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EXPERIMENT NO.

1
OBJECT:
To study the diffusion of a solute in a liquid solvent (distilled water).

APPARATUS & CHEMICALS:


The apparatus and chemicals used in this experiment are, Unit QDTL of Edibon. Sodium chloride. A chronometer.

THEORY:
An irreversible flow originates from the high concentrations to the low ones, when in a multicomponent thermodynamics system there is gradient of concentrations. This flow is called diffusion. The diffusion tends to give back the system to its balance state, of constant concentration. The diffusion is described by Ficks law. Binary mixing will be only considered for the exposition of such law, although similar developments are possible for multi-component mixings. The solution concentration will be determined indirectly from the conductivity datum. The expression used will be the following,

Where, dk/dt =conductivity variation speed regarding time. M N x D V CM DA = Molarity of the saline solution. = Number of capillary. = Capillary length. = Diameter of capillary. = Distilled water volume. = Conductivity variation. = Diffusivity coefficient, it is the slope between time and conductivity.

PROCEDURE:
The cell is filled up with NaCl 2M solution. Fill up completely the cell and clear up any excess from the solution of the cell outside and from the capillary ends using filter paper. Put the cell in its position within the receptacle of the measurement unit with distill water (approximately 1.5L or 2L). The distilled water level must surpass 5 mm above the diffusion cell. Afterward, the magnetic stirrer will be turned on at a not very quick speed. Later, the conductimeter will be turned on and the user will start measuring the conductivity , for example, every 30 seconds.

RESULTS:
Numbers of capillary Diameter of capillary Capillary length Distilled water volume =N= =D= =x= =V=

REFERENCE GRAPH:

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5

CONCENTRATION (M) 0.0625 0.03125 0.015625 0.0078125 0.00390625

CONDUCTIVITY (ms) 15.76 8.76 5.05 3.03 1.94

18 16 CONDUCTIVITY (K) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.063 0.031 0.016 0.008 0.004 CONCENTRATION (M)

CALCULATIONS:
S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TIME 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 CONDUCTIVITY 1.227 1.719 2.213 2.703 3.225 3.695 4.197 4.617 5.014 5.164 5.164 5.164 MOLARITY OF SOLUTION 0.000015 0.002111 0.004216 0.006303 0.008527 0.010530 0.012669 0.014458 0.016149 0.016788 0.016788 0.016788 Cm dk/dt

0.492 0.494 0.49 0.522 0.47 0.502 0.42 0.397 0.15 0 0

4.467E-08 8.956E-08 1.328E-07 1.914E-07 2.128E-07 2.735E-07 2.611E-07 2.757E-07 1.083E-07 0 0

6 5 CONDUCTIVITY (k) 4 3 2 1 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 TIME (t) 210 240 270 300 330

CONCLUSION: