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INTRODUCTION

HISTORY OF CNC
STAPES OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS ISO MACHINE TOOL AXIS DEFINITION RIGHT HAND RULE Automation NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLS: NC SYSTEM ELEMENTS

DEFINITION OF CNC(COMPUTER NUMERICAL

CONTROL)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

NC & CNC INDUSTRIES MOST AFFECTED by CNC SAMPLE PRODUCTS OF CNC MANUFACTURING ADVANTAGES OF CNC TYPES of CNC CONTROL SYSTEMS PROGRAM INPUT DEVICE PART PROGRAM PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS (GCODES) MISLANIOUS FUNCTIONS (M CODES) CNC TURNING OPERATION APT (AUTOMATICALLY PROGRAM TOOL)

The first CNC machines were built in the 1980s


In CNC (Computer Numerical Control), the

instructions are stored as a program in a micro computer attached to the machine. The computer will also handle much of the control logic of the machine, making it more adaptable than earlier hardwired controllers.

1949

US Air Force asks MIT to develop a "numerically controlled" machine. 1952 Prototype NC machine demonstrated (punched tape input) 1980 CNC machines (computer used to link directly to controller)

1990-

DNC: external computer control programmer to machine tool controller

METAL MACHINING PROCESS

MILLING

TURNING PROCESS BY LATH

AUTOMATION NC MACHINE CNC MILLING CNC TURNING

ISO MACHINE TOOL AXIS DEFINITION

RIGHT HAND RULE Vertical Machine Horizontal Machine

Automation: Designing, building and implementing


automatic machines. How can such an intriguing concept that has the potential to keep manufacturing located domestically also cause some to be so concerned. WHY AUTOMATION? As the above role descriptions start to mention, there are many reasons to automate a manufacturing process. These include: Reducing labor; Avoiding labors sick days, lunch breaks, being late for work;

Improving quality;
Reducing waste; Enabling production of multiple shifts and weekends; Increasing repeatability and quality; Increasing Workmans Compensation claims and

expenses; Keeping production onshore.

The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and

1950s An NC machine tool is functionally the same as a conventional machine tool. The technological capabilities NC machine tools in terms of machining are no different from those of conventional ones. The difference is in the way in which the various machine functions and slide movements are controlled.

In CNC (Computer Numerical Control), the

instructions are stored as a program in a micro computer attached to the machine. The computer will also handle much of the control logic of the machine, making it more adaptable than earlier hardwired controllers.

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NC MACHINES
There were the first generation of automatically controlled machines. These machines used punched card or punched tape and later magnetic tape & floppies. These machines worked in off line or batch made, where firstly all the instructions are punched, compiled and then cutting process takes place (i.e., in batches) These are generally programmed in part program i.e., G-Codes and M-Codes. It is very difficult to program complex part with these programs. The programs are difficult to understand. If a wrong code is punched, then it can cause accident because the program can be tested in actual shop floor run only.

CNC MACHINE
There are advanced version of NC machine. These machines use a dedicated computer on which instructions are typed on console keyboard. The machines are programmed in on line mode i.e. we get the output (cutting) as the instruction is typed in. These machines can be used for diagnostics also. These machines use Part program as well as later generation language like APT and ADAPT etc. These can program the complex parts, because of support of programming languages. Programs are easy to understand. The program checked at the pre-run stage through the on screen simulation software(GNC: Graphic NC) supplied with

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CNC MILLING

CNC TURNING

CNC LASER CUTTING

CNC PLASMA CUTTING

etc

Aerospace

Machinery
Electrical Fabrication

Automotive
Instrumentation Mold making

etc.

Easier to program;

Easy storage of existing programs;


Easy to change a program Avoids human errors

CNC machines are safer to operate


Complex geometry is produced as cheaply as simple

ones
Usually generates closer tolerances than manual

machines

Open-loop control

Closed-loop control

Open Loop vs. Closed Loop controls

The machine control unit (MCU) is the heart of a CNC system. It is used to perform the following functions: Read coded instructions Decode coded instructions Implement interpolations (linear, circular, and helical) to generate axis motion commands Feed axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for driving the axis mechanisms Receive the feedback signals of position and speed for each drive axis Implement auxiliary control functions such as coolant or spindle on/off, and tool change

The program input device is the mechanism for part programs to be entered into the CNC control. The most commonly used program input devices are keyboards, punched tape reader, diskette drivers, through RS 232 serial ports and networks.

CODE

FUNCTION

G00 G01 G02

Rapid Traverse Linear Interpolation Circular Interpolation(Clockwise)

G03
G04 G05 G17 G18 G19 G33

Circular Interpolation(Counter Clockwise)


Dwell Hold/Delay XY Plane designation ZX Plane designation ZY Plane designation Thread Cutting.

CODE

FUNCTION

G40
G41 G42

Cutter Compensation-Cancel
Cutter Compensation-Left Cutter Compensation-Right

G63
G70 G71 G80 G81-G89 G90

Thread Cutting Cycle.


Dimension in inch units. Dimension in metric units. Canned cycle cancel Canned cycles Absolute dimensioning.

CODE

FUNCTION

G91 G92

Incremental dimensioning Zero presset.

G94
G95

Feed rate in mm/min.


Feed rate in mm/rev.

CODE M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M17 M30 Program end.

FUNCTION

Spindle on (Forwardly) Spindle on (Reversely/Back words) Spindle off. Tool change. Sub program end. All program stop/All machine function stop and rewind.

Using codes like G70 and G73 in a program to

complete a test job. The component will be the subject to the following data Tool 1: Rough Turn (G73); Speed: 150 m/min; Feed: 0.3mm/rev Tool 2: Finish Turn (G70); Speed: 180 m/min; Feed: 0.15mm/rev Material: CAST IRON CASTING; 8mm Machining amount on diameter; 2mm machining amount on Faces.

O0011 (Program Number) ; ; N10 G21 G40 G96 G99; (Safe start) N20 G50 S2700; N30 G00 X400 Z300 T0000; N40 M01; ; ; N50 T0100 ;( Tool no. 1 Rough Turn G73) N60 G00 G96 X26 Z0 S150 T0101 M13; N70 G01 X-2 F0.3; N80 G00 X60 Z3;

N90 G73 U4 W2 R3; N100 G73 P110 Q200 U2 W0.1 F0.3; N110 G00 X6; N120 G01 Z0 F0.15; N130 X10 C-1; N140 Z-10; N150 X20 Z-15; N160 X30 Z-30; N170 Z-42 R2; N180 X50 C-2 N190 Z-70; N200 X60; N210 G00 X400 Z300 T0100; N220 M01; ;

; N230 T0200;(Tool no. 2 Finish Turn G70) N240 G00 X60 Z3 S180 T0202 M13; N250 G70 P110 Q200; N260 G00 X400 Z300 T0200; N270 M01; ; ; N280 M02; (End Program)

PART NO/EXAMPLE/ MACHIN/MM, PRINT/ON CLPRINT/ON $$ PART GEOMETRY SP=POINT/80,30,35 P1=POINT/35,10,5 P2=POINT/20,25,5 P3=POINT/50,25,5 P4=POINT/15,55,5

P5=15,55,5 $$DRILL DIA 8MM SPINDEL/950,CLW SPINDL/ON COOL/MIST $$ DRILLING OPERATION ON START FROM / SP RAPID,GOTO/P1 $$ DRILL CIRCLE WITH FEED RATE OF 0.5 MM/REV

AND R- PLANE AT 2 MM
CYCLE /DRILL, -15, MMPR,0.5, 2

GOTO /P2 CYCLE / DRILL, -15, MMPR ,0.5,2 GOTO / P3 CYCLE / DRILL, -15, MMPR,0.5, 2 GOTO / P4 CYCLE / DRILL, -15, MMPR,0.5, 2 GOTO/P5 CYCLE / DRILL, -15, MMPR, 0.5, 2 CYCLE /OFF COOLNT/OFF SPINDL / OFF RAPID,GODLTA/15 REWIND FINI