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# Abundant, Deficient And Perfect Numbers

ABUNDANT
Abundant, that means that the sum of their factors is more than their product An abundant number is a composite number whose factors, without the number itself, have a sum greater than the number. For example, 12 has factors of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. The sum 1+2+3+4+6 = 16, and 16 > 12. Therefore, 12 is abundant.

The smallest odd abundant number is 945 The smallest not divisible by 2 or by 3 is 5391411025 whose prime factors are 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, and 29 (sequence A047802 in OEIS). An algorithm given by Iannucci in 2005 shows how to find the smallest abundant number not divisible by the first k primes.[1] If represents the smallest abundant number not divisible by the first k primes then for all we have: for k sufficiently large. Infinitely many even and odd abundant numbers exist. Marc Delglise showed in 1998 that the natural density of the set of abundant numbers and perfect numbers is between 0.2474 and 0.2480.[2] Every proper multiple of a perfect number, and every multiple of an abundant number, is abundant. Every integer greater than 20161 can be written as the sum of two abundant numbers.[3] An abundant number which is not a semiperfect number is called a weird number; an abundant number with abundance 1 is called a quasiperfect number, however, none have yet been found.

DEFICIENT
Deficient: their sum is smaller than their product. A deficient number is a composite number in which the sum of its factors is less than the given number. For example, the number 8 has factors (divisors) of 1, 2, 4, and 8. If you disregard 8 as a factor, then the sum 1 + 2 + 4 = 7 and 7 is less than 8. Therefore, 8 is deficient.

Properties
An infinite number of both even and odd deficient numbers exist All odd numbers with one or two distinct prime factors are deficient All proper divisors of deficient or perfect numbers are deficient.

PERFECT NUMBER
A perfect number is one whose factors are equal to a given number. A perfect number is a whole number, an integer greater than zero; and when you add up all of the factors less than that number, you get that number. Examples number 6, factor for 6 are 1, 2, 3 So, 6 is perfect because 1+2+3 = 6.

P(n) for the sum of all the proper divisors of the number n. If P(n) > n, then n is called an abundant number. If P(n) < n, then n is called a deficient number. If P(n) = n, then n is called a perfect number.

Identifying these interesting numbers provides motivation for students to develop their number sense while practicing their arithmetic facts. You could have students make a table listing the numbers from 1 to 100 in Column 1. In Column 2, have them write all the factors of each number, including 1 and the number. In Column 3, have them find the sum of the factors (without including the number itself). In Column 4, identify the nature of the number.

Have students work together to draw conclusions from their table. What patterns do they see? How many perfect numbers are there less than 100? Are there more abundant or deficient numbers? Are square numbers perfect? What about even numbers? Odd numbers?