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S&S of Salicylism:

tinnitus sweating HA dizziness resp alkalosis

PTT range for a pt on coumadin therapy:

60-80 sec

What are gold salts used for and what are two potential adverse effects of gold salts:

Gold salts are antirheumatics.

Watch for renal toxicity and stomatitis/mouth sores

propylthiouracil is for what and what are its effects:

PTU is for treating hyperthyroidism. - lower serum T4

- lower HR

Toradol (ketorolac):

- for short term pain - not anti-inflammatory - if used with opioids, analgesia is enhanced and adverse opioid effects are eliminated

2 major adverse effect of ACE inhibitors:

- dry cough - hyperkalemia

Lipitor (atorvastatin) adverse effects:

- hepatotoxicity - myopathy (check, CK lvls) - peripheral neuropathy

therapeutic digoxin levels should be:

0.5-2.0 ng/ml

3 major adverse effects of SSRI's:

- sexual dysfxn - weight gain - serotonin syndrome (confusion, agitation, anxiety, tremors, hallucin.)

how should tetracyclines be taken?

- on an empty stomach - avoid all antacids, iron, milk, etc

what is echinacea used for?

immune-stimulation

what's Compazine used for?

- non-psychotic anxiety - schizo

- severe N/V

what's Tigan used for?

post-op N/V associated with gastroenteritis

digitalis toxicity can be caused by a combo of digoxin and what serum electrolyte imbalances?

- low K and Mg - high Ca

T/F. Lactated Ringer is a colloid solution.

False. It's a crystalloid solution.

what are the 2 types of antihistamines and what do they do?

- H1-blockers decrease smooth muscle constriction - H2-blockers decrease gastric secretions

Is benadryl a 1st-gen or 2nd-gen antihistamine? and what does that mean?

Benadryl is 1st-generation, which means anticholinergic symptoms such as dry mouth & drowsiness.

What class is Allegra and Claritin?

2nd-generation antihistamine

besides pain, what else do narcotics suppress?

cough

what's Benadryl used for?

- nasal congestion - cough - sleep problems - itching

Contraindications for Benadryl:

- asthma - liver problems - pregnancy, breastfeeding - narrow-angle glaucoma - alcohol, other depressants

Side effects of Robitussin:

dizziness and drowsiness

T/F. Robitussin suppresses respirations as well as coughs.

False. It suppresses coughs but not respiration. It's a nonnarcotic, but pts should avoid alcohol and narcotics and other depressants.

Clonidine (Klonopin) lower BP and belongs to what general class?

it's an alpha-agonist.

what class is Albuterol?

beta agonist T/F. Respiratory depression is an adverse effect of Diazepam (Valium).

True.

taking viagra and ImDur together can cause what adverse effect?

severe hypotension

when treating asthma, do glucocorticoids induce bronchodilation?

No. Glucocorticoids decrease airway inflammation only.

therpeutic INR range when on Warfarin:

3-4

normal PTT range:

30-45 sec

normal PT range:

12-15 sec

1 pint = how many fl oz?

1 pint = 16 fl oz

how many tablespoons are in 8 fluid oz?

16 Tbsp = 8 fl oz = 1 cup

2 Tbsp = 1 fl oz

T/F. leukotriene receptor antagonists can be used to treat exercise-induced asthma in kids.

False.

how does Singuilar and other leukotriene receptor antagonists help to treat asthma?

- reduces inflammation in lungs - decreases mucus, airway edema, and bronchoconstriction

how do you calculate the child dose from the adult dose?

child dose = adult dose x kid's BSA / 1.73

how many mls are in 1 tablespoon?

1 Tbsp = 15 mls

1 quart = how many liters?

1 quart = 1 liter

how many fluid ounces are in cup?

8 fluid ounces = 1 cup

1 fluid ounce equals how many ml?

30 ml

frequent use of what can increase risk of DM, cataracts, and osteoporosis in elderly?

glucocorticoids

what's the antidote for heparin?

protamine sulfate

what's the antidote for digoxin?

digibind

what are 6 side effects to digoxin?

- yellow vision - photophobia

- bradycardia - drowsiness - N/V - anorexia

what's the drug that causes a flat line then fixes the dysrhythmia?

Adenosine

T/F. dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dobutamine can all be used to correct hypertension.

False. They can all be used to correct hypotension.

T/F. thiazides (HCTZ) can cause hyperglycemia.

True.

what must you verify before giving an osmotic diuretic?

UO

T/F. You can take ampicillin if you're allergic to penicillin.

True.

what adverse effects do you watch for when on Levoquine (Levofloxacin?

tendon rupture

Acyclovir (for Herpes), when taken with what can increase risk for nephro- and neuro-toxicity?

aminoglycosides

what do you always give along with Rifampin to prevent peripheral neuropathy?

vit B6

3 adverse effects of vancomycin?

- redman syndrome - nephrotoxicity

- ototoxicity

what to monitor for when taking TMP, SMZ, or bactrim?

- monitor UO - increases bleeding w/ warfarin

Sulfonamides (TMP, SMZ, bactrim, septra) are used for ppl allergic to what?

penicillin

who should not take tetracyclines?

- kids under 8 - pregnant ppl - ppl with liver or renal disease

2 adverse effects of cephalosporins:

- nephrotoxicity - bleeding

what contraindicates cephalosporin use?

penicillin allergy

quinolones are the 1st line tx for what?

anthrax

what class is Ciprofloxacin?

quinolone

how should you take quinolones?

- empty stomach - no antacids or iron (decreases absorption of quinolones)

name 2 adverse effects of amionoglycosides:

- nephrotoxicity - ototoxicity

what is used to treat myxedema coma?

- cortisol - glucose - IV synthroid - electrolytes

WHat can be used to treat thyroid storm?

- beta blocker - iodine - amiodarone

What's Nitroprusside for?

to treat hypertensive emergencies

- immediate vasodilation - BP increases as soon as it is discontinued

What is given to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemia or insulin shock?

- Dextrose 50% IV bolus - Glucagon (IV, IM, SQ) for severe cases, or when Dex50% is unavailable or no IV line

which drug is usually administered with epinephrine for anaphylactic shock?

Benadryl - antihistamine (to treat histamine-induced tissue swelling)

Dopamine is used to treat hypotensive shock states not caused by what?

not cause by hypovolemia

What F&E imbalance is sodium bicarbonate used to treat?

metabolic acidosis

What is indicated for thyroid storm, A-fib, pulseless V-tach and V-fib?

Amiodarone

besides its use as a topical anesthetic, what else is Lidocaine used for?

treat ventricular dysrhythmias (also local anesthetic effects on heart)

what's the treatment of choice for anaphylactic shock?

epinephrine

Caster oil can be used as what?

laxative

What's Zofran for?

antiemetic, esp for chemo

What is Phenergan?

what do you watch out for?

- pre-op or post-op antihistamine antiemetic

- watch for EPS and resp depression What OTC drug can prevent traveler's diarrhea by coating the GI and absorbing toxins?

Pepto-Bismol

T/F. Metallic taste and edema are side effects of lithium therapy.

True.

Lithium therapy depletes which electrolyte?

sodium

T/F. Asian and Hispanic pts need higher doses of antidepressants.

False. THey need lower doses.

antidepressants are contraindicated for what condition?

glaucoma (due to anticholinergic effects)

Prozac belongs to what drug class?

SSRI antidepressant

T/F. Prozac may cause suicidal ideations.

True.

MAOI's can cause hypertensive crisis if used with what?

- CNS stimulants / sympathomimetics - tyramine rich foods - ginseng and st. john's wort

Elavil belongs to what drug class? what should you watch out for?

- class: TCA (antidepressant) - watch for EPS, anticholinergic effects, cardiac toxicity, and ortho hypotension

Anticholinergics and Dopaminergics for treating Parkinsons is bad for what eye condition?

glaucoma

How should you take Levodopa?

PO, with food

what class of drugs can improve cognitive fxning of alzheimers?

ACE inhibitors (e.g. Cognex/Tacrine)

What oral problem can Dilantin cause?

gingival hyperplasia

What is a common urine characteristic when taking anticonvulsants?

red-brown pee

What do you give first to control seizure activity? followed by what else?

- Ativan for immediate control of convulsions (sedative) - followed by Dilantin for maintenance (antiepileptic)

antidote for narcotics is:

narcan (naloxone)

generic names for narcotic antagonists begin with what?

"Nal-" (e.g. Naloxone, Naltrexone)

how do narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics differ in terms of their target system?

- narcotic acts on CNS - nonnarcotic acts on PNS

inhalation (general) anesthetics often end in what?

"-thane" or "-rane"

Lidocaine (Xylocaine) belongs to what class?

local anesthetic (allows consciousness)

Diprivan (Propofol) and Versed (Midazolam) belong to what class? What do you monitor for Diprivan?

- Class: short-term IV anesthetic - For Diprivan, monitor for microbial growth (it's lipid based)

Ambien is a sleep aide that belongs to what class?

a non-benzo sedative

Ativan and Valium belong to what drug class? and are used for what?

- class: benzodiazepine sedative - used to treat anxiety and insomnia - often ends in "-am" or "-pam"

what's the antagonist to benzodiazepines?

Ramazicon (flumazenil)

Dexedrine belongs to what class? and is used to treat what?

- class: amphetamines - treats ADHD and obesity (anorexiant) Adderall belongs to what class? and is used to treat what?

- class: amphetamines - treats ADHD and narcolepsy

T/F. Dopamine is an adrenergic.

True.

what other drug do you avoid when taking Albuterol?

MAOI's (to avoid hypertensive crisis)

T/F. Anticholinergics can be used to treat Parkinson tremors.

True.

T/F. Atropine is a cholinergic.

False. It's an ANTIcholinergic and increases the HR.

fight or flight drug class:

adrenergics

T/F. Reglan is a cholinergic.

True. It speeds up GI motility.

inhalants are stimulants or depressants?

CNS depressants

What are the general actions of cannabis?

- slows down brain - speeds up cardio & resp systems

MOOD: relaxation and disinterest

is opioid a stimulant or depressant?

depressant

is amphetamine a stimulant or depressant?

stimulant

Is nicotine a stimulant or depressant?

stimulant

is cocaine a stimulant or depressant?

stimulant

T/F. Singulair is only for prophylactic and maintenance use, not for acute asthma attacks.

True.

What class is Singulair? and what does it do?

- Leukotriene receptor antagonist - inhibits smooth muscle contraction

Given an anticholinergic, a B-agonist, and a steroid, what order should they be given to treat COPD?

1. beta-agonist 2. anticholinergic 3. steroid

Atrovent belongs to what class?

anticholinergic

Methylxanthines such as caffeine and theophylline can increase the risk of which 2 toxicities?

- digitalis toxicity - lithium toxicity

T/F. sympathomimetics, anticholinergics, and glucocorticoids can all be used for COPD Tx.

True.

besides being the antidote to Tylenol overdose, what else does Mucomyst do?

liquifies and loosens thick mucus (mucolytic)

what class is Albuterol?

beta agonist

Clonidine (Klonopin) lower BP and belongs to what general class?

it's an alpha-agonist.

T/F. Robitussin suppresses respirations as well as coughs.

False. It suppresses coughs but not respiration. It's a nonnarcotic, but pts should avoid alcohol and narcotics and other depressants.

Side effects of Robitussin:

dizziness and drowsiness

Contraindications for Benadryl:

- asthma - liver problems - pregnancy, breastfeeding - narrow-angle glaucoma - alcohol, other depressants

what's Benadryl used for?

- nasal congestion - cough - sleep problems - itching

besides pain, what else do narcotics suppress?

cough

What class is Allegra and Claritin?

2nd-generation antihistamine

Is benadryl a 1st-gen or 2nd-gen antihistamine? and what does that mean?

Benadryl is 1st-generation, which means anticholinergic symptoms such as dry mouth & drowsiness.

what are the 2 types of antihistamines and what do they do?

- H1-blockers decrease smooth muscle constriction - H2-blockers decrease gastric secretions

T/F. Lactated Ringer is a colloid solution.

False. It's a crystalloid solution.

digitalis toxicity can be caused by a combo of digoxin and what serum electrolyte imbalances?

- low K and Mg - high Ca

what's Tigan used for?

post-op N/V associated with gastroenteritis

what's Compazine used for?

- non-psychotic anxiety - schizo - severe N/V

what is echinacea used for?

immune-stimulation

how should tetracyclines be taken?

- on an empty stomach - avoid all antacids, iron, milk, etc

3 major adverse effects of SSRI's:

- sexual dysfxn - weight gain - serotonin syndrome (confusion, agitation, anxiety, tremors, hallucin.)

therapeutic digoxin levels should be:

0.5-2.0 ng/ml

Lipitor (atorvastatin) adverse effects:

- hepatotoxicity - myopathy (check, CK lvls) - peripheral neuropathy

2 major adverse effect of ACE inhibitors:

- dry cough - hyperkalemia

Toradol (ketorolac):

- for short term pain - not anti-inflammatory - if used with opioids, analgesia is enhanced and adverse opioid effects are eliminated

propylthiouracil is for what and what are its effects:

PTU is for treating hyperthyroidism. - lower serum T4 - lower HR

What are gold salts used for and what are two potential adverse effects of gold salts:

Gold salts are antirheumatics.

Watch for renal toxicity and stomatitis/mouth sores

PTT range for a pt on coumadin therapy:

60-80 sec

S&S of Salicylism:

tinnitus sweating

HA dizziness resp alkalosis