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Tugasan 2 : Essei MODEL PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN MEDIA MEDIA Media dalam bidang pendidikan telah dihubungkan

terus dengan benda-benda, alat-alat, perkakas dan bahan-bahan pendidikan dan pengajaran. Menurut R.M.W Travers (1970), "istilah media biasanya digunakan untuk mewakili satu edaran komunikasi yang mempunyai ciri-ciri tertentu. Oleh itu kita menyebut tentang media televisyen atau media filem bergerak. Mungkin media pendidikan mewakili sesuatu yang lebih sedikit dari golongan bahan-bahan mendidik." Menurut B.J Enright (1972) pula, "media ialah ikhtiar-ikhtiar untuk memperolehi, memproses atau menyusun kembali maklumat pandang dan dengar atau gabungan maklumat pandang dan dengar dengan cara grafik, fotografik, elekronik ataupun cara mekanik". Jadi fungsi media ialah untuk memperolehi, memproses atau menyusun kembali maklumat pandang dan dengar ataupun gabungan dua jenis maklumat ini.Yusuf Hashim (1997) menyatakan bahawa "media pengajaran yang biasa digunakan dalam pengajaran dan latihan terbahagi kepada lapan iaitu:

FUNGSI MEDIA

Media tayang kaku (transparensi, slaid, mikrofilem dll) Media tayang gerak (video, filem, cakera dll) Grafik (lukisan, poster, kartun dll) Gambar kaku (gambar foto, kad imbasan, poskad dll) Media pameran (model, boneka, diorama dll) Media paparan (papan kapur, papan flanel, papan berita dll) Media audio (tutur, pita audio, cakera padat dll) Media cetak (modul pengajaran, buku teks, akhbar, majalah dll)

Membuat Pengajaran Lebih Tersusun Mengikut pendekatan sistem, media adalah satu komponen dalam pembentukan pengajaran. Untuk memuatkan media dalam pengajaran, pengajaran guru perlu dirancangkan dengan sistematik terlebih dahulu supaya pengajaran lebih tersusun. Berdasarkan pendekatan sistem juga peranan media dikaji, dilaksanakan, dinilai dan kemudian dibaiki mengikut keperluan penuntut dan objektif pembelajaran.

Memberi maklumat Berbagai media yang didapati,dari segi pembelajaran memang memberi maklumat seperti TV pendidikan dan radio, filem, slaid dan sebagainya.

Pembelajaran Menjadi Lebih Dekat

Sesuatu perkara yang perlu dipelajari tetapi berlaku di luar bilik darjah boleh dirakamkan melalui gambar foto, video atau ditulis ceritanya di dalam buku dan kemudian dibawa ke bilik darjah. Perkara-perkara di luar bilik darjah menjadi lebih hampir kepada murid kerana perkara-perkara tersebut boleh dipindahkan di dalam media dan dibawa masuk ke kelas.

Memperkayakan pengalaman Media seperti filem boleh memperkayakan pengalaman murid. Jika murid di negara ini tidak pernah melihat salji, satu filem yang ditayangkan menunjukkan salji serta persekitarannya akan menambah pengalaman murid, seolah-olah murid sendiri mengalami persekitaran seperti itu.

Pembelajaran Lebih Seronok Pembelajaran berlaku apabila terdapat perubahan tingkahlaku. Dengan melihat filem, televisyen dan media lain pelajar akan terangsang untuk belajar. Ini akan menerbitkan rasa seronak kepada pelajar kerana persekitaran bilik darjah adalah steril. Oleh kerana seronok melihat atau mendengar media pengajaran tersebut, perubahan tingkahlaku murid akan lebih mudah terhasil dan seterusnya pembelajaran berlaku.

Pengajaran Lebih Bersifat Individu Jika pengajaran guru dirancang dengan teratur dan rapi, guru tidak perlu berhadapan dengan semua murid pada setiap masa. Guru boleh menggunakan berbagai media untuk menyusun pengajaran dan semua murid tidak perlu menguasai pembelajaran mengikut satu cara sahaja. Pengajaran boleh dijalankan secara individu mengikut kebolehan dan kecepatan pelajar sendiri untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu unit pembelajaran. Murid tidak perlu menanti guru untuk belajar kerana isi pelajaran telah disusun oleh guru mengikut tahap kebolehan murid. MODEL PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN Terdapat berbagai-bagai model bagi pengajaran dan pembelajaran menggunakan media. Di antara model yang diperkenakan ialah Model Komunikasi. Bagi proses komunikasi, berbagai model telah dikemukakan seperti oleh Schramm dan yang lebih kompleks seperti yang digunakan di dalam kejuruteraan telekomunikasi.

Model Komunikasi Model ini telah diperkenalkan oleh R.M. Brown (1963). Proses komunikasi yang berlaku ini terdapat di dalam lima peringkat iaitu: Punca (penghantar) Enkod (bentuk) Saluran (deria atau media) Dekod (kesan)

Penerima Punca (pengantar) Pengantar ialah manusia dan di sini ialah guru. Pengantar akan menghantar atau menyampaikan sesuatu mesej kepada pelajar. Enkod (bentuk) Mesej yang disampaikan oleh guru akan dienkod iaitu akan disusun serta dipilih simbol supaya dapat difahami oleh kedua-duanya, pengantar dan penerimanya. Saluran (deria atau media) Mesej yang telah dienkod tadi hendaklah dihantar melalui sesuatu. Jika melalui gelombang udara, melalui telefon dan jika melalui gambar, melalui video, TV atau foto. Dekod (kesan) Mesej yang telah dibentuk dan dihantar melalui sesuatu saluran tadi perlu dikesan oleh penerima. Jika melalui video, mesej itu hendaklah dekodkan dengan menggunakan otak penerima terlebih dahulu. Kemudian barulah proses penyusunan dan memahami simbol diterima. Penerima Mesej yang diterima iaitu dienkod melalui saluran video tadi telah didekod akhirnya akan diterima oleh penerima. Penerima di sini ialah murid. Jika sekiranya ada penghalang semasa proses itu seperti kod bahasa tidak difahami, murid akan menyoal untuk mendapatkan kefahaman.

Dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran sering berlaku salah anggap di antara guru dan murid. Guru menganggap dia telah menyampaikan pelajaran kepada muridnya sedangkan murid tidak memahami apa yang telah diajarkan oleh gurunya. Ini menyebabkan lain mesej yang hendak disampaikan lain pula mesej yang diterima. Penyampaian mesej kepada murid dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor iaitu pengaruh gangguan, pengaruh media dan pengaruh-pengaruh lain. Pengaruh gangguan ialah seperti bentuk tulisan yang tidak sesuai atau tidak jelas atau suasana bising di dalam atau di luar kelas atau sistem pengudaraan yang kurang selasa. Sementara pengaruh media pula ialah seperti pemilihan media yang kurang tepat seperti penggunaan pembaris yang dihentakkan di meja. Ini menyebabkan murid tidak seronok untuk belajar. Pengaruh-pengaruh lain ialah seperti sikap guru sendiri kurang disenangi oleh pelajar. Kesemua faktor-faktor ini mempengaruhi proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Oleh itu guru perlu memberi perhatian akan keadaan sekeliling di samping penggunaan media untuk mendapatkat proses pengajaran yang berkesan.

Model ASSURE Model ini telah diperkenalkan oleh Heinich, Molanda, Russell (1989). Assure bermaksud " memastikan sesuatu berlaku." Singkatan akronim ASSURE bermaksud, A - Analyse learner (Analisis pelajar) S - State objective (nyatakan objektif) S - Select, modify or make media ( pilih, baiki atau bina media) U - Use media (gunakan media) R - Require learner response (keperluan tindakan) E Evaluate materials (menilai)

Analyse learner (analisis pelajar) Mengenalpasti kesediaan dan pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar berkaitan dengan tajuk yang hendak diajar. Kaji umur, bakat, kelas serta taraf ekonomi pelajar untuk memudahkan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran berlaku.

State objective (nyatakan objektif) Nyatakan objektif dengan khusus berdasarkan pencapaian yang dirancangkan.

Select, modify or make media (pilih, baiki atau bina media) Guru hendaklah memilih media yang sedia ada disesuaikan dengan objektif pengajaran. Sekiranya media itu rosak atau kurang sesuai hendaklah dibaiki terlebih dahulu. Tetapi jika media yang sedia ada tidak bersesuaian dengan objektif pengajaran, guru hendaklah membina media yang baru bersesuai dengan tajuk dan objektif pengajaran.

Use media (gunakan media) Rancangkan bagaimana media itu hendak digunakan. Sediakan alat kemudahan untuk persembahan. Rancangkan aktiviti-aktiviti yang menarik minat murid serta yang memberi motivasi kepada murid supaya murid merasa seronok. Adakan juga aktiviti susulan bagi tujuan pengayaan.

Require learner response (keperluan tindakbalas)

Tindakbalas dari pelajar seperti membuat latihan hasil dari pembelajaran yang berlaku. Adakan juga pengukuhan supaya tindakbalas yang betul diperolehi.

Evaluate materials (menilai) Menilai dan menyemak semula bahan yang telah digunakan. PENUTUP Media pendidikan dan media pengajaran merupakan satu komponen bidang teknologi pendidikan sahaja. Komponen tersebut berfungsi memperolehi, memproses dan menyusun kembali maklumat pandang- dengar. Media boleh berupa alat, perkakas atau bahan grafik, fotografik, elektronik atau mekanik. Komponen lain terdiri daripada isi kandungan matapelajaran, matlamat dan objektif matapelajaran, penyusunan semua perkara tersebut mengikut kebolehan murid dan pengajaran yang disampaikan oleh guru. Semua komponen itu kemudiannya hendaklah dinilai dan dibaiki oleh guru. Adakah objektif tercapai? Bahan yang digunakan membantu P&P? Adakah semua pelajar gunakan cara yang betul? Adakah suasana P&P selesa? Adakah peluang-peluang pemerhati individu diberi? Soalan yang dikemukakan dapat dijawab?

Bibliografi Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff . Teknologi Pengajaran. Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. 1994. Schramm. Teknologi Pengajaran. Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. 1994. R.M. Brown. Teknologi Pengajaran. Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. 1994. R.M.W. Travers. Teknologi Pengajaran. Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. 1994. Othman Jantan. Peranan dan Cabaran Pusat Sumber Sekolah di Alaf Baru. Johor : PSPN. 1999. Rokiah Ismail. Bahan Pelbagai Media. Johor : PSPN. 1999. Yusuf Hashim. Media Pengajaran Untuk Pendidikan dan Latihan. Shah Alam : Siri Pendidikan Fajar Bakti. 1997. http://members.fortunecity.com/uniforce/mediahtml.htm

Topic 1: Principles of Instructional Design

What is Instructional Design?

There are several definitions of instructional design (ID). Some of the more commonly referred to include the following:

a) Instructional design is a systematic approach to facilitating learning by: identifying the purposes of the learning, especially in terms of objectives. developing the learning experiences necessary to achieve those purposes. evaluating the effectiveness of those learning experiences in achieving the purposes. improving the learning experiences, in the light of evaluation, so as to better achieve the purposes. (Commonwealth of Learning, Use and Integration of Media in Open and Distance Learning, 1999).

b.) Instructional design is a systematic approach for the design, development, implementation and evaluation of instruction. (Dick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O., The Systematic Design of Instruction, 2001).

c) Instructional design is the entire process of analysing learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. (Coldevin, G. and Mead, A., Study Guide in Instructional Design, University of Namibia, 2001).

Why is Instructional Design important?

Ensures that all elements of learning units are carefully planned. Appropriate technology integration improves presentation of content. Promotes increased learner interest & interaction with instructional materials. Areas of weakness in instructional process are detected and revised.

Activity

Review the ID definitions presented. Pick out the one that you think is most relevant to your teaching situation, or make the modifications you feel are necessary to make it relevant.

Instructional Design Models

Just as there are numerous definitions of instructional design, so too has been the proliferation of ID models. We have selected three which represent a range from simple to complex.

The ASSURE Model

This model (developed by Heinich, R, Molenda, M. Russell, J. and Smaldino, S. in their book, Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning, 2001) provides an acronym to help practitioners remember the steps they must work through.

ASSURE Model

Analyse learner characteristics State objectives Select, modify or design materials Utilise materials Require learner response Evaluate

With this model, designers must first consider who the learners will be and what characteristics they have which might affect their learning. Next, you state the objectives of the course and the learning objectives for the students. Then you consider the materials. If you can use existing materials, do they suit your objectives or must you modify them? Do you need to design your own materials?

The materials must be presented to the learners, used by them, and they must make responses usually in the form of learner activities. Finally, the learning should be evaluated.

It is worth mentioning here that American educationalists use the term evaluate to measure student achievement whereas in Commonwealth Countries we tend to use the term assess. We talk about assessing learning and evaluating parts of or courses as a whole. The Americans use the term evaluate for both these activities.

The ADDIE Model

Possible the most generic, and most used, of all ID models, the ADDIE process has been the mainstay for many instructional designers over the past two decades.

ADDIE Model

Analyse

Design

Develop

Implement

Evaluate

(Revise)

ADDIE MODEL IN DETAIL

ANALYSIS STAGE

Front-end analysis or instructional needs assessment. Clarifying instructional needs and setting goals (attainment targets). Analysis of learner characteristics and entry behaviours (prior knowledge, attitudes, experience, and skills).

DESIGN STAGE

Conducting an instructional task analysis (steps to achieve instructional goals activity plan). Writing specific instructional or performance objectives. Determine content to be taught. Designing instructional strategies (introduction, review of previous learning, presentation of new information, practice and feedback activities, self-testing, summary, and follow-on activities). Developing assessment instruments (criterion vs norm referenced tests).

DEVELOPMENT STAGE

Selecting and integrating appropriate media and technologies. Producing new materials or adapting conventional materials. Formatively evaluating samples of materials developed (rapid prototyping).

IMPLEMENTATION STAGE

Revising and producing final materials (just-in-time production). Delivering final materials to learners.

EVALUATION STAGE

Conducting summative evaluation (determine value of instructional materials in practice. Based on evaluation review, retain, reject, or revise materials).

The Dick and Carey Model

Another model we would like you to consider is drawn from the classic textbook in the field, Dick, W., Carey, L and Carey, J. (2001) The Systematic Design of Instruction. You will immediately notice that it is somewhat more complex than the two preceding process models and has distinct feedback and revision loops built into it.

Dick & Carey Model will be inserted here.

Activity

Assemble into your designated groups and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the various ID models. Select one that you think is most relevant to your teaching situation, or make the modifications you think are necessary to make it relevant.

Basic ID Reference Materials

Commonwealth of Learning, Use and Integration of Media in Open and distance Learning, Vancouver: COL, 1999.

Dick, W., Carey, L and Carey, J. (2001) The Systematic Design of Instruction. New York: Longman.

Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. and Smaldino, S. (2001). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

http://www.moeyc.gov.jm/projects/pesp/pesp_it_web/Workshop/training.html

The ASSURE Model

To become skilled in todays classrooms it is crucial to know when to use a wide range of instructional strategies and passive and interactive media. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, D. J., & Smaldino, E. S., (2002) stated to use media and technologies effectively a systematic plan for thier use is necessary. They suggest utilizing the ASSURE model as a guide, which identifies six major steps in an instructional planning process. The Assure Model is: A procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technology and media into the teaching process. A systematic approach to writing lesson plans. A plan used to help teachers organize instructional procedures. A plan used to help teachers do an authentic assessment of student learning. A model that can be used by all presenters.

Analyze learners:
General Characteristics This is a description of the class as a whole. This includes such information as the number of students, grade or age level, gender, socioeconomic factors, exceptionalities, and cultural/ethnic/or other types of diversity. Entry Competencies This is a description of the types of knowledge expected of the learners. Ask questions such as: Do the learners have the knowledge base required to enter the lesson? Do the learners have the entry competencies and technical vocabulary for this lesson? Have the learners already mastered the skills you are planning to teach? Do the learners have biases or misconceptions about the subject? Learning Styles: This is a description of the learning stylistic preferences of the individual members of the class. First of all the instructor will want to find the learners perceptual preferences and strengths. The main choices are auditory, visual, and tactile/kinesthetic. Slower learners tend to prefer kinesthetic experiences. The instructor will then determine the information processing habits of the learners. This category includes a broad range of variables related to how individuals tend to approach the cognitive processing of information. Finally the instructor will determine the motivational and physiological factors of the learners. When it comes to motivational factors the instructor needs to consider things such as anxiety, degree of structure, achievement motivation, social motivation, cautiousness, and competitiveness. The most prominent influences in physiological factors are sexual differences, health, and environmental conditions.

State Objectives
Statements describing what the learner will do as a result of instruction. Things to keep in mind as you write your objectives are: Focus on the learner, not the teacher Use behaviors that reflect real world concerns Objectives are descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using the ABCD format.

Audience:
Who is the audience? Specifies the learner(s) for whom the objective is intended.

Behavior:
What do you want them to do? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstrated as learner performance, an observable, measurable behavior, or a real-world skill. Use an action verb from the helpful verbs list if you have difficulty doing this.

Condition:
Under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill being taught? Be sure to include equipment, tools, aids, or references the learner may or may not use, and/or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform.

Degree:
How well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptable performance (include time limit, range of accuracy, proportion of correct responses required, and/or qualitative standards.) Examples of Objective Statements: The Drama I class will be able to identify and draw stage directions using pencils and rulers with 100% accuracy. (Or) The kindergarten class will identify the colors, red, green, and blue using blocks 9 out of 10 tries. (Or) The Tenth grade English class will identify and discuss the effects of symbolism in the short story "Young Goodman Brown" using their text, Paper, and Pen in one hour. Use as many objective statements needed in order to meet the different objectives for the lesson. Use the following questions to assess objectives. Does the objective allow you to do the following with your lesson? 1. Identify what the expectations are for the learner 2. Identify the necessary requirements for the learning environment 3. Assess learning 4. Determine needs for appropriate media or materials How would you classify your objective? Is the learning outcome primarily: 1. Cognitive? 2. Affective? 3. Psychomotor / Motor Skill? 4. Interpersonal? 5. Intrapersonal?

Select, modify, design Methods, Media, &


Materials
This is the step where the Instructor will build a bridge between the audience and the objectives. You need to decide what method you will primarily use: a lecture, group work, a field trip, etc. What media you will use: photos, multimedia, video, a computer? Are you using store bought materials, getting an outside resource to provide materials, modifying something you already have, or making something from scratch? Selection Criteria Media Selection Media should be selected on the basis of student need. We must consider the total learning situation. Should follow learning objectives. Must be appropriate for the teaching format. Should be consistent with the students' capabilities and learning styles. Should be chosen objectively. Should be selected in order to best meet the learning outcomes. No single medium is the total solution. Does it match the curriculum? Is it accurate and current? Does it contain clear and concise language? Will it motivate and maintain interest? Does it provide for learner participation? Is it of good technical quality? Is there evidence of its effectiveness (e.g., field-test results)? Is it free from objectionable bias and advertising Is a user guide or other documentation included?

Utilize Methods, Media, & Materials


Plan of how you are going to implement your media and materials. For each type of media and/or materials listed underSelect, modify, and design describe in detail how you are going to implement them into your lesson to help your learners meet the lesson's objective. Please write in full sentences; do this for each item. In order to utilize materials correctly there are several steps to creating good student-centered instruction. 1. Preview the material- Never use anything in class you havent thoroughly checked out. 2. Prepare the material- Make sure you have everything you need and that it all works. 3. Prepare the environment- Set up the classroom so that whatever youre doing will work in the space you have. 4. Prepare the learners- Give the students an overview, explain how they can take this information and use it and how they will be evaluated up front. 5. Provide the learning experience- Teaching is simply high theatre. Showmanship is part of the facilitators job. Teaching and learning should be an experience not an ordeal.

Require Learner Participation


Describe how you are going to get each learner "actively and individually involved in the lesson. Ex: games, group work, presentations, skit, etc. Remember that the days of sage on the stage are gone. Our role in the classroom today is one of a guide on the side and students, especially with technology connected lessons, need to experience learning. All activities should provide opportunities to manipulate the information and allow time for practice during the demonstration of the skill.

Evaluate and Revise


Describe how you will, in the future, measure whether or not the lesson objectives were met. Were the media and the instruction effective? Evaluate student performance: How will you determine whether or not they met the lesson's objective? The evaluation should match the objective. Some objectives can be adequately assessed with a pen and paper test. If the objectives call for demonstrating a process, creating a product, or developing an attitude, the evaluation will frequently require observing the behavior in action. Evaluate media components: How will you determine the media effectiveness? Evaluate instructor performance: How will you determine whether or not your own performance as instructor/facilitator was effective?

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