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REVERSE ENGINEERING AND REDESIGN

Presented by: Sumeet Ghodke (Reg. No. 122090005)

INTRODUCTION
Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, object or system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. It often involves taking something apart and analyzing its working in detail to try to make a new device or program that does the same thing without copying anything from the original.

REASONS FOR REVERSE ENGINEERING


Lost documentation Product analysis. To examine how a product works, what components it consists of, estimate costs, and identify potential patent infringement. Military or commercial spying- Learning about an enemy's or competitor's latest research by stealing or capturing a prototype and dismantling it. Creation of unlicensed/unapproved duplicates Academic/learning purposes Curiosity Learning: learn from others' mistakes.

REVERSE ENGINEERING OF MECHANICAL


DEVICES The reverse-engineering process involves measuring an object, testing and then reconstructing it as a 3D model. The physical object can be measured using 3D scanning technologies like CMMs, laser scanners, structured light digitizers or computed tomography. The scanned object is studied for its defects, optimization and redesigned accordingly. A prototype is prepared and tested and accordingly the changes are made. Using NC/CNC machines the object is manufactured.

CASE STUDY:
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PRESSURE TRANSDUCER FOR THE CONDITION MONITORING OF THE OIL LUBRICATION SYSTEM FOR GENERATOR SET

INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM

The bottom line here is that any rather sudden rise or fall in oil pressure should be taken as a signal that your engines oiling system needs attention.

PRESSURE GAUGE MOUNTING ON GEN-SET

CAUSE OF LOW PRESSURE:

Filter blockage Low oil level Damaged oil pan or pick-up tube High Oil Worn Oil Pump

MARKET SURVEY
MANUFACTURER Pricol RICO Saudamini VDO

RICO COMPONENT ANALYSIS


ADVANTAGES Robust construction Small in size Easy to mount

DRAWBACKS Hystersis due to torsional spring Not precisely and accurate Assembly not easy to repair Less life due to use of diaphragm

DIFFERENT MECHANISMS FOR PRESSURE MEASUREMENT


BOURDON BELLOW U-TUBE MANOMETER

DIAPHRAGM

SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER

DESIGN SELECTION

DESIGN OF CYLINDER
FAILURE THEORIES USED FOR DESIGN: For calculation of cylinder thickness (t) Maximum principle strain theory Clavarinos theory Birnies theory Maximum shear stress theory Distortion energy theory
Material
For Cyl. ID=8mm Steel Brass 0.01677 0.04061 0.02096 0.05076 0.77 0.7867 0.8106 1.1009 1.1307 2 2 2 2

ta

T1=t+ta

For Cyl. ID=10mm


Steel Brass 1.08

(Continued-)

FEM Approach: (Structural Analysis)


Parameters- Burst Pressure (Pb)= 20 bar , per = 50 MPa

Equivalent Stress(max)=1.62MPa

Max Principle Stress(max)= 0.2825 MPa

Max Shear Stress(max) =0.8871MPa

Total Deformation(max)=30.36 nm

Hence cylinder is safe

DESIGN OF PISTON

DESIGN OF O-RINGS
IMPORTANT PARAMETERS FOR O-RING SELECTION:
SEAL TYPE STRETCH VALUE COMPRESSION VALUE GROOVE WIDTH MATERIAL

O-RINGS WORKED ON
SILICON- ACCEPTED WITH BEST RESULTS NITRILE- FRICTION OBSERVED WHITON- FRICTION OBSERVED TEFLON- NO DEFORMABILITY

Failure of O-rings:

DESIGN OF SPRING
Material used: Spring steel (Unalloyed, oil hardened and tempered) Type of ends: Square & ground Given parameters: Pressure= 7.5 bar Max working displacement= 22.5 mm Calculation Results:
Wire Dia. Spring 1 Spring 2 Mean coil Dia. No. of turns Free length

5.8mm 8mm

0.8mm 1mm

15 10

42 40.5

Spring-1 for Cylinder having ID=8mm Spring-2 for Cylinder having ID=10mm

JOINTS USED
FEM Approach: (Structural Analysis) Parameters- Burst Pressure (Pb)= 20 bar , per = 50 MPa
Head hex nutEnd hex nut-

Hence joints are safe

PREDICTING SEAL FRICTION


Theoretical Approach: Prediction of Coulomb friction (F) involves Friction due to seal squeeze (Fc) Friction due to pressure (FH) i.e F = FC + FH where, FC = fc x Lf & FH = fh x Ar Lf = Piston circumference Ar = Seal projected area

Friction due to O-ring compression

Friction due to fluid pressure

(Continued-)

Parameters - Seal shore A hardness=70

Variation of Pressure force (Fp) & Friction force (Fc) with Cylinder ID

Results: (For 0.5 Bar pressure) For Cyl. ID


Total Frictional force (F) Pressure force (Fp) Avail. Force (Fp - F)

8mm
1.641 N 2.513 N 0.872 N

10mm
2.1884 N 3.927 N 1.7386 N

TYPES OF LINEAR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

A . Linear Potentiometer

B . Strain Gauge

C. L.V.D.T.

D . Capacitive Transducers

TESTING OF THE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER


TEST RIG
PRESSURE TRANSDUCER TESTS:
CALIBRATION TEST OVER LOAD TEST ENDURANCE TEST OF FLUCTUATING PR. TEST FLICK TEST

TEST RESULTS
FOR 8mm CYLINDER
Pressure Vs Displacement curve 20 UPPER LIMIT LOWER LIMIT IDEAL LOADING UNLOADING
20 UPPER LIMIT LOWER LIMIT IDEAL LOADING UNLOADING

FOR 10mm CYLINDER


Pressure Vs Displacement curve

15

15

Displacement in mm

Displacement in mm

10

10

-5

-5

3 Pressure in Bar

3 Pressure in Bar

ERROR OBSERVED: Zero error Hysteresis error

CONCLUSION
Reverse engineering o Tool to understand current design solutions and technology o Save time and gain insight on current design challenges and solutions

Questions?

Thank you!!!