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By: Edgar B.

Manubag, CE, PhD

Another type of beam failure other than bending is shear failure. Shear failures are very dangerous especially if it happens before flexure failure because they can occur without warning. To avoid shear failure, the Code provides permissible shear values that have larger safety factors compared to bending failure, thus ensuring ductile type of failure.

Shear failures on location of the load applied relative to the nearest reaction, known as the shear span. Shear failure may be (a) diagonal tension failure, (b) shearcompression failure, and (c) splitting or true shear failure.

Diagonal tension failure usually occur when the shear span is greater than 3d or 4d.

Shear-compression failure occurs when the shear span is from d to 2.5d.

Splitting failure occurs when the shear span is less than the effective depth d.

For a beam with no web reinforcement, the shearing force that causes the first diagonal cracking can be taken as the shear capacity of the beam. For a beam that does contain web reinforcement, the concrete is assumed to carry a constant amount of shear force Vc, and the web reinforcement need only be designed for the shear force Vs in excess of that carried by the concrete, or

SHEAR STRENGTH PROVIDED BY CONCRETE, Vc FOR NONPRESTRESSING MEMBERS


5.11.3.1 Shear strength V, shall be computed by provisions of Sec. 5.11.3.1.1 through 5.11 .3.1.4, unless a more detailed calculation is made in accordance with Sec. 5.11.3.2.
5.11.3.1.1 For members subject to shear and flexure only,

SHEAR STRENGTH PROVIDED BY CONCRETE, Vc FOR NONPRESTRESSING MEMBERS


5.11.3.1.2 For members subject to axial compression.

When factored shear force Vu, exceeds strength Vc, shear reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy Eq. 4 - 1 and Eq. 4 - 2. The shear strength provided by the stirrups is given by the following but shall not be taken greater than

(a) When shear reinforcement perpendicular to axis of member is used,

(b) When inclined stirrups are used as shear reinforcement,

(c) When shear reinforcement consist of a single bar or a single group of parallel bars, all bent up at the same distance from the support,

According to Section 5.11.5.1 of the Code, shear reinforcement may consist of: a) stirrups perpendicular to axis of member, and b) welded wire fabric with wires located perpendicular to axis of member.

For nonprestressed members, shear reinforcement may also consist of: a) stirrups making an angle of 45 or more with longitudinal tension reinforcement, b) longitudinal reinforcement with bent portion making an angle of 30 or more with the longitudinal tension reinforcement, c) combinations of stirrups and bent longitudinal reinforcement, and d) spirals.

According to Section 5.11.5.4 of the Code, the spacing s of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular to axis of members shall not exceed d/2 in nonprestressed members and (3/4)h in prestressed members, nor 600 mm. Inclined stirrups and bent longitudinal reinforcement shall be so spaced that every 45 line, extending toward the reaction from middepth of member d/2 to longitudinal tension reinforcement, shall be crossed by at least one line of shear reinforcement

According to Section 5.11.5.5 of the Code, a minimum area of shear reinforcement shall be provided in all reinforced concrete flexural members (prestressed and nonprestressed) where factored shear force Vu, exceeds one-half the shear strength provided by concrete Vc, except: (a) Slabs and footings (b) Concrete joist construction defined by Sec. 5.8.11 (c) Beams with total depth not greater than 250 mm, 2- times thickness of flange, or the width of web, whichever is greatest.

Where shear reinforcement is required, the minimum area of shear reinforcement shall be computed by .

1. For non-prestressed members, sections located less then a distance d from face of support may be designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance d.

2. For prestressed member, sections located less than a distance h/2 from face of support may be designed for the same shear V, as that computed at a distance h/2.

Reaction at support Vu

L/2

Determine the minimum cross section required for a rectangular beam from a shear standpoint so that no web reinforcement is required by the Code if Vu = 168 kN and fc = 27.6 MPa. Use Vc=1/6 fc bd. Assume d= 1.75b.

Given: Vu = 168 kN fc = 27.6 Mpa Vc=1/6 fc bd. d= 1.75b Reqd: Determine the minimum cross section required for a rectangular beam

Vc = 0.85 Vc

According to Section 5.11.5.5, shear reinforcement is necessary only if Vu/ > Vc

But d=1.75b

Computing for d:

A reinforced concrete beam pas the following properties: Beam width, b = 320 mm Effective depth, d = 640 mm Concrete strength, fc= 25 MPa; Reinforcing steel strength, fy= 400 MPA, If the factored shear force at the critical section is 200,000 N, compute the nominal shear carried by the shear reinforcement according to the ACI Specifications: Hint: Vc=1/6 times the square root of fc times b times d. Use = 0.85.

Given: b = 320 mm d = 640 mm fc= 25 MPa; fy= 400 MPA, Vu=200,000 N Vc=1/6fc bd = 0.85.

Reqd: Vs=?

Compute nominal shear strength of concrete Vc

The nominal shear capacity of the section is given by:


Vn = Vc+ Vs

Compute nominal shear strength Vn Vn= Vu

From: Vn = Vc+ Vs,


compute Vs:

235,294 = 170,667 + Vs
Vs = 64,627N

The required stirrup spacing for a 10 mm diameter ties in a reinforced concrete beam with effective beam depth of 800 mm to carry the net shear of 83.8 kN, if fy=200MPa, is nearest to:

Given: diameter of ties=10 mm d=800 mm Vs= 83.8 kN fy=200MPa


But Vs=83.8 kN

Required: stirrup spacing


SOLUTION Substituting to s: The required stirrup spacing is given by the formula: s=Avfyd Vs
Note: We cannot check for maximum spacing because bw is not given.

s=Avfyd Vs

A simply supported reinforced concrete beam with a width b of 230 mm and an effective depth d of 500 mm has a span of 6m. The beam carries a live load of 18 kN/m and a dead load of 9 kN/m including its own weight. Using 10-mm diameter stirrups, determine the required spacing near the support. Assume fy = 345 MPa and fc = 28MPa.

Given: b= 230 mm d=500 mm L= 6m live load= 18 kN/m dead load= 9 kN/m including its own weight. s = 10-mm, fy = 345 MPa fc = 28MPa

Reqd: spacing near the support.

According to section 5.11.1.3.1 of NSCP, sections located less than a distance d from the face of support may be designed for the same shear V, as that computed at a distance d.
SOLUTION: Compute wu: wu = 1.4DL + 1.7LL wu = 1.4(9) + 1.7(18) wu = 43.20 kN/m Compute Reaction R: R =wuL/2 R = 43.2(6)/2 R= 129.6kN

Compute shear distance d:

Vu

at

Vu=R-wud Vu = 129.6-wud Vu = 129.6- 43.2(0.50) Vu = 108kN


Compute concrete Shear strength Vc: Compute Vc: Vc =0.85(101.42kN) = 86.207 kN

Vc = 1/6 fc bwd Vc = 1/6 28 (230)(500) Since Vu = 108kN > Vc=86.207 kN web reinforcement is Vc = 101,420 N necessary. Vc =101.42 kN

Compute nominal Check if the beam size is Shear strength Vn and adequate for the required steel shear strength Vs: shear: Vn Vn =Vc + Vs = Vu/ =108/0.85 =127.06

Vn =Vc + Vs Vs =Vn-Vc 127.06- 101.42 Vs = 25.64 kN

Using vertical U stirrup:

Since
Smax = d/2 = 500/2 = 250 mm or Smax= 600mm

> Vs

Therefore; use s = 250 mm

Maximum stirrup spacing (Code requirement 5.11.5.4)

> Vs