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Emerging Issues in Automotive Power Electronics

John Shen Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Michigan-Dearborn johnshen@umich.edu 313-593-5525

5/20/02

2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Outlines
Overview of Power Electronics Power Semiconductor Devices Power Electronic Circuits Automotive Case Studies Emerging Issues

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Overview of Power Electronics


What is power electronics? General applications Automotive applications Classification of power processors and converters Interdisciplinary nature of power electronics

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

What Is Power Electronics?


Power electronics: to control and process electrical energy efficiently. Power electronics: an enabling technology for computer, communication, industrial control, and automotive technologies.

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

General Applications
Power Electronics Applications Computer Communication Consumer Power supplies Battery chargers Refrigeration Lighting & heating Industrial Commercial Utility systems Arospace Military Transportation Automotive

Pumps/compressor Machines & tools Process control Factory automation

HVDC Static var comp. Renewable engr. Energy storage

Aircarft Space shuttle Satelite Military

EV/HEV Battery chargers Load control Trains & Metro

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

(Source: Hitachi)

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Voltage and Current Ranges


1000
Power Supplies Traction Automotive

HVDC

Current (Amperes)

100 10
Analog

Lighting Disk Drives

1
Telecommunication Display Drives

0.1 0.01 1
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Digital

10

100

1000

Motor Control

10000
7

Voltage (Volts)
2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Automotive Applications
E/E Architecture
Multiplex wiring Active power management Telematics Mobile media

Chassis & Safety


Electrical Power steering ABS Traction control Active suspension Airbag ignitor

Body Electronics
Headlamp control HID Power seat Power door Power window Windshield wiper Defrosting/defogging Climate control Instrumentation

Powertrain
Fuel injection Ignition Transmission control Cooling fan control Electronic throttle control Alternator rectifier Voltage regulator Integrated starter generator EV/HEV traction drive Battery charger 2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn 8

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Military Vehicle Applications


Hybrid electric drivetrains to improve fuel economy Fuel cell: drivetrain and auxiliary power Next generation electrical architectures: 42V and beyond X-by-wire applications Mobile power generation
110V AC 220V AC 12/24/42V DC ..

Central Power Processing Unit

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Classification of Power Converters


AC/DC converters (rectifiers) DC/AC converters (inverters) DC/DC converters AC/AC converters
Input: AC or DC Converter Output: AC or DC

Control
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Interdisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

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Power Semiconductor Devices



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Ideal power switches Diodes: rectifying, freewheeling, and clamping Power MOSFET: the low voltage load driver IGBT: the high voltage power switch Power ICs and emerging device technologies SiC technology Power losses and thermal management
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Examples of Using Power Switches


Loads: lamps, solenoids, motors, ignition coils, etc.

i + v Load i High-Side Switching


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Load - v +

Low-Side Switching
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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Ideal Power Switches


Block large forward and reverse OFF voltages when OFF (i=0). Conduct large currents when ON (v=0). i=0 Switch between ON and OFF instantaneously. + v Ease of control Rugged and reliable Low EMI during switching
5/20/02 2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

ON

i + v=0 -

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Non-Ideal Characteristics: Breakdown Voltage Rating


A real switch can only block a certain amount of voltage (voltage rating) when OFF. The switch will conduct currents if the limit is exceeded (breakdown). Most switches can only block voltages in one direction.
OFF

i + v -

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

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Non-Ideal Characteristics: Current Rating and Conduction Loss


A real switch always has some resistance and can only conduct a certain amount of current (current rating) when ON. The switch will overheat if the limit is exceeded. Conduction loss: p = i*v=i2*R
ON

i + R v -

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

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Non-Ideal Characteristics: Switching Speed and Switching Loss


A real switch takes a certain amount of time to switch between ON and OFF states (switching time or switching speed). Switching loss: p(t) = i(t)*v(t)
i ON OFF ON i ON OFF ON

v
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v
Ideal Switch

toff

ton
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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Real Switch

Semiconductor Power Devices



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Diode Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Power MOSFET IGBT GTO Thyristor Power ICs and SmartPower devices SiC Devices
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Diodes
Diode: a two-terminal uncontrollable device Automotive applications: rectifying (alternator), clamping (transient voltage suppression), and freewheeling (electric drivetrain inverters)
I P N I +
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Reverse (OFF)

V
ON voltage

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Switching Characteristics
Reverse recovery (turn-off) Forward recovery (turn-on) Fast and soft
Real diode current i ON Recovery time trr OFF

Ideal diode current

IRM

Recovery charge Qrr


20

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Zener Diodes
Operating in breakdown mode Used as transient voltage suppressors (TVS) to reduce EMI or provide load dump protection.

+ v -

Circuits

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Power MOSFET
A three-terminal controllable device Driver (or switch) for low-voltage loads Voltage ratings: 30-60V for 14V systems and 75100V for 42V systems

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DC Characteristics
Threshold voltage Vth Drain-source breakdown voltage V(BR)DSS Drain-source resistance RRDSON

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Switching Characteristics
Charge and discharge capacitors No charge storage time

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Safe Operating Area (SOA)

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Avalanche (UIS) Energy Capability


The ability to survive the harsh automotive EMI environment

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MOSFET Device Structure

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Rdson and Current Rating


Current rating is determined by the Rdson and thermal design of the MOSFET. Larger die size=>lower Rdson @ higher cost Trench MOSFET technology provides lower Rdson.

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Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)


Excellent power switch for HV circuits (>500V) lower conduction loss and high current capability Medium switching speed (<20KHz) Three-terminal device similar to MOSFET Used in ignition coil drivers and EV/HEV traction inverters

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IGBT vs. MOSFET


IGBT: Bipolar (two carriers) Conductivity modulation Medium speed MOSFET: Unipolar (single carrier) Ohmic resistance High speed

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DC Characteristics
Collector (C) iCE Gate (G) + vGE Emitter (E) + vCE -

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DC Comparison: IGBT vs. MOSFET

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Switching Characteristics

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Switching Comparison: IGBT vs. MOSFET

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Short Circuit Capability of IGBT


The ability to survive a short-circuit condition for a certain amount of time. Extremely high voltage, current, and power.

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

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Power ICs & SmartPower Devices


Power ICs or SmartPower devices integrate power devices with control, diagnostic, and protective functions into a single chip or package. Tradeoff between function integration & cost Usually limited to moderate power applications

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Example: Smart High-Side Switch

(Infineon BSP752T) 5/20/02 2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn 37

Emerging Power Semiconductors


MOS-gated thyristors (MCT, MCCT, etc.) SiC technology

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SiC: Electrical Properties


Wide bandgap semiconductor material (SiC: 3-3.3eV vs. Si: 1.12 eV) High electric breakdown field (SiC: 1.5-4e6 V/cm vs. Si:2-8e5 V/cm) High carrier mobility High thermal conductivity Specific on-resistance of a SiC device is 1/300th that of an equivalently rated Si device Ideal for high power, high temperature, and high frequency applications (e.g., electric drivetrains)
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SiC: Materials
Many polytypes: 6H, 4H, 3C, etc. 4H-SiC for high power devices (higher electron mobility) 50mm 4H- and 6H-SiC wafers available and 75mm SiC wafer capability demonstrated. Micropipe defect is the limiting factor Both bulk and expitaxial SiC wafers needed

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

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SiC: Power Device Demonstration


Diodes: 2.5-4.5V, Vf of 4V at 1000A/cm2 Power MOSFET: 550V, 25mO-cm2 Thyristor: 900V, Vf of 3.9V at 625A/cm2 SiC BJT, IGBT, low-voltage CMOS devices have also been demonstrated

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SiC: Technical Challenges


Materials: 75-100 mm bulk and epi wafers with low defect density at a reasonable price Oxide interface quality and reliability Ion implantation processes: high temperature implantation and annealing Sheet resistance and contact resistance for p-type SiC doping Companion packaging technology
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Analysis of Switch Power Losses: A Simplified Case


PTOTAL = PCONDUCTION + PSWITCHING PCONDUCTION = VON I 0 tON TS

PSWITCHING = PS (ON ) + PS (OFF ) 1 PS (ON ) = Vd I 0t(ON ) f S 2 1 PS (OFF ) = Vd I 0t(OFF ) f S 2

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Analysis of Switch Power Losses: More Realistic Case


Interaction between the main switch and freewheeling diode Nonlinear waveforms Time-varying PWM duty cycles Temperature-dependent device parameters

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Thermal Management
Switch power losses heat up the devices. Maximum junction temperature is the limiting factor on the power handling capability of devices. Selection of appropriate device ratings and proper thermal design are critical steps in power electronics design.

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Electric Loads & Passive Components


Capacitors Inductors Transformers Lamps Solenoids, coils, and relays Motors

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Capacitors

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Inductors

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Transformers

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Lamps
Conventional Halogen lamps are resistive loads. New automotive lighting technologies such as High Intensity Discharge (HID) and LED need special drive circuits. Challenge with 42V systems: A higher bus voltage requires a higher filament resistance to maintain the same power. This results in a thinner and/or longer and less reliable filament. PWM can solve the problem.
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Solenoids, coils, and Relays


Solenoids, coils, and relays are inductive loads in nature. Voltage spikes occur when the load currents are interrupted.

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Motors
AC Synchronous Asynchronous 3 -Induction DC Field Winding PM small car motors

SRM Stepper

DC field winding Lundell alternator

PM Brushless DC

Squirrel Cage

Wound Rotor

Shunt

Hybrid

Series

ISG EV/HEV

ISG EV/HEV

regular starters

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An Electromechanical System

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Power Electronic Converters



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Overview Steady state analysis Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) concept High-side, low-side, and H-bridge configurations AC/DC rectifiers DC/DC converters DC/AC inverters Controls of power electronics
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Overview of Power Converters


Power electronic circuits move through different topologies as power semiconductor switches open and close Time-domain circuit analysis
Power Flow Input Filter Network Circuits Containing Switches Power Converter
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Source

Output Filter Network

Load

Steady State Condition


In power electronic circuits, semiconductor switches constantly change their ON or OFF status. A steady state condition is reached when the circuit waveforms repeat with a time period T.
T

Time
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Average Power and RMS Current


Instantaneous power Average power RMS current Power factor
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p (t ) = v(t )i (t ) Pav = 1 T 0 p(t )dt T 1 T

I RMS =

i 2 dt

PF =

Pav = cos I RMSVRMS


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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Steady State Analysis


Exploiting steady state conditions is extremely useful in analyzing power electronic circuits For capacitors: 1 v (t ) = v (t T ) + i ( ) d average current <iC> = 0 C
t C C t T C

vC (t ) = vC (t T ) < iC >=

For inductors: average voltage <vL> = 0

1 t iC ( )d = 0 T t T 1 t vL ( )d L t T

iL (t ) = iL (t T ) + iL (t ) = iL (t T ) < vL >= 1 T

t T

vL ( )d = 0
58

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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)


In steady-state operation, power switches turn on only for part of each period T. Duty cycle D=TON / T PWM approximates analog waveforms with pulses, allowing more efficient operation of the switches. Low-pass filters are used to smooth the waveforms PWM is the principal converter technique
T + v 5/20/02

TON

2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

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High-Side, Low-Side and H-Bridge Configurations


Vbatt Vbatt Vbatt Lamps, Motors, Solenoids On / Off Control Motors, Bi-directional Solenoids Vbatt

low side
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high side

H-bridge
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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

AC/DC Rectifier
Diode circuits analysis: - Assume a state for each diode in the circuit - Simplify and analyze the circuit - Check if the calculated diode voltages or currents being consistent with the assumption

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Single-Phase Bridge Rectifier

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Three-Phase Full-Bridge Rectifier

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DC/DC Converter
Step-down (buck) converter Step-up (boost) converter Step-down/step-up (buck-boost) converter H-bridge converter

DC/DC converters pass energy directly or indirectly (through energy-storage elements) between input and output during part of each cycle
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Step-Down (Buck) Converter


vo =v oi vL Vo =<v oi > < vL > < vL >= 0 1 T Vo = v oi ( ) d T 0 T 1 tON = V dd + 0d tON 0 T t = ON Vd = DVd T

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Step-Down (Buck) Converter (Cont)


< v L >= 0 (V dVo )tON + ( Vo )(T tON ) = 0 Vo = tON Vd = DVd T

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Step-Up (Boost) Converter

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Step-Up (Boost) Converter (Cont)


< vL >= 0 V dtON + (V dVo )(T tON ) = 0 1 Vo = Vd 1 D

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Buck-Boost Converter

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Buck-Boost Converter (Cont)


< vL >= 0 V dDT + (Vo )(T DT ) = 0 D Vo = Vd 1 D

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H-Bridge DC/DC Converter

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H-Bridge DC/DC Converter: Bipolar Switching


Vcontrol > vtri: TA+ & TB- ON vcontrol < vtri: TA- & TB+ ON

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H-Bridge DC/DC Converter: Unipolar Switching


Vcontrol > vtri: TA+ ON -vcontrol > vtri: TB+ ON

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DC/DC Converter Applications


Adjustable-speed DC motor drives: electric engine fan, pinch-free power window, smart windshield wiper, etc. 42/14V conversion PWM lighting

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DC/AC Inverter
AC motor drives: EPS or drivetrain Single-phase square-wave inverter Single-phase PWM inverter Three-phase PWM inverter

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Single-Phase (H-Bridge) Inverter

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Switch Control
Valid switch combinations are those that do not short or open the load Only four valid switch states for H-bridge inverters: - TA+ & TB- ON, TA- & TB+OFF => Va=Vdc - TA- & TB+ ON, TA+ & TB- OFF => Va=-Vdc - TA+ & TB+ ON, TA- & TB- OFF => Va=0 - TA- & TB- ON, TA+ & TB+OFF => Va=0
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Square-Wave Switching

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PWM Switching (Bipolar)


When vcontrol>vtri, TA+ & TB- ON When vcontrol<vtri, TB+ & TA- ON

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PWM Switching (Unipolar)


When vcontrol>vtri, TA+ ON When -vcontrol>vtri, TB+ ON

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Three-Phase Inverter

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PWM Switching of Three-Phase Inverter

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Control of Power Electronics

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Separation of Time Scales

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PWM Control
PWM is the main technique in power converters

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Automotive Power Electronics: Case Studies


Fuel injector solenoid driver circuits IGBT ignition coil driver circuits Electric power steering systems 42V PowerNet Electric/Hybrid drivetrains

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Fuel Injection System

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Fuel Injector Solenoid Driver Circuit

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Freewheeling Diodes for Protection


V+ V + SUPPLY Inductive Load

Free Wheeling Diode FWD

MCU or CMOS IC PWM Generator Common Common

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Dual-Level Current Control


A large current passes through the inductive solenoid load which quickly opens the valve for fuel release. A lower current is then needed to maintain (or hold) the fuel injector valve until completion.
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Fast Recovery Solenoid Driver Circuits


The electromagnetic energy of an inductive load sometimes needs to be cleared quickly. A higher voltage is needed to bring the load current V + SUPPLY to zero faster. V + SUPPLY V = L di/dt

Common

Common

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Fast Recovery Solenoid Driver Circuits (Cont)


VDC 100-130
14 to 53 Volts
Hi-Side Drive

Direct In Combustion Cylinder Fuel Injection Solenoid

1 per Cylinder Boost Converter

Switches: Power Fet"s IGBT's Current Sense

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Ignition Coil Driver Circuits Distributor Systems

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Ignition Coil Driver Circuits Distributorless Systems

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Ignition Coil Driver Circuits Coil-on-Plug (COP) Systems

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IGBT Ignition Driver Circuit


Primary voltage: 350-600V Secondary voltage: 20-40KV

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Inductive Switching

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Detailed Waveforms

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Electric Power Steering Systems


Motor Controller Motor Hydraulic tubes Pump I sense Sense

Valve

hydraulic cylinder

EHPS Electro Hydraulic Power Steering Brushless or Induction Motor drives pump ECU controls motor driving the hydraulic pump.
Motor Controller

EPS, Electric Power Steering Or Direct-Assist Power Steering Electric motor provides assistance ECU controls motor driving the steering column

Steering wheel

electric motor Torque sense

Angle sense

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EHPS and EPS


EHPS
Steering Wheel Steering Column Gear Box Hydraulic Pump Steering Wheel

EPS
Steering Column Gear Box

Wheel Position Angle / Torque

Pressure Sensor

Motor

Wheel Position Angle / Torque

Motor

Power Stage Microcontroller Microcontroller Current Sense Vehicle Speed 2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Power Stage Current Sense

Vehicle Speed 5/20/02

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EHPS Power Electronic Circuit


PM MOTOR, SINGLE POWER TRANSISTOR LOW-SIDE PWM DC/DC DRIVE
+12 Ignition
RESET

+ 12V POWER RELAY


Supply Voltage Sense Input

5V REG LVI COP

PM Motor Pressure Sensor Vehicle Speed Sensor Osc Diagnostic Port 5/20/02 2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn MCU
8 bit Core A/D PWM SCI N-FET Drain Voltage Sense Input + FWD PWM Output D

PUMP

Gate Drive

Power Stage
S

G N-FET

com. 101

EPS Power Electronic Circuits

Brushless DC or Induction Motor Drive

Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

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42V PowerNet
100,000

Power Requirement (Watts)

10,000

Growth Rates: 1920-40 6%/yr 1940-70 2%/yr 1970-90 6%/yr Projected 1990-2030: w/o Proplsn. 5%/yr w/ Proplsn. 8%/yr

w/ Propulsion

40 kW 15 kW

wo/ Propulsion
1.8 kW

1,000

100 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030

Year

1900s 6V Systems

1950s 12V Systems

1960s 12/24V Heavy Duty

1970s 12V Systems 5V Electronics

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Ve h ic le Bu s Vo lt a g e (1 4 V S u p p ly)
0 9 11 1 4 .3 16 20

42V Voltage Specification

Min S t a rt Vo lt. Min . Vo lt En g . OFF Ma x Vo lt En g . ON Ma x Cla m p Vo lt .

S e m ic o n d u c to r Re q u ire m e n ts
0 5 14 18 22

Min . Op . Vo lt No m in a l Op . Vo lt Ma x. Op . Vo lt Min Ze n e r Cla m p Vo lt.

Ve h ic le Bu s Vo lt a g e (4 2 V S u p p ly)
0 25 33 43 52 56

Min S t a rt Vo lt. Min Vo lt . En g . OFF Ma x Vo lt En g . ON Ma x Vo lt CLD 5

S e m ic o n d u c to r Re q u ire m e n ts

42

52

58

Min . Op Vo lt No m in a l Op . Vo lt Ma x Op Vo lt Min Ze n e r Cla m p Vo lt

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42V Electrical Architectures

42V
Mot. Alt C1 B1 Str. B2 C2
Electronic Module

42V
B1

Alt.

Str.
C1

Mot

14V

14V
B2 C2
Electronic Module

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42V Integrated Starter Generator (ISG)

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42V/14V DC/DC Converter


S1

42V

PWM Controller
Control Input

S2

14V

Bi-directional conversion (42V <=> 14V) 1-2KW output power


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42V Distribution Circuits


ISA
42V Battery 42V Loads

CS51022 14V DC DC CS51022 14V DC DC CS51022 14V DC DC Low Power 5V, 3.3V DC DC

Other 14V Loads (including other lamps)

Right Lamps

Left Lamps

Type C Semiconductors (ECU. Logic, Memory, etc.)

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42V Multiplexing Network and Smart Junction Box (SJB)

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Electric and Hybrid Drivetrains


Bus voltages: 42-300V Power ratings: 5-100KW Motors: induction, BLDC, SRM Power converters: IGBT or MOSFET PWM inverters Control design: P- or DSP-based vector control

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Power Conversion

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Three-Phase PWM Inverter


3 legs / 6 active switches Fixed switching frequency Variable switching duty cycle Both frequency and amplitude of phase voltages controllable KEY: switching sequence of active switches

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Control of AC Motor Drives


Scalar Control (V/f ) Control stator voltage amplitude and frequency Simple implementation Acceptable steady state characteristics Poor transient response Poor transient efficiency Vector Control (Field Oriented ) Control stator voltages and currents represented by vectors Accurate control for both steady state and transient operations High efficiency Complex implementation (DSP and sensors)
113

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Advanced Vector Control for AC Motor Drives

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Emerging Issues in Automotive Power Electronics


Power losses and efficiency Inverter power module reliability Novel thermal management technology Cost reduction with better power bus regulation EMC concerns 42V or higher voltage electrical architectures

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Power Losses and Conversion Efficiency


Power losses of power switching devices, conversion efficiency, and thermal management are the key design issues for electric drivetrains and other automotive applications (e.g., EPS) New circuit topologies: cascade or soft switching inverters Selecting the right switching devices: a complex design trade-off Peak vs. normal power design dilemma (ratio as high as 10:1): load leveling approach

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Reliability of Power Electronic Modules


A key element toward making electric propulsion more practical is the development of cost-effective, high-efficiency integrated power electronic modules. The reliability of these power modules will be of paramount importance for the success of various EV/HEV concepts due to the critical safety concern for drivers/passengers, stringent quality assurance requirements of vehicles, and extremely harsh underhood automotive environments. In addition, automotive electric drivetrains, due to their wide dynamic range of operation and diverse usage profiles, will likely impose a more stringent reliability requirement on the power modules than any other industrial motor control applications.

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Reliability and Failure Mechanisms


Elevated junction temperatures (150oC max) Thermal-mechanical stress and fatigue: wire bond lift-off, solder joint cracks, Si chip cracks, etc. Vibration Wirebond Connector Contamination Defects
Si Chip Si Chip

Case

Cu Direct Bond Copper Substrate

Baseplate

Solder Joints

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Research in Power Module Reliability


Improving Understanding on Module Reliability Requirements Developing Realistic Reliability Testing Standards and Lifetime Projection Models Enhancing System Diagnostic Capability with Early Warning Fault Detection (embedded diagnostics/prognostics for power electronics)
Drive Cycle & Usage Analysis Inverter Module Power Loss Analysis Inverter Module Thermal Analysis Inverter Module Stress Analysis

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Drive Cycle and Power Loss


CITYNEW Drive Cycle S pe e d Trace
3000
240 220

IS G P owe r Los s Trace

2500

200 180

2000
P owe r Los s (W) 160 140 120 100 80

RP M

1500

1000

500
60

0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Time (s ) 5000 6000 7000

40 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Time (s ) 5000 6000 7000

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Novel Thermal Management


Removal of heat from power electronics is the limiting factor for cost, compactness, and reliability. The disparity between the peak load capability and average load operation of automotive power electronics severely lowers the hardware utilization efficiency and sets a limit on cost reduction and reliability enhancement. Peak power load is typically several times higher than average power load, but only lasts for a short period of time ranging from a few tens of milliseconds to a few seconds.
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Phase Change Thermal Management


Transitions between solid, liquid, and gaseous phases typically involve large amounts of energy compared to the specific heat. For example, one gram of water absorbs merely 4.18 joules of heat to increase its temperature by 1oC, but amazingly 2260 joules of heat when vaporized even without any change in temperature. Phase change materials can be used as passive heat moderators in power electronic packages.
Conventional Power Electronics Module
Silicon Case

Proposed Power Electronics Module


Case Silicon Phase Change Heat Moderator

Heat Sink Peak Load Junction Temperature Average Load

Heat Sink

Conventional Power Module Phase Change Power Module

Time

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Improve Power Bus Voltage Regulation to Reduce Cost of Automotive Power Electronics
4 3.5 S pe cific On-Res is tance (mohm-cm2) 3
2.5 NORMALIZED COS T

The ore tic al limit of S ilicon Dis cre te P ower IC

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

1.5

0 0 20 40 60 80 Brea kdown Voltage (Volts ) 100 120

15

20

25

30

35 40 45 DC VOLTGAE RATING (V)

50

55

60

65

Power MOSFET Ron vs Voltage Rating


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Capacitor Cost vs Voltage Rating


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2nd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium Dr. John Shen, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Automotive Power Systems

Auto mo tive Po we r S ys te ms 12V Car/Lig ht Truc k 24V He avy Truc k 42V Po w e rNe t

Batte ry Vo ltag e

No minal Ope rating Vo ltag e 14V

Maximum Ope rating Vo ltag e 24V (J ump S ta rt) 34V

12 V

Maximum Dynamic Ove rvo ltag e _

Po we r Ele c tro nic s Vo ltag e Rating 60-40V

24 V

28V

80-60V

36 V

42V

50V

58V (Loa d Dump)

100-75V

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Transients in Automotive Environments


Time Duratio n 200ms to 400ms Caus e Vo ltag e Amplitude <125V Ene rg y Le vel >10J Fre quenc y of Oc c urrenc e Infre que nt

S te ady S tate <320us 200ms 90ms

1ms <50ns

Loa d dump (dis conne ction of ba tte ry while a t high cha rging) Fa ile d voltage re gulator Inductive load s witching Alte rna tor field de ca y Ignition puls e, ba tte ry disconne cte d Harnes s coupling ES D

18V 80-300V -100 to -40V <75V

_ <1J <1J <0.5J

Infre que nt Ofte n Ea ch turn-off <500Hz Infre que nt Ofte n Infre que nt

<200V <15kV

<1J <10mJ

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Proposed Voltage Rating Changes


12V SYSTEMS 24V SYSTEMS

0-60V

VOLTAGE RATING OF POWER ELECTRONICS

0-60V

VOLTAGE RATING OF POWER ELECTRONICS

4-40V TVS CLAMPING VOLTAGE 24-27V

4-60V TVS CLAMPING VOLTAGE 34-37V

6-24V

NORMAL BUS VOLTAGE

6-24V

10-34V

NORMAL BUS VOLTAGE

10-34V

Existing Voltage Rating

Proposed Voltage Rating

Existing Voltage Rating

Proposed Voltage Rating

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Introduction of A New Class of Transient Voltage Suppressors: MOSTVS


Much less variations in clamping voltage than conventional Zener diodes or MOVs over a wide range of current and temperature. Proven power MOSFET technology Provide cost benefits in 12V, 24V, 42V or higher voltage systems
BTB Poly Diodes

D
DC Power Bus

Module 1

Module N

G
Rg

Central Suppressor

Distributed Suppressor

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Electromagnetic Compatibility Concerns


EMC compliance is a major challenge for automotive power electronic systems Large common-mode inverter currents due to coupling paths to ground through the motor and housing Large di/dt and dv/dt, while minimizing switching losses, generate broadband radiated and conducted emissions. RF characteristics of power semiconductor devices(especially bipolar types) are neither fully investigated nor considered in the EMC consideration. Conducted immunity concerns: load dump, negative transients, etc.
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Electrical/Electronic Architectures

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Electrical Architectures: Power Generation and Distribution


Active power management: multiple power sources, loads, energy storage elements, multiplexing, etc. System stability may become a major concern. Arc fault detection is critical for 42V or higher voltage electrical distribution systems: Distributed current sensor network and DSP to detect arc fault signatures Arc fault detection should be an integral part of electrical architecture design rather than using add-on approach
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Summary
Power electronics will become more pervasive in automotive systems. Device and circuit technology advances need to be made to meet performance, reliability, and cost targets. Many critical technical challenges and barriers need to be overcome.

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