be written as a product of powers of exactly j primes is j(1,2,...,k), the jth elementary symmetric polynomial on the exponents 1, 2, ..., k. Each such divisor d of z is the hypotenuse of 2(d) 1 = 2j 1 primitive triples, by Theorem 3, and so contributes 2j 1 nonprimitive triples of hypotenuse z by simply multiplying by z / d. Thus, by a property of the elementary symmetric polynomials,

For example, 3142875 = 3 53 172 29 is the hypotenuse of exactly T(3142875) = ((2 3 + 1) (2 2 + 1) (2 1 + 1) 1) / 2 = 52 Pythagorean triples. Corollary Let z = Q p1 p2 ... pk > 1 be a natural number with exactly k distinct prime factors satisfying p 1 mod 4 and no factor of the form p2 for any prime p 1 mod 4. Then the number of Pythagorean triples with hypotenuse z is T(z) = (3k 1) / 2.

In this section we will be interested in triples that satisfy certain conditions. Sometimes a triple that has a pair of sides with only a unit difference is referred to as a "twin." For example, the triples (3, 4, 5), (5, 12, 13), (7, 24, 25), and (21, 20, 29) each have a pair of sides that differ by 1. By browsing data, one finds that triples satisfying z y = 1 are more common than those satisfying |x y| = 1. There are infinitely many of both types, but the latter much less densely populate the world of primitive triples. To find triples with b = z y = 1, we solve x2 + (z 1)2 = z2 for z to find (10) Any odd x then gives such a triple. Substituting this into the definition of r gives

5 12 13 2 1 7 24 25 3 1 9 40 41 4 1 11 60 61 5 1 13 84 85 6 1 Moreover, the sequence of y values is 4 times the triangular numbers, since, by (3),

This same procedure can be used for any valid a or b value because the resulting equation will always be linear in z. From (3) we see that the nth triples with fixed a and b values are given by

(11)

We now turn to primitive triples with the restriction that |x y| is a given difference d. The following is a list of the first few triples for which d = 1. (The first twenty-five of these triples are listed.) x 3 21 119 697 y 4 20 120 696 z 5 29 169 r 1 2 5 s xy 1 3 7 1 1 1 1 1

985 12 17

To find the general form of these triples we must resort to a new technique, for the equation x2 + (x + d)2 = z2 does not lead to a natural assignment of an index to one of the generators. But since r and s display simple patterns in fixed-a and -b triples, we might suspect that they will for fixedd triples also. We notice two (among many) recurrence relations that seem to hold: rn = rn 1 + sn 1 and sn = rn + rn 1. Substituting for sn 1 we find

Second-order recurrence relations have solutions of the form rn = kn. Thus, from the recurrence relation,

Both of these values for k satisfy the recurrence, but we want the first and second terms to be 1 and 2 (the r values of the first two triples). Since a linear combination of the two values for k also satisfies the recurrence, we construct the general solution for rn,

and solve for the constants we introduce by specifying the first two terms:

We find that

Then

(12)

Clearly the difference of xn and yn is always 1. Intuitively, we know that as n gets large, the triples (xn, yn, zn) approach the side lengths of a right isosceles triangle, the ratios zn / xn and zn / yn approaching 2. It is interesting, however, to examine the ratio sn / rn as n gets large; one finds that not only does this ratio also approach 2, but sn / rn is the nth continued fraction convergent to 2. This connection becomes apparent when we approach the solution of |x y| = 1 triples another way and obtain a Pell equation, the solutions of which are these convergents:

or

Because the sequence sn / rn are the continued fraction convergents to 2, rn and sn are relatively prime. Moreover, s is odd, and so r and s generate a primitive triple. When d 1, the situation is slightly more complicated. Take d = 7 for example. The first few triples are: x 5 15 55 65 297 403 1755 2325 y 12 8 48 72 304 396 1748 2332 z 13 17 73 97 425 565 r 2 1 3 4 s xy 1 3 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 11 9 13

2477 19 27 3293 22 31

At first glance it appears that these r and s values hardly form nice recurrence relations. But in fact they do; there are two "threads" of the same relation (with different initial values) running through these triples, more easily seen when they are sorted: x 5 55 297 1755 y 12 48 304 1748 z 13 73 425 r 2 3 s xy 1 5 7 7 7 7 7 x 15 65 403 2325 y 8 72 396 2332 z 17 97 565 r 1 4 s xy 3 5 7 7 7 7 7

8 11

9 13

2477 19 27

3293 22 31

Therefore, as above, the general solution is (13 ) So the first thread of triples for which |x y| = 7 is given by

In general, x y = s2 2r2, and the only numbers of this form, for r and s relatively prime and s odd, are those whose prime factors all satisfy p 1 mod 8. These primes comprise the sequence 7, 17, 23, 31, 41, 47, 71, 73, 79, 89, 97,... As representations as a sum of two squares were counted by factoring over Z[i] in Section III, we can count "fundamental" representations of a given number as s2 2r2 = (s + r2) (s r2) by factoring over Z[2]. For example, 1 = 12 2 12. The ring Z[2] has infinitely many units, given by (1 + 2)n for integers n. Call a representation s2 2r2 fundamental if s r or s 2r. Each fundamental representation s12 2r12 gives rise to a thread of triples generated by sn + rn2 = (s1 + r12) (1 + 2)n for nonnegative

integers n. Each prime factor contributes two fundamental solutions, so we have the following result. Proposition 2 Let d be a natural number whose prime factors all satisfy p 1 mod 8. Then the number of fundamental representations of d in the form s2 2r2 for positive integers r and s is 2(d), where (d) is the number of distinct prime factors of d. (Alternatively, we could have considered sequences of triples that are infinitely long in both the positive and negative directions. In this case, there are 2(d) 1 (double-sided) threads for a given d, and the case d = 1 must be separated from the others (since it still has only one thread, which is redundant). In this setup, however, we obtain triples with negative legs.) Each fundamental solution (r1, s1) gives rise to the sequence of triples

For example, let d = 2737 = 7 17 23. The fundamental representations for these prime factors are

Thus 2737 has the following fundamental representations (where we divide each product by a power of 1 + 2 to obtain fundamental representations, in this case the first power):

References

Relevant links:

Pythagorean Triple on MathWorld Right Triangle on MathWorld NOVA: The Proof: NOVA's documentary about Andrew Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem Power Page: accurately subtitled "Interesting Stuff About Powers of Numbers" Pythagorean Triplets: all about triples that satisfy z y = 1

Project Expositions Pascal's Simplices Pythagorean Triples Regular Polygons Regular Polyhedra Regular Polytopes Sums of Consecutive Powers Mathematical Induction Modular Arithmetic Polynomial Equations Investigations Calculators Popular Books Eric S. Rowland

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