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REAL TIME DETECTION OF CORROSION AND CRACKING IN DOUBLE HULL TANKERS by

Sam Ternowchek Mistras Group

Sam Ternowchek Vice President for Asset Integrity Monitoring


Over 30 Years Experience in Advance NDT Specializing in Acoustic Emission
Current chair NACE Acoustic Emission Committee ASNT Fellow Active in ASTM, ASNT, API AAR and others

Current Responsibilities
Developing and implementing on line asset integrity monitoring

programs

Purpose of Presentation
Provide a non-intrusive means of detecting cracking and

corrosion on tankers and other types of ships


Describe use of automated ultrasonics to provide detailed

information about corrosion on the ship hull and deck


Demonstrate the use of AE to monitor ship integrity in

difficult to access areas such as ballast tanks


Demonstrate the use of continuous AE monitoring in

other marine applications such as offshore platforms and container cargo ships.

Tanker incidents by cause 1978-2006


Number incidents
1000

War Hull & Machinery Fire/Expl Grounded Coll/Contact Misc

800

600

400

200

Source: Based on incident reports from Informa Erik.Ranheim@INTERTANKO.com

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

Why Advance Inspection Methods


Some areas are difficult to access for conventional visual inspection Either a periodic Inspection or permanent installation Can be performed while ship is in service Minimize disturbance to ship operations Avoid dry docking Extend at sea time

Non Intrusive Inspections


Advance NDT Techniques for Non-Intrusive Inspection
Acoustic Emission to detect cracking and active corrosion
Automated UT for corrosion mapping

Basic Acoustic Emission Principle

Key Components of AET

Intrinsically Safe AE sensors Signature recognition Location of source origin

Crack-like Leak Mechanical rubbing

Acoustic Emission Sources Detected on Tanker


Sources of interest: Spalling of corrosion products Localized yielding at crack tip Leak turbulence Extraneous noise to be removed: Mechanical noise Impacts Environmental noise

Identification of Signal Sources

Corrosionlike activity

Flaw-like activity, from outside of sensor array

Extraneous noises Flaw-like activity

Laboratory Test to Characterize Acoustic Emission From Corrosion Process

Specimens after all the tests

Acoustic Emission Detection of Active Corrosion and MFL in Above Ground Storage Tank

DECK MONITORING UNDERSIDE CORROSION

Review of historical data FEA and Fatigue Analysis On-site walkthrough

Selection of Sensor Locations

Sensor Locations on Deck


37 2A 40 3A

PORT SIDE

20

AE sensor center line Weld Line

13'-3"

4P CC 0 1 2 3 4 5

AE sensor center line

Ship Center line

-28.5 4S CC -46

1S

-26 2S 6S
20 10

3S

4S

5S

AE Sensors
8S
40 30 50 60

7S

9S
70 80

70

71

72

69

73

74

STARBORD

Frame 72
3214 East Pasadena Freeway Houston, TX 77503

75

76

Frame 68

68

Frame 76

Area of Interest

.
Customer ABS Project No Date 4-6-2007

Phone 713 473 6111 Fax 713 473 6161


E Mail sbotten@mistrasgroup.com

Title AE sensor locations on Prince William Sound Deck area during sea tests Drawing No

ABS PWS DECK

Equipment Location
AE computer in Cargo Control Room

AE sensors on the deck

Riding the Tanker

Location of Active Underside Corrosion


Port Side 72 73 74

Grid 5 x 5

STARBOAR D

Deck girder 30; from CL

AUT Corrosion Mapping System

LSI of Coast Guard Cutter

Vessel Corrosion Mapping


155.5"

39"

QUALIFICATIONQUALIFICATION CRITERIAMeasurements Percent Percent CRITERIA Measurements QUALIFICATION CRITERIA Measurements Percent Less than 0.145 Less than 0.145 3409 16% 16% Less than 0.145 3409 16% 3409 Between 5876 28% 28% Between 0.145 and 0.1540.145 and 0.154 5876 Between 0.145 and 0.154 5876 28% Greather than 0.154 7724 36% 36% Greather than 0.154 7724 Greather than 0.154 7724 36% 4255 No data 20% No data 4255 20% No data 4255 20%21264 Total 100% Total 21264 100% Total 21264 100%

PLATE RR
STARBOARD 7 LB Nominal thickness= 0.171"

0.147 0.161 0.163 0.153 0.160 0.165 0.101 0.159 0.173 0.175 0.194 0.181 0.198 0.190 0.248 0.184 0.198 0.250 0.172 0.191 0.176 0.171 0.171 0.167 0.168 0.157 0.173 0.193 0.203

0.142 0.149 0.152 0.171 0.101 0.175 0.161 0.101 0.171 0.170 0.194 0.182 0.189 0.198 0.250 0.199 0.199 0.244 0.180 0.198 0.244 0.177 0.169 0.157 0.168 0.195 0.168 0.167 0.191

0.147 0.160 0.164 0.159 0.101 0.152 0.152 0.175 0.163 0.168 0.164 0.173 0.198 0.188 0.250 0.218 0.201 0.250 0.194 0.247 0.247 0.164 0.170 0.194 0.180 0.193 0.171 0.177 0.138

0.144 0.164 0.101 0.172 0.102 0.145 0.167 0.174 0.171 0.156 0.160 0.170 0.189 0.193 0.245 0.250 0.195 0.250 0.244 0.182 0.250 0.250 0.166 0.178 0.164 0.176 0.146 0.173 0.157

0.161 0.146 0.147 0.151 0.101 0.169 0.175 0.161 0.163 0.161 0.177 0.200 0.248 0.250 0.243 0.250 0.185 0.250 0.246 0.207 0.248 0.176 0.171 0.175 0.172 0.176 0.167 0.155 0.178

0.145 0.161 0.221 0.142 0.101 0.168 0.169 0.168 0.247 0.156 0.171 0.219 0.244 0.200 0.207 0.198 0.196 0.247 0.198 0.220 0.250 0.186 0.176 0.167 0.157 0.154 0.152 0.155 0.203

0.168 0.152 0.168 0.132 0.167 0.164 0.250 0.198 0.177 0.168 0.177 0.205 0.250 0.206 0.215 0.193 0.248 0.203 0.167 0.250 0.173 0.185 0.102 0.171 0.200 0.163 0.189 0.168 0.211

0.177 0.157 0.167 0.165 0.146 0.249 0.246 0.247 0.250 0.250 0.243 0.171 0.250 0.249 0.203 0.217 0.248 0.168 0.246 0.250 0.198 0.175 0.173 0.176 0.187 0.157 0.173 0.170 0.249

0.144 0.151 0.143 0.175 0.157 0.178 0.169 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.245 0.246 0.247 0.249 0.250 0.206 0.250 0.250 0.248 0.198 0.186 0.176 0.194 0.171 0.168 0.193 0.173 0.188

0.132 0.152 0.243 0.172 0.107 0.181 0.177 0.250 0.173 0.250 0.250 0.245 0.189 0.249 0.194 0.250 0.179 0.250 0.188 0.250 0.169 0.194 0.189 0.176 0.161 0.166 0.175 0.194 0.173

0.104 0.170 0.105 0.169 0.179 0.168 0.181 0.173 0.180 0.248 0.189 0.201 0.177 0.177 0.178 0.205 0.181 0.181 0.170 0.168 0.174 0.186 0.161 0.179 0.101 0.200 0.155 0.180 0.176

0.103 0.182 0.101 0.107 0.103 0.111 0.184 0.179 0.182 0.189 0.179 0.176 0.177 0.182 0.175 0.177 0.178 0.180 0.173 0.101 0.179 0.170 0.141 0.181 0.175 0.173 0.173 0.101 0.101

0.102 0.182 0.101 0.109 0.103 0.107 0.172 0.180 0.181 0.207 0.180 0.176 0.178 0.185 0.178 0.180 0.179 0.186 0.155 0.177 0.180 0.142 0.101 0.179 0.102 0.157 0.145 0.178 0.173

0.104 0.178 0.101 0.102 0.169 0.184 0.180 0.178 0.182 0.178 0.178 0.177 0.177 0.187 0.177 0.101 0.168 0.106 0.101 0.106 0.156 0.102 0.101 0.140 0.170 0.157 0.195 0.165 0.104

SCAN SCAN LAYOUT DRAWING STARBOARD LAYOUT DRAWING STARBOARD USCGC SITKINAK 110 FEET HULLFEET HULL USCGC SITKINAK 110

UTRASONIC CORROSION MAPPING


Port Side

7 2

AE sensor

7 3

Thickness analysis. Note color palette and contrast in image.

7 4

Aft

Fore

Starboard side

Example of Top Side Corrosion


TOP DECK CORROSION

Monitoring of Ballast Tanks

Port side AE monitored area

Starboard side AE monitored area

AE computer in Cargo Control Room

AE Sensor Locations

36 AE sensors inside ballast tanks (2008)

Sensor Locations

Sensor Installation and Typical Data

AET of a Containership During Voyage


20 degree roll

6m swell impact

Rain to blowing snow

Plot of AE events and the total number of events over time during rough seas/weather

I Northbound Voyage (Sea State 4-5)

Northbound voyage with ballast condition, port quarter heading sea (10-12 ft wave height) Corrosion or micro-crack activity on port-side bottom & side shell areas and crack activity on starboard-side top side shell area

Suspected Areas
Sensor Locations

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck D5 #11
#28-29 #30

Suspected Areas
Sensor Locations

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck

D4 #10

Side Shell #12

Group H
Stringer #1 FWD (side view) #2 D1 #3 L7 Stringer #2 L9

#28 D12 D11

Side Shell D9

#29

D10

D3-1 D3

#30

Stringer #1 FWD (side view)

#1 3

#19-21

#19 3

#20

#21

L7 Stringer #2 L9

Group F
#22-24

D2 #4 Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd Fr. 69 12-9 Fr. 70 Fr. 71 #5 Fr. 72 Swash Bhd. #6

#22

#23

#24 Stringer #3

Stringer #3 Fr. 73
Inner Skin Side Shell Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd Fr. 69 12-9 Fr. 70 Fr. 71 Fr. 72 Swash Bhd. Fr. 73

Side View of Group A

Top View of Group D

Side View of Group H

Cargo Loading at Valdez


Crack activities on port-side top side shell, starboardside inner skin and top side shell Corrosion or micro-crack activity on port side shell around waterline

Suspected Areas
Suspected Areas
Sensor Locations

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck

Suspected Areas

Sensor Locations Deck

Sensor Locations

D4 #10

Side Shell #12

Inner Skin
D5 #11

Group H

#28-29 #30

#28 D12 D11

Side Shell D9

#29

D10

D3-1 D3 D1

Stringer #1 FWD (side view) #2 #3 L7 Stringer #2 L9

Stringer #1

#30

Stringer #1 FWD (side view)

Group G
#25-27 #25 #26 #27 L7

#1 3

FWD (side view) #19-21


3

#19

#20

#21

L7 Stringer #2 L9

D2 #4 Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd Fr. 69 12-9 Fr. 70 Fr. 71 #5 Fr. 72 Swash Bhd. #6

Group F Stringer #2
#22-24

#22

#23

#24 Stringer #3

Stringer #3 Fr. 73

Stringer #3 Inner Skin Side Shell Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd Fr. 69 Fr. 70 Fr. 71 Fr. 72 Swash Bhd. Fr. 73
Inner Skin Side Shell Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd Fr. 69 12-9 Fr. 70 Fr. 71 Fr. 72 Swash Bhd. Fr. 73

Side View of Group C

Side View of Group G

Side View of Group H

Southbound voyage with full load condition, quarter heading seas (8-12 ft wave height) Corrosion or micro-crack activity on port-side side shell at waterline, starboard-side top side shell and side shell at waterline

Southbound voyage (Sea state 4-5)

Suspected Areas
Sensor Locations

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck D5 #11

Suspected Areas
Suspected Areas
Sensor Locations

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck

Suspected Areas
Discontinuity Deck

Sensor Locations

D4 #10

Side Shell #12

D3-1 D3 D1

Stringer #1

Group H
FWD (side view)

#28-29 #30

#28 D12 D11

Side Shell D9

#29

D10

Group H
Stringer #1 FWD (side view)

#28-29 #30

#28 D12 D11

Side Shell D9

#29

D10

#30

#30

Stringer #1 FWD (side view)

#1 3

#2

#3

L7

#19-21 3

#19

#20

#21

L7 Stringer #2 L9

#19-21

#19 3

#20

#21

L7 Stringer #2 L9

D2 #4 Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd Fr. 69 12-9 Fr. 70 Fr. 71 #5 Fr. 72 Swash Bhd. #6

Group F Stringer #2
L9
#22-24

Group F
#22-24

#22

#23

#24 Stringer #3

#22

#23

#24 Stringer #3

Stringer #3 Fr. 73
Inner Skin Side Shell

Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd

Fr. 69 12-9

Fr. 70

Fr. 71

Fr. 72 Swash Bhd.

Fr. 73

Inner Skin

Side Shell

Fr. 68 Trans. Bhd

Fr. 69 12-9

Fr. 70

Fr. 71

Fr. 72 Swash Bhd.

Fr. 73

Side View of Group A

Side View of Group F

Side View of Group H

Recommendations
Areas suspected of crack-like defects remove paint, inspect using wet fluorescent magnetic particle Areas suspected of corrosion-like activities clean the surface, measure the corrosion depth, and conduct MPI if needed

Crack-like activity

Crack-like activity

Corrosion activity Corrosion activity

Crack-like activity Corrosion activity

Continuous On Line Monitoring


Install permanent sensors Continuous monitoring of key areas Review and Analyze data periodically

Identify Target Areas - FEM


Search relatively high stress areas through FEM Search relatively short fatigue life areas

Common Area of Defects

Fractures appear mostly in Hold No. 3, 6, 7 and 8.

Fractures appear where tank transverse bulkhead meets horizontal flats/ other tank tops.

Continuous Monitoring Areas - Visual Inspection


P1

AE Sensor Locations

Historical Flaws

Observation

IS

SS

Fr. 108

Fr. 104

SS

AET of a Containership During Voyage


Continuous Monitoring Areas - AE Findings

B Source

AE activities were found in two areas during continuous monitoring In area A, the corners of box as well as under deck longitudinals need to be inspected In area B, the bracket toes and under deck webs may need to be inspected

A B

B
Continuous Monitoring (Apr 2009) B only Continuous Monitoring (May 2009) A only

38

Continuous Monitoring (Oct 2009 Dec 2009) both

AET of a Containership During Voyage Conclusions


AET can provide discrimination between genuine AE and spurious noise generated by a variety of sources given proper neural network/pattern recognition techniques. AET is able to detect hidden discontinuities. AET can detect cracking under normal operations. AET is a viable technique for monitoring marine vessels. AET can provide efficient management of resources by directing inspections to areas of interest. #1 AET can increase vessel safety through early warning notification.

Continuous Monitoring Integrity off-shore Platforms

Verification Tests
Verification trial was
required to demonstrate AE reliability to customer and authorities. Model of similar type and material to structure. Fatigue cracked at UWC lab. (sensors on reverse) Monitored by same AE system as proposed for

use offshore. Sectioned following first unambiguous AE indications.

Cracks after sectioning


0.5mm crack
Crack not detectable on surface by DP/MPI

without load.

3mm crack

Local Area Monitoring

STRAIN GUAGES

ACOUSTIC EMISSION LOCAL AREA MONITORING

System Schematic
Satellite connection
Owner access via internet

Onshore offshore

Private networks

UPS

DiSP

Secure Web server Control PC

AE sensors and strain gauges in nodes (hazardous area).

Internet Reporting of Health Status

Channel based and Location Event based graphs show activity over a selected period of time. Internet Site Summary Screen for One GEM Case shows summary and statistics information and menu selections for other reporting information.

Typical Time based graph shows two selectable graph parameters, and selectable time period reporting.

SUMMARY
AE can locate damage in real-time AE can be used for inspection in areas that have limited access AE can be used as a tool for condition ranking AE can be used for continuous remote monitoring AE can assist in locating hidden/buried defects AE can be used for inspection in areas that have limited access AE monitoring can be combined with external parametrics (e.g. strain, displacement, temperature, pressure, etc.) to assist in identifying environmental effects that may lead to damage AE can increase vessel safety through early
warning notification.

Questions???
Sam Ternowchek Mistras Group 195 Clarksville Rd Princeton Junction NJ 08550 609-716-4123 609-915-2798 (cell) sam.ternowchek@mistrasgroup.com samtern@aol.com