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(2) (1) ,

1.

x

x2

x

6

y

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

6 0 4 6 6 4 0 6

2.

3.

3, 2

x = 3 or

Let x = 0.1 2 ,

i.e. x = 0.121 212 (1)

100 x = 12.121 212 (2)

(2) (1) , 99 x = 12

12

x =

99

4

=

33

4

0.1 2 =

33

4.

Let x = 0.1 23 ,

i.e.

x = 0.123 123

1000 x = 123.123 123

(2) (1) ,

x=2

graphically by reading the x-intercepts of the graph of

y = ax2 + bx + c.

Let x = 0.8 ,

i.e. x = 0.888 888 (1)

10 x = 8.888 888 (2)

(2) (1) , 9 x = 8

8

x=

9

8

0.8 =

9

1.

Let x = 0.16 ,

2.

999 x = 123

123

x=

999

41

=

333

41

0.1 23 =

333

Quadratic equation

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

5x2 = 6 x

x2 4 = 5x

3x2 = 4

8x = x2

2 x(3 x) = 0

(1 + x)(1 x) + 3x = 2

General form

ax2 + bx + c = 0

5x2 + x 6 = 0

x2 5x 4 = 0

3x2 + 0x 4 = 0

x2 8x + 0 = 0

x2 3x + 2 = 0

x2 3x + 1 = 0

p.8

1.

(a)

x2 10x + 16 = 0

(x 2)(x 8) = 0

x 2 = 0 or x 8 = 0

x = 2 or

x =8

(1)

(2)

p.6

Follow-up Exercise

p. 3

9 x = 1.5

90 x = 15

15

x =

90

1

=

6

1

0.16 =

6

3.

x2 + x 6 = 0

4.

( x + 3)( x 2) = 0

x + 3 = 0 or x 2 = 0

5.

i.e.

Activity

Value of

a b c

5 1 6

1 5 4

3 0 4

1 8 0

1 3 2

1 3 1

1

(2x + 3)(x + 5) = 0

2x + 3 = 0

or x + 5 = 0

3

x=

or

x = 5

2

(c)

2.

(a)

(b)

x = 1 or

1.

4 x 25 = 0

( 2 x + 5)(2 x 5) = 0

(a)

1

=0

4

x + 1 = 0 or 4 x 1 = 0

( x + 1)(4 x 1) = 0

2

1

x=

or

x=

(b)

3

2

2

1

x = 0 or x + = 0

3

2

3x 2 = 0 or 2 x + 1 = 0

(3 x 2)(2 x + 1) = 0

6x 2 x 2 = 0

2.

(a)

2x + 5 = 0

or 2 x 5 = 0

5

5

x=

or

x=

2

2

2 x 2 15 x 8 = 0

( 2 x + 1)( x 8) = 0

2x + 1 = 0

or x 8 = 0

1

x=

or

x=8

2

x ( x + 2) = 15

x 2 + 2 x = 15

(c)

i.e. 2 and

x + 2 x 15 = 0

( x + 5)( x 3) = 0

x+5= 0

or x 3 = 0

x = 5 or

x=3

2

x 2 4x + 3 = 0

( x 1)( x 3) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x 3 = 0

x = 1 or

x=3

Alternative Solution

( x + 1)( x 3) = 2( x 3)

( x + 1)( x 3) 2( x 3) = 0

( x 3)[( x + 1) 2] = 0

( x 3)( x 1) = 0

x3= 0

or

x 1 = 0

x=3

or

x =1

p.10

3.

(a)

x=

1

8

1

=0

8

x + 2 = 0 or 8 x 1 = 0

( x + 2)(8 x 1) = 0

8 x 2 + 15 x 2 = 0

The required equation is 8x2 + 15x 2 = 0.

x+2=0

x 2 2x 3 = 2x 6

1

1

1 and

8

2

1

.

8

x = 2 or

( x + 1)( x 3) = 2( x 3)

(d)

1

4

4 x 2 + 3x 1 = 0

12 x 2 + x 6 = 0

( 4 x + 3)(3x 2) = 0

4x + 3 = 0

or 3 x 2 = 0

3

2

x=

or

x=

4

3

x=

x + 1 = 0 or x

3x 2 5 x 2 = 0

(3 x + 1)( x 2) = 0

3x + 1 = 0

or x 2 = 0

1

x=

or

x=2

3

4 x 2 = 25

or

4 x 2 13 x 12 = 0

( 4 x + 3)( x 4) = 0

4x + 3 = 0

or x 4 = 0

3

x=

or

x=4

4

3

(b) The roots of the required equation are 4 and

2

4

3

, i.e. and 2.

2

8

3

x = or

x =2

8

3

x + =0

or

x 2 = 0

8

8x + 3 = 0 or

x2=0

(8 x + 3)( x 2) = 0

8 x 2 13x 6 = 0

The required equation is 8x2 13x 6 0.

(a)

(b)

2.

(a)

( x + 1) 2 = 9

x + 1 = 3

x = 1 + 3 or

= 2

or

1 3

4

( 2 x 3) 2 =

2x 3 =

2x = 3 + 2

5

x =

2

32

1

2

4

2

or

or

(a)

1

1

1

x + = x

3

6

6

8.

x2 +

5

5

5

x + = x +

2

4

4

p. 16

x2 8x 9 = 0

x2 8x = 9

2

x2 = 5

5 or 2

1.

(a)

8

8

x2 8x + = 9 +

2

2

( x 4) 2 = 25

x 4 = 5

x = 45

x + 1 = 6

4

1

x+

= 6

4

x = 9 or 1

2 x 5x 3 = 0

5

3

x2 x = 0

2

2

5

3

x2 x =

2

2

2

( x 3) 2 = 8

x3= 8

x = 3+ 8

5

3 5

5

x x+ = +

2

4

2 4

or 3 8

5

2

(b) ( x + 2) =

4

5

x+2=

4

x+2=

x2

1

1

x = + 6 or 6

4

4

3.

7.

(b)

1

1

1

x + = x

2

4

4

( x 2) 2 = 5

x = 2+

x2

p.13

1.

6.

(b)

5

2

5

5

or 2

2

2

= 0.88 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 3.12 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

5

49

x =

4

16

5

7

x =

4

4

5 7

x=

4 4

= 3 or

x = 2 +

1

2

x2 + 7x 1 = 0

x2 + 7x = 1

7 2

x 2 + 7 x + = 1 +

2

p. 15

2

18

x 2 + 18 x + = ( x + 9) 2

2

1.

2.

12

x 2 12 x + = ( x 6) 2

2

3.

7

7

x2 + 7x + = x +

2

2

4.

8

x 2 + 8 x + = ( x + 4) 2

2

5.

9

9

x 2 9 x + = x

2

2

7

2

2.

(a)

x + 7 = 53

2

4

x+

7

53

=

2

2

7

53

x =

2

2

7 + 53

7 53

=

or

2

2

(b)

3x 2 6 x 2 = 0

2

x2 2x

= 0

3

2

x2 2x =

3

2

2

2

2 2

x 2 2 x + =

+

3 2

2

5

( x 1) 2 =

3

5

x 1 =

3

5

x = 1+

or 1

3

4.

x =

=

b 2 4ac

2a

82 4(1)( 3)

2(1)

8 52

2

8 2 13

=

2

= 4 + 13 or 4 13

5

3

4x = x 2 + 3

x + 4x 3 = 0

5.

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

=

x =

b b 2 4ac

2a

4 42 4(1)(32)

2(1)

4 144

2

4 12

=

2

= 4 or 8

x =

=

b 2 4ac

2a

( 5)

1.

( 5) 2 4( 2)( 2)

2( 2 )

5 9

4

53

=

4

1

= 2 or

2

=

3x 2 = 10 x + 8

3.

3x 2 + 10 x 8 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

=

b 2 4ac

2a

4 2 4(1)( 3)

2(1)

p. 25

b

4 28

2

42 7

=

2

= 2 + 7 or 2

2.

p.20

1.

Quadratic equations

Value of

x2 + 4x + 2 = 0

= 42 4(1)(2) = 8 > 0

2x2 3x 5 = 0

= (3)2 4(2)(5) = 49 > 0

2

x + 8x + 16 = 0

= 82 4(1)(16) = 0

2

2x + 5x = 0

= 52 4(2)(0) = 25 > 0

2

4x + 25 = 0

= 02 4(4)(25) = 400 < 0

Nature of roots

2 distinct

1 double real root

No real roots

real roots

= 0

2.

b b 4ac

2a

2

10 10 2 4(3)(8)

2(3)

10 196

6

10 14

=

6

2

=

or 4

3

=

3.

( 9) 2 4(1)( k ) = 0

81 4k = 0

81

k =

4

The equation (2k 1)x2 + 3x 6 = 0 has no real

roots.

< 0

(b)

3 4( 2k 1)( 6) < 0

9 + 48k 24 < 0

48k 15 < 0

15

k <

48

5

k <

16

2

x=

=

5

.

16

1.

Therefore, the roots of the equation 2x2 + 3x 5 = 0 are

2.5 and 1.

2.

(a)

0

1

1

0

2

1

3

4

18 18 2 4( 2)(57)

2( 2)

18 780

4

18 2 195

=

4

9 195

=

2

9 + 195

9 195

=

or

(rejected)

2

2

= 2.48 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

4

9

2.

(b)

b b 2 4ac

2a

p. 30

2 1

9 4

4 x 2 + 36 x 114 = 0

2 x 2 + 18 x 57 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x

y

4 x 2 + 36 x = 114

3600

project, then Mr Tungs daily wage is $

and Mr

x

3600

100 .

Pangs daily wage is $

x

3600

100 ( x + 3) = 3600

10 800

300 = 3600

x

100 x 2 + 3300 x + 10 800 = 3600 x

3600 100 x +

(c)

The x-intercept of y = x2 2x + 1 is 1.

Therefore, the root of the equation x2 2x + 1 = 0

is 1.

Exercise

p. 33

1.

positive

2.

positive

3.

negative

4.

zero

5.

negative

6.

positive

Level 1

1.

( x 3)( x 4) = 0

x 3 = 0 or x 4 = 0

x = 3 or

x = 4

2.

(3x + 2)( x + 2) = 0

3x + 2 = 0

or

x+2=0

2

x=

or

x = 2

3

p. 40

1.

(a)

= [( x + 7 + x )( x + 11 + x ) (7.11)] cm 2

= [( 2 x + 7)( 2 x + 11) 77] cm

= ( 4 x 2 + 36 x + 77 77) cm 2

= ( 4 x 2 + 36 x ) cm 2

3.

x 2 + 3x 108 = 0

( x + 12)( x 9) = 0

x + 12 = 0

or x 9 = 0

x = 12 (rejected) or

x = 9

Mr Tung worked in the project for 9 days.

3x ( x + 5) = 0

x ( x + 5) = 0

1

x=0

x=0

4.

5.

6.

7.

or

or

x+5= 0

x = 5

5( x 1)( x + 3) = 0

( x 1)( x + 3) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x + 3 = 0

x = 3

x = 1 or

2 y2 5y = 0

y ( 2 y 5) = 0

y = 0 or 2 y 5 = 0

5

y = 0 or

y =

2

x2 6x + 5 = 0

( x 1)( x 5) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x 5 = 0

x = 1 or

x = 5

8.

x 2 7 x 30 = 0

( x + 3)( x 10) = 0

x+3= 0

or x 10 = 0

x = 3 or

x = 10

9.

2 x 2 15 x 8 = 0

( 2 x + 1)( x 8) = 0

2 x + 1 = 0 or x 8 = 0

x=

10.

4 y 3 = 0 or 3 y 2 = 0

3

2

y =

or

y =

4

3

13.

14.

16 121x 2 = 0

121x 2 16 = 0

(11x + 4)(11x 4) = 0

11x + 4 = 0

or 11x 4 = 0

4

4

x =

or

x =

11

11

1

or

2

6 w + 13w + 6 = 0

(3w + 2)( 2 w + 3) = 0

2w + 2 = 0

or 2 w + 3 = 0

2

3

w =

or

w =

3

2

2 15 x 8 x 2 = 0

8 x 2 + 15 x 2 = 0

(8 x 1)( x + 2) = 0

8 x 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

1

x =

or

x = 2

8

5x 2 = 9 x + 2

5x 2 9 x 2 = 0

(5 x + 1)( x 2) = 0

5x + 1 = 0

or x 2 = 0

1

x =

or

x = 2

5

16.

17.

12 4 y = 5 y 2

5 y 2 + 4 y 12 = 0

(5 y 6)( y + 2) = 0

5 y 6 = 0 or y + 2 = 0

6

y =

or

y = 2

5

18.

19.

11.

12m 2 + 25m + 12 = 0

( 4m + 3)( 3m + 4) = 0

4m + 3 = 0

or 3m + 4 = 0

3

4

m =

or

m =

4

3

15.

x =8

4 x 2 + 13x 12 = 0

( 4 x 3)( x + 4) = 0

4 x 3 = 0 or x + 4 = 0

3

x =

or

x = 4

4

2

20.

12.

12 y 2 17 y + 6 = 0

( 4 y 3)( 3 y 2) = 0

x = 0 or

x=1

x = 0 or x 1 = 0

x ( x 1) = 0

x2 x = 0

The required equation is x2 x = 0.

x=4

or

x = 1

x4=0

or x + 1 = 0

( x 4)( x + 1) = 0

x 2 3x 4 = 0

The required equation is x2 3x 4 = 0.

x=2

or

x=3

x2=0

or x 3 = 0

( x 2)( x 3) = 0

x 2 5x + 6 = 0

The required equation is x2 5x + 6 = 0.

x = 1

or

x = 4

x+1=0

or x + 4 = 0

( x + 1)( x + 4) = 0

x 2 + 5x + 4 = 0

The required equation is x2 +5x + 4 = 0.

x2 + bx 24 = 0 can be solved using the factor

method.

x2 + bx 24 = 0 can be written as

( x h )( x k ) = 0 for some real numbers h and

k.

x 2 hx kx + hk = 0

21.

x 2 ( h + k ) x + hk = 0

By comparing coefficients, we have

h + k = b

hk = 24

Let h = 4, k = 6, then b = 4 + 6 = 2

Let h = 3, k = 8, then b = 3 + 8 = 5

Let h = 2, k = 12, then b = 2 + 12 = 10

b = 2 or 5 or 10 (or any other reasonable answers)

2 y (19 4 y ) = 35

26.

8 y 2 38 y + 35 = 0

( 2 y 7)( 4 y 5) = 0

2 y 7 = 0 or 4 y 5 = 0

7

5

y =

or

y =

2

4

27.

x = h or

x=k

x h = 0 or x k = 0

x 2 ( h + k ) x + hk = 0

By comparing coefficients, we have

h + k = 18

hk = c

Let h = 6, k = 12, then c = 6 12 = 72

Let h = 7, k = 11, then c = 7 11 = 77

Let h = 8, k = 10, then c = 8 10 = 80

28.

( x + 3)( 2 x + 1) + 3 = 0

30.

6x 2 + x + 5 = 0

x 2 3x ( x 5) = 25

2 x 2 + 15 x 25 = 0

25.

2 x 2 15 x + 25 = 0

( 2 x 5)( x 5) = 0

2 x 5 = 0 or x 5 = 0

5

x =

or

x = 5

2

5 x ( x 2) ( x 2 ) 2 = 0

( x 2)[5 x ( x 2)] = 0

( x 2)( 4 x + 2) = 0

x 2 = 0 or 4 x + 2 = 0

x = 2 or

(3x + 1)(1 2 x ) + 4 = 0

6x 2 x 5 = 0

( 6 x + 5)( x 1) = 0

6x + 5 = 0

or x 1 = 0

5

x =

or

x =1

6

6 x 2 15 x 21 = 0

5 x ( x 2 ) = ( x 2) 2

Level 2

24.

6 x 2 21x 12 = 9 6 x

2 x 7 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

7

x =

or

x = 1

2

answers)

2x2 + 7x + 6 = 0

( 2 x + 3)( x + 2) = 0

2x + 3 = 0

or x + 2 = 0

3

x =

or

x = 2

2

15 y 2 34 y + 15 = 0

(3 y 5)(5 y 3) = 0

3 y 5 = 0 or 5 y 3 = 0

5

3

y=

or

y=

3

5

2 x 2 5x 7 = 0

( 2 x 7)( x + 1) = 0

29.

23.

15( y 2 + 1) = 34 y

( x 4)( 6 x + 3) = 3(3 2 x )

( x h )( x k ) = 0

8 y + 38 y 35 = 0

2

x =

3 y ( y 6)

3 y ( y 6)

3 y ( y 6) ( y + 6)( y 6)

( y 6)[3 y ( y + 6)]

( y 6)( 2 y 6)

y 6 = 0 or 2 y 6 = 0

y = 6 or

y = 3

1

2

=

=

=

=

=

y 2 36

( y + 6)( y 6)

0

0

0

( 2 x 5) 2 = ( x 3)( 2 x 5)

31.

( 2 x 5) 2 ( x 3)( 2 x 5) = 0

( 2 x 5)[( 2 x 5) ( x 3)] = 0

( 2 x 5)( x 2) = 0

2 x 5 = 0 or x 2 = 0

5

x =

or

x = 2

2

32.

( x + 1) 2 + 3( x + 1) 4 = 0

[( x + 1) 1][( x + 1) + 4] = 0

x ( x + 5) = 0

x = 0 or x + 5 = 0

x = 0 or

x = 5

1

or

2

x =

33.

x = 2

38. (a)

1

= 0 or x + 2 = 0

2

2 x 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

( 2 x 1)( x + 2) = 0

x

2 x 2 + 3x 2 = 0

The required equation is 2x2 + 3x 2 = 0.

x =

34.

1

or

3

x =

3

2

1

3

= 0

or x

= 0

3

2

3x + 1 = 0

or 2 x 3 = 0

(3x + 1)( 2 x 3) = 0

6x 7x 3 = 0

The required equation is 6x2 7x 3 = 0.

1

1

x =

or

x =

2

3

1

1

x +

= 0

or x +

= 0

2

3

2x + 1 = 0

or 3x + 1 = 0

( 2 x + 1)(3 x + 1) = 0

35.

1

2

7

3

x=

or

x=

3

2

7

3

x = 0 or

x+ =0

3

2

3 x 7 = 0 or 2 x + 3 = 0

(3x 7)( 2 x + 3) = 0

x=2

36.

37. (a)

1

or

3

39. (a)

6 x 2 + 5x + 1 = 0

The required equation is 6x2 + 5x + 1 = 0.

4 x 2 8x + 3 = 0

The required equation is 4x2 8x + 3 = 0.

4x 2 8x + 3 = 0

( 2 x 1)( 2 x 3) = 0

2 x 1 = 0 or 2 x 3 = 0

1

3

x =

or

x =

2

2

3

1

= 0 or x = 0

2

2

2 x 3 = 0 or 2 x 1 = 0

( 2 x 3)( 2 x 1) = 0

x

1

(b) The roots of the required equation are 2 and

2

3

2 , i.e. 1 and 3.

2

x +

x =1

or

x=3

x 1 = 0 or x 3 = 0

( x 1)( x 3) = 0

x2 4x + 3 = 0

The required equation is x2 4x + 3 = 0.

2x2 9x 5 = 0

( 2 x + 1)( x 5) = 0

2x + 1 = 0

or x 5 = 0

1

x =

or

x = 5

2

1

+ 5 and

2

1

9

5

(5) , i.e. and .

2

2

2

9

5

x=

or

x =

2

2

9

5

x =0 or x + =0

2

2

2x 9 = 0

or

2x + 5 = 0

( 2 x 9)( 2 x + 5) = 0

4 x 2 8 x 45 = 0

The required equation is 4x2 8x 45 = 0.

x = 1

6 x 2 5 x 21 = 0

The required equation is 6x2 5x 21 = 0.

3x 8 x + 4 = 0

(3x 2)( x 2) = 0

3x 2 = 0 or x 2 = 0

2

x =

or

x = 2

3

2

Level 1

1.

1

2

3

and

( x + 5) 2 = 36

x + 5 = 6

x = 5 + 6 or 5 6

=1

or 11

1

, i.e.

2

3

1

and .

2

2

x=

3

or

2

x=

1

2

16

9

4

x4=

3

2

9 2 x = 5

3

( x 4) 2 =

2.

2

2 x 2 = 5

3

9

4

4

or 4

3

3

16

8

=

or

3

3

7.

x =4+

2x

x + 1 = 25

3

1

x + = 5

3

1

1

x = + 5 or 5

3

3

14

16

=

or

3

3

3.

25 2 = 7

3

7

x

2 =

25

3

x

7

2 =

3

5

x

7

= 2

3

5

3 7

3 7

x = 6+

or 6

5

5

8.

4.

25 x = 4

5

1

4

x =

5

25

1

2

x =

5

5

1 2

1 2

x = + or

5 5

5 5

3

1

=

or

5

5

( x 3) 2 = 2

5.

x3= 2

x = 3+

2 or 3

9.

x+5=

6

p=

2

=9

7

2

x = 5+

7

7

or 5

2

2

6

x 2 6 x + 9 = x

2

= ( x 3) 2

8

p =

10.

2

= 16

4( x + 5) 2 = 7

7

( x + 5) 2 =

4

6.

11.

x 2 + 5x +

3

p =

4

12.

9

=

16

8

x 2 + 8 x + 16 = x +

2

= ( x + 4) 2

5

p =

2

25

=

4

2

5

=

3

3

2 5

2x =

3

2+ 5

2 5

x =

or

6

6

25

5

= x +

4

2

x2

3x

9

3

+

= x

2

16

4

13.

2

2a

b = 2

= a2

a = 2, b = 4 or a = 1, b = 1 or a = 1, b = 1.

(or any other reasonable answers)

18.

1

(x d ) =

4

2 x 2 10 x 5 = 0

5

x 2 5x

= 0

2

5

x 2 5x =

2

2

2

5

5 5

x 2 5 x + =

+

2 2

2

2

x 5 = 35

2

4

14.

xd =

1

2

x = d

x

1

2

1

are integers.

4

1

1

1

d = 1 or 2 or 3 (or any other reasonable

2

2

2

answers)

Level 2

x 2 8 x + 15 = 0

19.

x 2 8 x = 15

2

15.

8

x 2 8 x +

2

( x 4) 2

x4

x

8

= 15 +

2

=1

= 1

= 4 1

= 5 or 3

x 16 x + 28 = 0

2

x 2 16 x = 28

2

16.

16

x 2 16 x +

2

( x 8) 2

x8

x

16

= 28 +

2

= 36

= 6

= 86

= 14 or 2

20.

x 2 + 7 x 98 = 0

x 2 + 7 x = 98

2

7

7

x 2 + 7 x + = 98 +

2

2

5

35

=

2

2

5

35

x =

2

2

5 + 35

5 35

=

or

2

2

3x 2 + 6 x 28 = 0

28

x2 + 2x

= 0

3

28

x2 + 2x =

3

2

2

2

28 2

x 2 + 2 x + =

+

3

2

2

31

( x + 1) 2 =

3

31

x +1=

3

31

= 1+

or 1

3

3x 2 6 x 7 = 0

7

x2 2x

= 0

3

7

x2 2x =

3

2

2

2

7 2

2

x 2x + =

+

3 2

2

10

2

( x 1) =

3

10

x 1 =

3

10

x = 1+

or 1

3

31

3

10

3

21.

3x 2 + 7 x 3 = 0

17.

7

441

x + =

2

4

7

21

x+ =

2

2

7 21

x=

2 2

= 7 or - 14

7

x 1 = 0

3

7

x2 + x = 1

3

x2 +

x2 +

7

7

7

x + = 1+

3

6

6

7

85

x+ =

6

36

10

x+

7

85

=

6

6

7

85

x=

6

6

7 + 85

7 85

=

or

6

6

x 2 + 2 3x + 1 = 0

x 2 + 2 3 x = 1

2

24.

2 3

2 3

= 1 +

x 2 + 2 3 x +

2

2

( x + 3)2 = 2

x+ 3 = 2

x= 3 2

5( x 1) = 4 x

5x2 4x 5 = 0

2

22.

= 3 + 2 or 3 2

4

x2 x 1 = 0

5

4

x2 x = 1

5

2

x2

4

4

4

x + = 1+

5

10

10

x2

3

= 0

4

3

x 2 2 5x

= 0

2

3

x 2 2 5x =

2

2

29

x =

5

25

25.

2

29

=

5

5

2

29

x=

5

5

2 + 29

2 29

=

or

5

5

5x

3 2 5

2 5

x 2 2 5x +

+

=

2 2

2

13

(x 5)2 =

2

13

x 5 =

2

13

= 5 +

or

2

2 x 2 5 x 30 = 0

x2

23.

( x 1)(2 +3 x ) = x 2

3x 2 x 2 = x 2

2x 2 x 2 = 0

1

x2 x 1= 0

2

1

x2 x =1

2

2

x2

1

1

1

x + =1+

2

4

4

x2

26.

1 17

x =

4 16

1

17

x =

4

4

1

17

x=

4

4

1 + 17

1 17

=

or

4

4

11

5

x 15 = 0

2

5

x2

x = 15

2

5

5

5

= 15 +

x +

4

2

4

x 5 = 245

4

16

5

7 5

=

4

4

5 7 5

x=

4

4

= 2 5 or

3 5

2

13

2

1

5.

1.

x =

=

2.

( 4 )

7.

x=

=

b b 2 4ac

2a

( 31) (31) 2 4(14)(15)

2(14)

x=

=

b b 2 4ac

2a

(2) (2) 2 4(3)(13)

2(3)

2 160

6

2 4 10

=

6

1 + 2 10

1 2 10

=

or

3

3

=

2(35)

5 5 2 4(2)(6)

2(2)

5 73

4

5 + 73

5 73

=

or

4

4

b b 2 4ac

2a

9 361

70

9 19

=

70

2

1

= or

5

7

b b 2 4ac

2a

2( 2)

2(1)

x=

x=

4.

6.

b b 2 4ac

2a

3 25

4

35

=

4

1

= 2 or

2

( 7) (7) 2 4(1)(11)

7 5

2

7+ 5

7 5

=

or

2

2

b b 2 4ac

2a

( 4) 2 4(1)( 5)

2(1)

x=

3.

b 2 4ac

2a

36

2

46

=

2

= 5 or 1

=

x=

Level 1

8.

x=

=

b b 2 4ac

2a

3 3 2 4(3)(5)

2(3)

3 69

6

3 + 69

3 69

=

or

6

6

=

31 121

28

31 11

=

28

3

5

= or

2

7

=

12

9.

b b 2 4ac

x=

2a

=

13.

2( 2)

2(6)

b 2 4ac

2a

32 4(9)( 4)

2(9)

3 153

18

3 3 17

=

18

1 + 17

1 17

=

or

6

6

= 0.52 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.85 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

x ( 3x + 4) = ( x + 1)( x 2)

14.

3x 2 + 4 x = x 2 x 2

2 x 2 + 5x + 2 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

7 73

12

7 + 73

7 73

=

or

12

12

=

x=

=

b b 2 4ac

2a

5 5 2 4( 2)(2)

2( 2)

5 9

4

53

=

4

= 0.5 or 2

=

Level 2

11. x ( x 10) + 5 = 0

x 2 10 x + 5 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x =

=

b 2 4ac

2a

( 10)

( 10) 2 4(1)(5)

2(1)

10 80

2

10 4 5

=

2

= 5+2 5

or 5 2 5

= 9.47 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.53 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

=

x + 1 ( x + 1) = 3 x

2

4

3

1

3x

2

x + x+

=

15.

2

2

4

9x

1

2

x +

+

= 0

4

2

2

4x + 9x + 2 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

=

7 x 5x 2 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

b 2 4ac

2a

( 5)

( 5) 2 4(7)( 2)

2( 7)

5 81

14

59

=

14

=

2

7

= 1 or 0.29 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

= 1 or

9 92 4(4)(2)

2( 4)

x =

b b 2 4ac

2a

9 49

8

97

=

8

= 0.25 or 2

5x + 2 = 7 x 2

12.

13

b b 2 4ac

2a

9 x 2 + 3x 4 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x =

6 12

=

4

62 3

=

4

3+ 3

3 3

=

or

2

2

x=

(3x + 2)(3x 2) + 3x = 0

16.

( x 3)( 2 x 5) = x ( x + 3) + 2

2

2 x 2 11x + 15 = x + 3 x + 2

x 2 14 x + 13 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x =

=

b 2 4ac

2a

( 14)

20.

( 14) 4(1)(13)

2(1)

2

( 2 x + 1)( 3x 2) = (6 x + 5) 2 4 x

6 x 2 x 2 = 36 x 2 + 56 x + 25

30 x 2 + 57 x + 27 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

14 144

2

14 12

=

2

= 13 or 1

=

x =

=

b 2 4ac

2a

57

57 2 4(30)( 27)

2(30)

57 9

60

57 3

=

60

= 0.9 or 1

=

17.

( 2 x 3) 2 + 6 x = 7

4x2 6x + 9 = 7

4x2 6x + 2 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x =

=

b 2 4ac

2a

( 6)

( 6) 2 4( 4)( 2)

2( 4)

6 4

8

62

=

8

= 1 or 0.5

=

Level 1

1.

= ( 4) 2 4(1)( 1)

= 20

18.

2

For x 4 x 1 = 0,

>0

x2 + 4x + 4 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x =

=

roots.

b 2 4ac

2a

4 2 4(1)( 4)

2(1)

4

=

2

= 2

2.

2

For 2 x + 3x + 1 = 0,

= 32 4( 2)(1)

=1

>0

( x 3) = ( 2 x + 1)( x 2)

2

19.

x 2 6 x + 9 = 2 x 2 3x 2

roots.

x 2 + 3x 11 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

b b 2 4ac

2a

3 32 4(1)(11)

=

2(1)

3.

For 3x2 + 2x + 2 = 0

= 2 2 4(3)( 2)

= 20

3 53

2

3 53

3 53

=

or

2

2

= 2.14 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 5.14 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

=

<0

4.

For x2 + 4x + 4 = 0,

14

= 4 2 4(1)( 4)

= 0

roots.

>0

(3) 4(2)(k ) > 0

2

=0

5.

For 2x2 4x + 3 = 0,

= ( 4) 2 4( 2)(3)

= 8

<0

9 8k > 0

9

k<

8

9

The range of possible values of k is k < 8 .

10.

real roots.

>0

3 4(5)(k + 1) > 0

9 20k 20 > 0

11 20k > 0

2

k<

6.

For 3x2 + x 10 = 0,

= 12 4(3)(10)

= 121

11

20

11

The range of possible values of k is k < 20 .

>0

11.

roots.

roots.

i.e. 4 4(3)(k ) 0

16 12k 0

2

7.

real root.

=

=

=

=

0

0

0

2

8.

real root.

= 0

( 4k ) 2 4(1)(16k + 20) = 0

12k 16

4

k

3

= 0

( 2) 4( k 1)(1)

4 4k + 4

8 4k

k

2

16k 2 64k 80 = 0

12.

i.e.

k 2 4k 5 = 0

( k 5)( k + 1) = 0

15

0

(2k ) 2 4( k + 1)(k 2) 0

4 k 2 4k 2 + 4k + 8 0

4k + 8 0

4 k 8

k 2

k 5 = 0 or k + 1 = 0

k = 5 or

k = 1

9.

4

3 .

13.

< 0

17.

( k + 2) x 2 = 2 x 1

( k + 2) x 2 2 x + 1 = 0

52 4(3)( k ) < 0

25 + 12k < 0

k <

roots.

25

12

< 0

25

The range of possible values of k is k < 12 .

( 2) 4( k + 2)(1) < 0

4 4k 8 < 0

k > 1

2

14.

roots.

3( x 2 + 1) = x + 12k

18.

3 x 2 + 3 = x + 12k

< 0

3 x 2 x + (3 12k ) = 0

( 4) 2 4( k + 2)( 5) < 0

16 + 20k + 40 < 0

56 + 20k < 0

k <

14

5

roots.

<0

( 1) 4(3)(3 12k ) < 0

1 36 + 144k < 0

35

k<

144

2

14

The range of possible values of k is k < 5 .

15.

roots.

35

The range of possible values of k is k < 144 .

> 0

32 4ac > 0

9 4ac > 0

9

ac <

4

1

a = 2 , c = 3 or a = 1, c = 2.

19. (a)

real roots.

=0

(2k ) 2 4(1)(2k + 15) = 0

4k 2 8k 60 = 0

k 2 2k 15 = 0

16.

ax 2 + 2 x = c

ax + 2 x c = 0

2

< 0

2 2 4a ( c ) < 0

4 + 4ac < 0

ac < 1

(k + 3)(k 5) = 0

k +3= 0

or k 5 = 0

k = 3 or

k = 5

(b) For k = 3,

x 2 2( 3) x + 2( 3) + 15 = 0

x 2 + 6x + 9 = 0

( x + 3) 2 = 0

x +3= 0

x = 3

Level 2

For k = 5,

16

x 2 2(5) x + 2(5) + 15 = 0

(m 1) 2 0

x 2` 10 x + 25 = 0

(m 1) 2 + 1 > 0

( x 5) 2 = 0

x 5 = 0

x = 5

<0

20. (a)

4 (m 1) 2 + 1 < 0

real roots for any real values of m.

roots.

= 0

(5k ) 2 4( 4)( k ) = 0

22. (a)

12 x 2 + 4 x + k = 1

12 x + 4 x + ( k 1) = 0

2

25k 2 16k = 0

k ( 25k 16) = 0

roots.

k = 0 or 25k 16 = 0

16

k=

25

k = 0 or

(b) For k = 0,

4 x 2 + 5(0) x + (0) = 0

4x2 = 0

x = 0

16

For k = 25 ,

16

16

4 x 2 + 5 x +

= 0

25

25

16

16

4x2 +

x+

= 0

5

25

2

25 x + 20 x + 4 = 0

(b) (i)

4

The range of possible values of k is k 3 .

12 x 2 + 4 x 1 = 0

12 x 2 + 4 x + 0 = 1

k = 0

4

(5 x + 2 ) 2 = 0

5x + 2 = 0

roots.

2

x =

5

36 x + 12 x + 1 = 0

1

12 x 2 + 4 x + = 0

3

4

12 x 2 + 4 x +

=1

3

2

(ii)

2

2

21. For the equation x 2( m + 1) x + ( 2m + 3) = 0 ,

4 2 4(12)( k 1) 0

16 48k + 48 0

64 48k 0

4

k

3

4

3

4

k =

= [ 2( m + 1)]2 4(1)( 2m 2 + 3)

= 4m 2 + 8m + 4 8m 2 12

= 4m 2 + 8m 8

= 4 ( m 2 2 m + 2 )

= 4[( m 1) 2 + 1]

roots.

17

Level 1

1.

(a)

two

Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 14x + 48 =

0 are 6 and 8.

2.

(a)

two

Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 3x 10 = 0

(c)

are 2 and 5.

Therefore, the roots of the equation 2x2 4x = 0 are

0 and 2.0.

3.

x

(a)

y

4

5

3

0

2

3

1

4

0

3

1

0

2

5

5.

3

14

x

y

(a)

2

5

1

0

0

1

1

2

2

9

3

20

(b)

Therefore, the roots of the equation 2x2 + x 1 = 0

are 1.0 and 0.5.

6.

(c)

(a)

x

y

0

9

1

4

2

1

3

0

4

1

5

4

6

9

Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 + 2x 3 = 0

4.

(a)

x

0

2 1

y

16

6

0

1

2

2

0

3

6

4

16

(b)

18

Level 2

9.

3

8

x

(a) y

2

2

1

2

0

4

1

4

2

2

3

2

4

8

Therefore, the root of the equation x2 6x + 9 = 0 is

3.0.

7.

x-axis.

x2 = x + 4

(b)

b 4( 1)( c ) < 0

x x4 = 0

2

< 0

b 2 + 4c < 0

b = 0, c = 1. (or any other reasonable answers)

x

10. (a) y

1

2

3

3 2 1 0

5 2 1 2 5 10 17

8.

distinct points.

root.

>0

3 4( k )(k ) > 0

2

9 4k 2 > 0

9

k2 >

4

3

3

<k<

2

2

1

k = 1 or 2 or 1 (or any other reasonable answers)

x-axis.

Therefore, the equation x2 2x 2 = 0 has no real

roots.

19

(b) (i)

11.

1

9

x

(a) y

0

1

1

1

x

y

0

5

2

9

1

2

3

4

1.8 0.2 0.2 1.8

5

5

Therefore, the root of the equation

(b)

4 x (1 x ) = 1

(k + 1)x2 + 4x 5 = 0 is 2.5.

4x 4x + 1 = 0

2

Therefore, the root of the equation 4x(1 x) = 1 is

0.5.

Level 1

12. The graph y = x2 2x k does not intersect the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation x2 2x k = 0 has no real roots.

< 0

13. (a)

1.

x + x 2 = 56

( 2) 2 4(1)( k ) < 0

4 + 4k < 0

k < 1

x + x 56 = 0

( x + 8)( x 7) = 0

2

x+8 = 0

or x 7 = 0

x = 8 (rejected) or

x = 7

x-axis.

Therefore, the equation (k + 1)x2 + 4x 5 = 0 has a

double real roots.

2.

odd number.

=0

x 2 + ( x + 2) 2 = 202

42 4( k + 1)(5) = 0

16 + 20( k + 1) = 0

20k + 36 = 0

x 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 202

k=

2 x 2 + 4 x 198 = 0

x 2 + 2 x 99 = 0

( x + 11)( x 9) = 0

9

5

x + 11 = 0

or x 9 = 0

x = 11 (rejected) or

x = 9

20

150

2 x +

= 50

x

150

x+

= 25

x

x 2 + 150 = 25 x

and 11.

3.

[ x + ( x + 1) + ( x + 2) 2 ] [ x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 + ( x + 2) 2 ] = 94

x 2 25 x + 150 = 0

( x 15)(( x 10) = 0

(3 x + 3) 2 [ x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 + x 2 + 4 x + 4] = 94

9 x 2 + 18 x + 9 (3 x 2 + 6 x + 5) = 94

x 15 = 0 or

x = 15 or

6 x 2 + 12 x + 4 = 94

6 x 2 + 12 x 90 = 0

x 2 + 2 x 15 = 0

( x + 5)( x 3) = 0

Alternative Solution

50 2 x = ( 25 x ) cm

Let x cm be the length, then

2

5.

4.

respectively.

x+5=0

or x 3 = 0

x = 5 (rejected) or

x = 3

is the width.

x ( 25 x ) = 150

( x 2) 2 + ( x 16) 2 = x 2 (Pyth. theorem)

5.

x 2 4 x + 4 + x 2 32 x + 256 = x 2

x 2 36 x + 260 = 0

( x 26)( x 10) = 0

x 26 = 0 or

x = 26 or

7.

x + 2 x 48 = 0

( x + 8)( x 6) = 0

4 x 2 + 148 x 1032 = 0

x 2 + 37 x 258 = 0

( x + 43)( x 6) = 0

x6 = 0

x = 6

x + 43 = 0

or x 6 = 0

x = 43 (rejected) or

x = 6

6.

( 42 + 2 x )( 32 + 2 x ) 42 32 = 1032

150

Let x cm be the length, then x cm is the width.

1 + 9x 2x2 = 5

8.

2x2 9x + 4 = 0

( 2 x 1)( x 4) = 0

2 x 1 = 0 or

x = 0.5 or

21

x 10 = 0

x = 10

2 x 2 + 4 x 96 = 0

x+8 = 0

or

x = 8 (rejected) or

x 25 x + 150 = 0

( x 15)( x 10) = 0

respectively.

x 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 100

25 x x 2 = 150

2

x 15 = 0 or

x = 15 or

x 10 = 0

x = 10 (rejected )

x 2 + ( x + 2) 2 = 102 (Pyth. theorem)

x 10 = 0

x = 10

x4 = 0

x = 4

or x + 20 = 0

x 100 = 0

x = 20 (rejected)

x = 100 or

above the ground.

Level 2

9.

12. (a)

20 20

=1

x 1 x

20 x 20( x 1)

=1

x( x 1)

(b)

x x 20 = 0

( x 5)( x + 4) = 0

2

Base area

= ( 26 2 x )(16 2 x ) cm 2

= ( 4 x 2 84 x + 416) cm 2

4 x 2 84 x + 216 = 0

x 2 21x + 54 = 0

( x 18)( x 3) = 0

x 18 = 0

or x 3 = 0

x = 18 (rejected) or

x = 3

20 x 20 x + 20 = x 2 x

x 5 = 0 or

x = 5 or

4 x 2 84 x + 416 = 200

x+4 = 0

= base area height of the box

x = 4 (rejected)

= 200 x cm 3

= 200(3) cm 3

= 600 cm 3

13. (a)

75

75

=5

x 0.5 x

75 x 75( x 0.5)

=5

x( x 0.5)

(i)

= x ( x + 1) km

= ( x 2 + x ) km

75 x 75 x + 37.5 = 5 x 2 2.5 x

5 x 2.5 x 37.5 = 0

= ( x 1)( x 1) km

2 x x 15 = 0

( 2 x + 5)( x 3) = 0

= ( x 2 2 x + 1) km

2x + 5 = 0

or

11.

( x 2 + x) + ( x 2 2 x + 1) = 16

x 3 = 0

5

x = (rejected) or

2

x=3

300

original cost of one article is $ x .

x

300

15 300 = 25

4

x

15 x

7500

300 =

4

x

15 x 2 1200 x = 30 000

2 x 2 x + 1 = 16

(b)

14.

2 x 2 x 15 = 0

(2 x + 5)( x 3) = 0

2x + 5 = 0

or

x3= 0

x =

5

(rejected) or

2

x = 3

area of CPQ

= shaded area

x 2 80 x 2000 = 0

( x 100)( x + 20) = 0

22

7( 7 x ) 7( 7 2 x ) 2 x x

= 17

2

2

2

49 7 x

49 14 x

2x2

49

= 17

2

2

2

98 49 + 7 x 49 + 14 x 2 x 2 = 34

72

DC =

= 62 + 82 cm

= 10 cm

2 x 2 21x + 34 = 0

( 2 x 17)( x 2) = 0

= (8 + 6.5 + 10 + 12.5) cm

= 37 cm

2 x 17 = 0

or x 2 = 0

x = 2

x = 8.5 (rejected) or

15. (a)

EC 2 + DE 2 (Pyth. theorem)

[( x + 2) + (3 x 1)]( 2 x 1)

cm 2

2

( 4 x + 1)( 2 x 1) 2

=

cm

2

2

8x 2 x 1 2

=

cm

2

1

2

= 4 x x cm 2

2

Level 1

1.

6 x 2 + 11x 10 = 0

(3x 2)( 2 x + 5) = 0

3x 2 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0

2

5

x =

or

x =

3

2

(b) (i)

By (a),

1

= 76

2

8 x 2 2 x 1 = 152

12 x 2 3 = 35 x

4x2 x

2.

8 x 2 2 x 153 = 0

(ii)

8 x 2 2 x 153 = 0

( 4 x + 17)( 2 x 9) = 0

12 x 2 35 x 3 = 0

(12 x + 1)( x 3) = 0

12 x + 1 = 0

or

x3= 0

x =

1

or

12

x = 3

4 x + 17 = 0

or 2 x 9 = 0

17

9

x =

(rejected) or

x =

4

2

x = 4 or

x = 6

x + 4 = 0 or x 6 = 0

3.

EC = BC BE

= BC AD

9 9

= 3 1 + 2 cm

2 2

= (12.5 6.5) cm

= 6 cm

23

( x + 4)( x 6) = 0

x 2 2 x 24 = 0

The required equation is x2 2x 24 = 0.

1

3

or x =

3

2

3

1

x

= 0 or x

= 0

2

3

2 x 3 = 0 or 3x 1 = 0

x =

4.

( 2 x 3)( 3x 1) = 0

6 x 2 11x + 3 = 0

1

2

10. For 3x + 4 x + 1 = 0

2

5.

1

= 4( 3)(1)

4

193

=

16

x=

=

b b 2 4ac

2

(3) (3) 2 4(4)(4)

2( 4)

3 73

8

3 + 73

3 73

=

or

8

8

= 1.44 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.69 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

> 0

6.

root.

= 0

11.

x=

b b 2 4ac

2

(3) ( 3) 2 4(7)(5)

2(7 )

3 149

14

3 + 149

3 149

=

or

14

14

= 1.09 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.66 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

For 2x2 5x + 1 = 0

>0

For x2 8x + 16 = 0

= ( 8) 2 4(1)(16)

= 0

9.

= 0

The equation x2 8x + 16 = 0 has a double real

root.

6 2 4(1)(k ) < 0

36 4k < 0

k >9

The range of possible values of k is k > 9.

The equation 3kx2 4x + 3 = 0 has no real roots.

<0

14.

roots.

8.

3

8

<0

= ( 5) 2 4( 2)(1)

= 17

(3) 2 4(k )( 6) = 0

9 + 24k = 0

k =

13.

( 4) 2 4(1)( 2k ) = 0

16 8k = 0

k = 2

The equation kx2 + 3x 6 = 0 has a double real

root.

= 0

12.

7.

1

x + 1 = 0 has two

4

The equation 3x 2 +

16 36k < 0

4

k>

9

The range of possible values of k is k >

15. (a) x

y

1

8

0

3

1

0

2

1

3

0

4

3

4

.

9

5

8

For 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0

= (3) 2 4( 2)( 4)

= 23

< 0

The equation 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0 has no real roots.

24

(b)

8 cm respectively.

Alternative Solution

Let x cm be the length of the rectangle, then

88

cm is

x

88

2 x +

= 38

x

88

x+

= 19

x

x 2 + 88 = 19 x

(b) The x-intercepts of y = 4x2 4x 3 are 0.5 and

1.5.

Therefore, the roots of the equation 4x2 4x 3 = 0

are 0.5 and 1.5.

17. (a) one

(b) The x-intercepts of y = x2 6x + 9 is 3.

Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 6x = 9 is

3.

20.

number.

x ( 27 x ) = 180

27 x x 2 = 180

x 27 x + 180 = 0

( x 15)( x 12) = 0

x 15 = 0 or x 12 = 0

x = 15 or

x = 12

The two numbers are 12 and 15.

x 2 19 x + 88 = 0

( x 11)( x 8) = 0

x 11 = 0 or x 8 = 0

x = 11 or

x = 8

The length and width of the rectangle are 11 cm and 8 cm

respectively.

180

is the other

x

number.

180

= 27

x

2

x + 180 = 27 x

x 2 27 x + 180 = 0

( x 15)( x 12) = 0

x 15 = 0 or x 12 = 0

x = 15 or

x = 12

The two numbers are 12 and 15.

x+

38 2 x

= (19 x ) cm is the width of the rectangle.

2

x (19 x ) = 88

19 x x 2 = 88

x 19 x + 88 = 0

( x 11)( x 8) = 0

x 11 = 0 or x 8 = 0

x = 11 or

x = 8

2

25

4x 2 8x + 3 = 0

( 2 x 1)( 2 x 3) = 0

2 x 1 = 0 or 2 x 3 = 0

x = 0.5 or

x = 1.5

After 0.5 seconds and 1.5 seconds, the ball is 3 m

above the ground.

The equation x2 ax 40 = 0 has two distinct real

roots.

> 0

21.

Alternative Solution

8x 4 x 2 = 3

a 2 + 160 > 0

a 2 > 160

The square of any numbers is always positive.

The equation x2 ax 40 = 0 has two distinct real

roots for any real values of a.

a = 1 or 2 or 3 (or any other reasonable answers)

2

2 x 1 = m

3

22.

4

1

2

4 x x + m = 0

3

9

x =

b 2 4ac

2a

4

3

4 4( 4) 1 m

3

9

2( 4)

4

16 m

= 3

8

To have two rational roots of different signs, we need

4

16 m >

3

16

16 m >

9

1

m >

9

one point.

The equation ax2 + 4x + c = 0 has a double real

root.

= 0

23.

24.

( 4) 2 4ac = 0

16 4ac = 0

ac = 4

a = 2, c = 2 or a = 1, c = 4 or a = 2, c = 2.

(or any other reasonable answers)

2( x + 1)( x 1) = 5 x + 4

2( x 2 1) = 5 x + 4

2 x2 2 = 5x + 4

2 x2 5x = 6

5

x2 x = 3

2

2

x2

27.

5

5

5

x + = 3+

2

4

4

5

73

=

4

16

5

73

=

4

4

x-axis.

The equation x2 + 2x + k = 0 has no real roots.

< 0

2 2 4( 1)( k ) < 0

4 + 4k < 0

k < 1

k = 4 or 3 or 2 (or any other reasonable

answers)

x=

5

73

4

4

5 + 73

4

or

5 73

4

(2 x + 3)( x 4) = 3x 2

2 x 2 5 x 12 = 3x 2

2 x 2 8 x = 10

Level 2

x2 4 x = 5

28.

x( x 6) + 4 = 0

x2 6x + 4 = 0

x 2 6 x = 4

2

25.

6

6

x 2 6 x + = 4 +

2

2

( x 3) 2 = 5

x3 = 5

x (6 x 5) = 4

x = 3 5

= 3+ 5

or

6x2 5x = 4

3 5

29.

16( x 2 + 4) = 64 x + 9

16 x 2 + 64 = 64 x + 9

16 x 2 4 x = 55

55

x2 4x =

16

2

26.

4

4

x2 4x + = 5 +

2

2

2

( x 2) = 9

x 2 = 3

x = 23

x = 5 or 1

6 x2 5x 4 = 0

(3 x 4)(2 x + 1) = 0

3x 4 = 0

4

x=

3

2x + 1 = 0

or

x =

1

2

2x

3

9( x 2 1) = 2 x

3( x 2 1) =

55 4

4

x2 4 x + = +

2

16

2

9

( x 2) 2 =

16

3

x2=

4

3

x = 2

4

11

5

=

or

4

4

or

30.

9x2 9 = 2x

9x 2x 9 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

2

26

x=

=

b b 2 4ac

2a

( 2) (2) 2 4(9)(9)

2(9)

3

(b) The roots of the required equation are 2 and

2

2(4), i.e. 3 and 8.

2 328

=

18

=

2 82

18

1 + 82

=

9

or

1 82

9

34. (a)

( 2 x + 1)(3 x 1) = 4( x 1)(2 x + 1)

2 x2 5x 3 = 0

(2 x + 1)( x 3) = 0

2x + 1 = 0

or x 3 = 0

x=

1

2

x=3

or

Alternative Solution

( 2 x + 1)(3 x 1) = 4( x 1)(2 x + 1)

( 2 x + 1)(3x 1) 4( x 1)(2 x + 1) = 0

( 2 x + 1)[(3 x 1) 4( x 1)] = 0

( 2 x + 1)( x + 3) = 0

( 2 x + 1)( x 3) = 0

2x + 1 = 0

1

x=

2

or

x3 = 0

or

x=3

( x 1) 2 + 4( x 1) + 4 = 0

x 2x + 1 + 4x 4 + 4 = 0

x2 + 2x + 1 = 0

32.

( x + 1) 2 = 0

x +1 = 0

x = 1

x 2 11x + 24 = 0

The required equation is x 2 11x + 24 = 0 .

3x 2 + 8 x 3 = 0

(3 x 1)( x + 3) = 0

2x 3 = 0

3

x=

2

27

x=

or

3x 2 8 x 3 = 0

The required equation is 3 x 2 8 x 3 = 0 .

or

x+

double real root.

=0

[2( k 5)]2 4(1)(16) = 0

4( k 5) 2 64 = 0

(k 5) 2 16 = 0

(k 5) 2 = 16

k 5 = 4

k = 5 4

=9

or

(b) For k = 9 ,

x 2 2(9 5) x + 16 = 0

x 2 8 x + 16 = 0

or

x4 = 0

or

x=4

1

3

x3 = 0

[ ( x 1) + 2] 2 = 0

2 x 2 11x + 12 = 0

(2 x 3)( x 4) = 0

x = 3

1

=0

3

x 3 = 0 or 3 x + 1 = 0

( x 3)(3 x 1) = 0

( x 1) 2 + 4( x 1) + 4 = 0

33. (a)

x+3= 0

or

x=3

Alternative Solution

( x + 1) 2 = 0

x +1 = 0

x = 1

or

1

1

(b) The roots of the required equation are 1 and

.

3

3

1

i.e. 3 and .

3

35. (a)

x = 3 or

x=8

x 3 = 0 or x 8 = 0

( x 3)( x 8) = 0

3x 1 = 0

1

x=

3

6 x2 + x 1 = 8x2 4x 4

31.

( x 4) 2 = 0

x4= 0

x=4

For k = 1 ,

1

x 2 2(1 5) x + 16 = 0

8 x 2 8 x + 15 = 0

15

=0

(ii) 4 x 2 4 x +

2

19

4x2 4x +

=2

2

19

>3

2

x 2 + 8 x + 16 = 0

( x + 4) 2 = 0

x+4=0

x = 4

The equation x 2 3x ( k + 2) = 0 has real

roots.

0

36. (a)

38. (a)

( 3) 4(1)[( k + 2)] 0

9 + 4(k + 2) 0

4k + 17 0

2

y

17

4

(b)

10

(b)

17

.

4

17

.

4

17

x 2 3x

+ 2 = 0

4

9

2

x 3x + = 0

4

2

x = 0

2

3

x =0

2

3

x=

2

(c)

graph are 1.4 and 1.9.

Therefore, the roots of the equation 2 x 2 x 5 = 0

are 1.4 and 1.9.

39. (a)

x

y

37. (a)

2

5

17

4

Minimum value of k is

(c)

3

16

2

10

1

3

4 x2 4 x + k = 2

4 x 2 4 x + (k 2) = 0

(b)

real roots.

<0

(b) (i)

( 4) 2 4( 4)(k 2) < 0

16 16( k 2) < 0

16k + 48 < 0

k >3

The range of possible values of k is k > 3.

(c)

4 x2 4 x 1 = 0

4x2 4x + 1 = 2

1<3

graph are 0.4 and 4.4.

Therefore, the roots of the equation x 2 = 2( 2 x + 1)

are 0.4 and 4.4.

40. (a)

x

28

43. Let x km/h be the original speed of the car.

240 240

=

x

x + 15

240( x + 15 x)

=

x( x + 15)

5

(240)(15) =

4

4500 =

4

5

4

5

x( x + 15)

x 2 + 15 x

x + 15 x 4500 = 0

( x 60)( x + 75) = 0

2

(b) (i)

Therefore, the root of the equation

x(8 x) = 16 is 4.

The graph of y = kx + 5 x + k touches the

x-axis..

The equation kx 2 + 5 x + k = 0 has a double real

root.

2

41.

=0

x h be the time the larger pipe take to fill up the

swimming pool, then ( x + 6) h is the time the smaller

pipe take to fill up the swimming pool and

V 3

V

+

m is the volume of water filled in the

x

x

+6

5 4(k )(k ) = 0

2

V

=4

V

V

+

x x+6

25 4k 2 = 0

(5 + 2k )(5 2k ) = 0

5 + 2k = 0

or 5 2k = 0

5

5

k=

or

k=

2

2

42.

x 60 = 0 or x + 75 = 0

x = 60 or

x = 75 (rejected)

1

1

V = 4V +

x x+6

x + 6+ x

1 = 4

x( x + 6)

x-intercepts.

The equation 2 x 2 + 3 x k 1 = 0 has two distinct

real roots.

x 2 + 6 x = 8 x + 24

x 2 x 24 = 0

( x 6)( x + 4) = 0

2

x6 =0

x=6

>0

( 3 )2 4( 2 )( k 1 ) > 0

9 8(k + 1 ) > 0

1 8k > 0

1

k<

8

The range of possible values of k is k <

x+4=0

x = 4 (rejected)

swimming pool.

AC 2 + BC 2 = AB 2 (Pyth. theorem)

1

.

8

( x + 3) 2 + (7 x 2) 2 = (6 x + 5) 2

45. (a)

x 2 + 6 x + 9 + 49 x 2 28 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 60 x + 25

(b)

29

or

or

14 x 2 82 x 12 = 0

7 x 2 41x 6 = 0

7 x 2 41x 6 = 0

(7 x + 1)( x 6) = 0

7x + 1 = 0

or

1

x = (rejected) or

7

x6 = 0

x=6

1

AC BC

2

(6 + 3) (7 6 2)

=

cm 2

Area of ABC

2

9 40

=

cm 2

2

= 180 cm 2

=

46. (a)

Perimeter of ABC

= AB + BC + AC

= [(6 6 + 5) + (7 6 2) + (6 + 3)] cm

= ( 41 + 40 + 9) cm

= 90 cm

43

= (5 x 2)(3 x + 1)

8 cm 2

2

= (15 x 2 x 2 48) cm 2

= (15 x 2 x 50) cm 2

15 x 2 x 50 = 186

(b) (i)

(ii)

15 x 2 x 236 = 0

15 x 2 x 236 = 0

(15 x + 59)( x 4) = 0

15 x + 59 = 0

or x 4 = 0

59

x=

(rejected) or

x=4

15

JK = BC BJ KC

= [(3 4 + 1) 4 4] cm

= 5 cm

GH = AB AG HB

= [(5 4 2) 3 3] cm

= 12 cm

4.

x = 5 or

x=2

x + 5 = 0 or x 2 = 0

( x + 5)( x 2) = 0

x 2 + 3x 10 = 0

The required equation is y = x 2 + 3x 10 .

Answer: D

For x 2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 ,

= 22 4(1)(3)

= 8

<0

The equation x 2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 has no real roots.

For x = 0

y = 0 2 + 2(0) + 3

=3

The graph y = x 2 + 2 x + 3 has positive

y-intercept.

5. Answer: B

The graph y = x 2 4 x + c touches the x-axis.

root.

=0

( 4) 2 4(1)(c) = 0

16 4c = 0

c=4

6. Answer: A

The equation x 2 + ( k + 8) x + 8k = 0 has a double

root.

=0

(k + 8) 4(1)(8k ) = 0

2

k 2 + 16k + 64 32k = 0

k 2 16k + 64 = 0

(k 8) 2 = 0

k 8 = 0

k =8

1.

Answer: C

2x2 x 6 = 0

( 2 x + 3)( x 2) = 0

2x + 3 = 0

or x 2 = 0

x=

3

or

2

x=2

2. Answer: B

16 x 2 + 8 x + 1

= ( 4 x + 1) 2

3.

Answer: D

The x-intercepts of the graph are 5 and 2.

The roots of the graph are 5 and 2.

7. Answer: A

The equation x 2 8 x + p = 0 has no real roots.

<0

( 8) 2 4(1)( p ) < 0

64 4 p < 0

p > 16

The range of possible values of p is p > 16.

8. Answer: D

( x 2)( x 4) = ( x 2)

( x 2)( x 4) ( x 2) = 0

( x 2)[( x 4) 1] = 0

( x 2)( x 5) = 0

30

x 2 = 0 or x 5 = 0

x = 2 or

x=5

9. Answer: B

is a root of 2 x 2 + 3 x 5 = 0 .

2 + 3 5 = 0

4 + 6 5 = 2(2 + 3 5) + 5

= 2(0) + 5

.

=5

2

10. Answer: A

The graph y = x 2 8 x + c has two x-intercepts.

roots.

>0

( 8) 2 4(1)(c) > 0

64 4c > 0

c < 16

2

2

5 1

4

3

3

2 4

x=

5

2

2

2

53

3

18

=

5

=

2

106

15

30

4 + 106

30

f ( x) + kg ( x) = 0

30 x 2 8 x 3 = 0

Using the quadratic formula,

k 2 8k + 16 656 + 32k = 0

k 2 + 24k 640 = 0

(k 16)(k + 40) = 0

k 16 = 0

or k + 40 = 0

k = 16

d = 40

or

Lets Discuss

p. 20

Angels method:

5 2 2x 1

x

=

2

3

4

5 2 2x 1

x

=0

2

3 4

Using the quadratic formula,

31

k = 40

( 8) (8) 2 4(30)(3)

2(30)

8 424

60

8 2 106

60

4 106

30

4 + 106

30

41x 2 4 x + 4 + k ( 2 x 2 + x) = 0

( 41 2k ) x 2 ( 4 k ) x + 4 = 0

The equation f ( x ) + kg ( x) = 0 has a single root.

=0

4 106

30

Kens method:

5 2 2x 1

x

=

2

3

4

30 x 2 8 x = 3

x=

or

or

4 106

30

32

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