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# What is the matrix?

Data sheets
Arrange information
Rows (i)
Columns (j)

Rectangular (also squared)
Row vector / column vector
B = b1, b2, b3,,bn

C= c1
c2

cn

Zero Matrix
A= 0
A=( 0 0 0)
A= 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Diagonal Matrix
All zeros except the diagonal
A11,a22,a33,,ann

10 0 0
0 20 0
0 0 -30

Principal or main matrix

Matrix multiplication
Whenever we want to multiply two matrix ,
the number of columns in the first matrix
should be the same as the number of rows in
the second matrix.

A B = AB
m x n n x p m x p

5 0 3
2 1 2
| |
|

\ .
2 4
1 1
3 2

| |
|

|
|

\ .
1 14
11 13

| |
|

\ .
=

4 5
1 7

| |
|
\ .
4 5
1 7

| |
|
\ .
1 0
0 1
| |
|
\ .
=
Identity Matrix

Matrix A times = A
1 0
0 1
| |
|
\ .
1 0
0 1
| |
|
\ .
How do we multiply scalar by
a matrix?
Example:
Matrix A = ( 7 3 -10 )
a= 5 b= -2

A*a = a*A = ?
A = ( 2 -1 3) B = 2
5
4

AB= ?
BA=?
Commutative?
A= B=

AB = ?
BA= ?
3 6
5 2
| |
|
\ .
2 3
1 5

| |
|
\ .
A= B=

AB= ?
BA= ?
2 6
5 1
| |
|
\ .
3 6
5 2
| |
|
\ .
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Matrix inverse
A square matrix B is the inverse of a square
matrix A if AB = BA = I , where I is the identity
matrix.

B = A
-1
How to obtain the inverse
for a 2x2 squared Matrix
If and

and we know that AA
-1
= I, it means that
a b
A
c d
| |
=
|
\ .
1
e f
A
g h

| |
=
|
\ .
1 0
0 1
a b e f
c d g h
| || | | |
=
| | |
\ .\ . \ .

1 0
0 1
ae bg af bh
ce dg cf dh
+ +
| | | |
=
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
ae + bg =1
ce + dg = 0

af + bh = 0
cf + dh = 1
d
e
=

c
g

b
f

a
h
=

1
d b
A
c a

| |
|

=
|

|
|
\ .
1
1
d b
A

| |
=
|

\ .
Determinant

If the Determinant = 0, the Matrix has no
inverse.
Examples

2
2 1
a
M
| |
=
|

\ .
2
) ? a M =
2
5 4
)
4 5
b M

| |
=
|

\ .
? a =
Examples

5 2
2 0
11 2
44 8
?
A
BA
B
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
=
1 3
4 12
B
| |
=
|
\ .
Systems of linear equations
2x+3y=3
x-y=4
2 3
1 1
| |
|

\ .
x
y
| |
|
\ .
3
4
| |
=
|
\ .
A X = C
X = A
-1
C
Exercise
6x 2y= 14
3x+4y=2
Example
It doesnt matter the size of the Matrix (but
must be squared).
Determinant for a 3x3 Matrix
det A = a( e i - f h ) b ( d i f g ) + c ( d h e g )
where
a b c
A d e f
g h i
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
e.g.
x+2y+3z=5
y+4z=2
5x+6y=5
x
y
z
| |
|
|
|
\ .
5
2
5
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
X = A
-1
C
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 6 5
4 1 0
3 2 1
A
A
-1
T
)
det (A)

Transponse of A, Adjugate of A
T
times the 1
over determinant of A.
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

1 4 5
4 15 20
5 18 24
1
A
Quiz #1
Remember there will be a short
quiz the next Thursday 16
th
.

math3cideb2012.blogspot.mx
HOMEWORK >:)
Research how to obtain the determinant
for a 3x3 Matrix, in other words, how do we
obtain :
det A = a( e i - f h ) b ( d i f g ) + c ( d h e g ).
Research how to obtain the adjugate matrix (3x3).
Just write it down, you dont have to hand it in.