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Chemistry Level 2 Name ___________Page1 Worksheet: acids and bases (Chapter 20, p. 576) 1.

Classify these as an Arrhenius acid ( starts with H) or Arrhenius base (ends in OH). Then name each one. (p 577-579, 594-596) a. Ca(OH)2 b. HNO3 c. HC2H3O2 d. H2SO4 e. KOH f. HCl

2. Complete the equations for the ionization of these Arrhenius acids or bases in water: ex: HBr + H2O > H3O+ + Br or KOH > K+ + OH a. HNO3 + H2O > c. HCl + H2O > b. NaOH > d. Ca(OH)2 >

3. Identify the following as either Bronsted- Lowry acids (loses an H+ ion) or bases (gains an H+ ion). Then identify the conjugate acid and the conjugate base. (p. 596-598) Example: HCl + H2O ---> Cl+ H3O+ HCl lost an H+ to become Cl-

acid

base

conj base

conj acid e. f. g. h.

H2O gained an H+ to become H3O+ NH3 + H2O <---> NH4+ + OH C2H3O2 + H2O <---> OH + HC2H3O2 H2PO4 + H3O+ <---> H3PO4 + H2O HCO3- + H2O <---> H2CO3 + OH

a. HNO3 + H2O ---> H3O+ + NO3 b. H2SO4 + OH ---> HSO4 + H2O

c. H2PO4 + OH <---> HPO42 + H2O d. HCO3 + H2O <---> H3O+ + CO32

4. What is the conjugate acid of the following: (particle made by adding an H+ ion) ex. NO3 __HNO3__ c. Cl _________ __Br____ _________ a. C2H3O2 _________ d. HCO3 a. NH4+ d. HCO3 _________ b. CO32 e. H2PO4 b. H2CO3 e. H2PO4 _________

_________ 5. What is the conjugate base of the following: (particle made by removing an H+ ion) ex. HBr c. H2O _________ _________ _________ _________

5f. What does 4d and 5d tell you about HCO3 ? (hint: p. 598)

6. Identify the following as weak acids, strong acids, weak bases or strong bases: (p.600-604) HCl _______ NaOH ________ HC2H3O2 _______ formic acid _____ H2CO3 ______ H2SO4 ______ NH4OH _______ H3PO4 _________ Ca(OH)2 ________ KOH _______ Citric acid _____ HNO3 _______

7. Rank these acids from strongest (1) to weakest (6) using the following table. (The strongest acid has the largest Ka). (p. 600-604) Name Formula Rank Ka a. Formic acid HCHO2 _____ 1.8 x 104 b. Oxalic acid H2C 2O4 _____ 5.6 x 10 2 (first H) c. Benzoic acid d. Nitric acid e. Carbonic acid f. Acetic acid HC6H5CO2 HNO3 H2CO3 HC2H3O2 _____ _____ _____ _____ 6.3 x 105 strong 4.3 x 107 (first H) 1.8 x 105 Have the highest OH concentration?____

8. Which of the solutions (Q 7) would have the Lowest pH? ____ Highest pH? _____ Which would be the least acidic?____ 9. Hannah and Michelle and are testing the pH of some solutions using the following indicators. Here are their results.( lab, p.589-592) pH = 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Bromo green yellow yellow green blue blue blue blue Neutral red purple purple purple red yellow yellow yellow Indigo carmine blue blue blue blue blue gray yellow a. What is the pH of a solution that is blue in bromo green and indigo carmine, and yellow in neutral red?____________ b. What is the pH of a solution that is yellow in bromo green, purple in neutral red and blue in indigo carmine?__________ c. What is the pH of a solution that is green in bromo green? ________ Do you need more information to tell you this pH? d. Which indicator and key color could Keith and Andrew use to predict if a solution has a pH of 11? e. Sheila decides she only wants to use one indicator to see if a solution is neutral. Could she do this? How? f. Duy spills all the indigo carmine at his station. Could Aliie and Katie tell if a solution is very basic using just the bromo green and neutral red?

Acid Base Puzzle

ACROSS CLUES 1. _______ solutions have pHs less than 7 2. The name of H2SO4 is _________ acid 3. Acids taste ________ 5. Bases taste ________ 9. Litmus is _____ in a base 10. _____ gas in water is a weak base used as a cleaner 11. pH of a solution with 104 M [OH] 14. The pH scale is a ______ scale 15. A base has a pH ______ than 7 16. A solution with pH = 12 has a lot of ____ ions 18. An acid like acetic acid that only slightly ionizes in water 22. CO32 is the _____ base of HCO3 23. A substance that changes color at different pH values 24. An acid with one ionizable hydrogen

DOWN CLUES 1. The name for the acid in vinegar 2. An acid like HCl that is completely ionized 3. Bases feel __________ 4. Bromo blue is ______ in a neutral solution 6. A moderately acidic pH 7. Colorless in acid, pink in a base. 8. A substance that can act as an acid or a base 9. A substance that gains an H+ ion 12. H3PO4 is a ______ acid (has 3 Hs) 13. pH 4 has ______ OH ions than pH 1 14. pH 10 is ______ basic than pH 14 16. Acidic solutions have a lot of ________ ions 17. An acid with 2 Hs = a ________ acid 19. [H+] = [OH] in a _____ solution 20. Many cleaners are ________ solutions 21. Most fruit juices have pHs _____ than 7

Name ______________________________ Page 3 Level 2 Chemistry: pH worksheet (p. 582-589) pH = log [H+] pOH = log [OH] In water solution: pH = 14 pOH

1. Calculate the pH of the following solutions. (concentrations are given in Molarity). a. [H+] = 1 x 105 d. [H+] = 0.1 g. pOH = 5.1 j. [OH] = 1 x 104 m. [H+] = 3.0 x 105 b. [H+] = 1 x 107 e. [H+] = 0.001 h. pOH = 7.8 k. [OH] = 1 x 107 n. [H+] = 4.5 x 108 c. [H+] = 1 x 109 f. pOH = 13 i. [OH] = 1 x 1011 l. [OH] = 0.00001 o. [H+] = 7.5 x 102

p. [H+] = 8.0 x 1012

q. [OH] = 5.0 x 105

r. [OH] = 4.0 x 1013

For the following problems:

[H+] = 10 pH [OH] = 10 pOH (10 to the pH power, NOT 10 minus pH)

[H+] = 1 x 1014 [OH]

2. Calculate the [H+] of the following. (answers given in Molarity) (p. 588-589) a. pH = 13 e. [OH] = 1 x 105 b. pH = 9 c. pOH = 6 f. [OH] = 4.0 x 107 d. pOH = 2 g. [OH] = 2.0 x 105

h. pH = 4.30

i. pH = 10.52

j. pH = 8.12

k. pOH = 1.40

l. pOH = 10.90

m. pOH = 7.78

Level 2 Worksheet

page 4

Answers to page 3 1a) 5; b) 7; c) 9; d) 1; e) 3; f) 1; g) 8.9; h) 6.2; i) 3; j) 10; k) 7; l) 9; m)4.52; n) 7.35; o)1.12; p) 11.10; q) 9.70; r) 1.60 ; 2 a) 1013 ; b) 109; c) 108 ; d) 1012; e)109 ; f) 2.5 x108 ; g) 5 x 1010 ; h) 5.0 x105 ; i) 3.0 x1011; j) 7.6 x109 ; k) 2.5 x1013 ; l) 7.9 x104 ; m) 6.0 x107 3. What is the pOH of the following? pOH = log [OH] a. pH = 4.00 b. [OH] = 2.0 x 105 pOH = 14pH c. [H+] = 1.0 x 1013

4. What is the [OH] of the following? [OH] = 10pOH a. pOH = 3.35 b. pH = 10.93

(10 to the pOH power) c. [H+] = 2.5 x 1012

{3a) 10.00 ; b) 4.70 ; c) 1.00 ; 4a)4.5 x104 ; b)8.5 x 104 ; c) 4.0 x 101}