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Motors & Motor Controllers

ECE 450

AC or DC Motors
AC
Few robots use AC except in factories Most of those that use AC first convert to DC

DC
Dominates in robotics Must be bidirectional

DC Motor Types
Continuous-duty
(run continuously when power supplied)

Brushed Brushless Servo

Intermittent-duty
(power must be pulsed to run continuously)

Stepper Motors

Motor Specifications
Operating voltage Current draw Speed Torque Stalling or Running Torque

DC Motor: Brush Motors


The most common. Toys, battery powered tools, electric machines.

Stator (permanent magnets)

Brushes
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Brush DC Motors
Identify:
Stator Rotor Brushes Commentator Permanent Magnets Armature Field

Electrical Engineering Terms: Armature: The power-producing component of an alternator, generator, dynamo or motor. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an alternator, generator, dynamo or motor. The field can be on either the rotor or the stator and can be either an electromagnet or a permanent magnet. http://mot-sps.com/motor/tutorial/blac.html
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Brush DC Motor
How does it work?

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

Centered PWM

Brushless DC Motor

Identify:
Permanent Magnets Rotor Brushes Commentator Armature Field

http://mot-sps.com/motor/tutorial/blac.html

Brushless DC Motor
1. 2. 3. 4. Laminated steel stack Winding Shaft Permanent Magnets

Less common. Higher efficiency, less friction, less electrical noise. Requires electronic driver.
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Brushless DC Motor
How does it work?

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DC Servo Motor
A DC Servo Motor is a DC Motor with Gears and Electronics with limited angular rotation (typically 90, 180 or 360)

Why the addition of gears? Nylon Karbonite Metal Why electronics? Digital Analog
http://www.societyofrobots.com/actuators_servos.shtml
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DC Servo Motor
1 0 0.00 ms 0.50 ms 1.00 ms 1.50 ms 2.00 ms

1.00 ms: 0 degrees

Requires constant pulsing ( 50 times / second)

1.50 ms: Neutral


0 0.00 ms 1 0 0.00 ms 0.50 ms 1.00 ms 1.50 ms 2.00 ms 0.50 ms 1.00 ms 1.50 ms 2.00 ms

2.00 ms: 180 degrees

http://www.seattlerobotics.org/guide/servos.html
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DC Servo Motor
Wiring to Microcontroller Servo motors have three wires: power, ground, and signal.
1. The ground wire is typically black or brown and should be connected to a ground . 2. The power wire is typically red, and should be connected to the voltage source. 3. The signal pin is typically yellow, orange or white and should be connected to the microcontroller
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Stepper Motors
Very common. Required driver. Very strong, when not rotating. Easy to control rotor position.

Unipolar*

Bipolar

The stepper motor rotates in set angles for each pulse received. Typical angles are turns 30, 15 and 7.5.
* An 8 lead stepper is wound like a unipolar stepper, but the leads are not joined to common internally to the motor.
http://www.stepperworld.com/Tutorials/pgUnipolarTutorial.htm
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Stepper Motor Controllers


With the appropriate logic, step motors can be bi-directional, synchronous, provide rapid acceleration, stopping, and reversal, and will interface easily with other digital mechanisms. They are further characterized as having low rotor moment of inertia, no drift, and a noncumulative positioning error. Generally step motors are operated without feedback in an open-loop fashion and sometimes match the performance of more expensive DC Servo Systems. The only inaccuracy associated with a step motor is a noncumulative positioning error measured in % of step angle.

http://www.anaheimautomation.com/intro.htm http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/StepperUnipolarCircuit
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Stepper Motor
Very common. Required driver. Very strong, when not rotating. Easy to control rotor position.

Full Step

Half Step
http://mot-sps.com/motor/tutorial/blac.html
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Full-Step Stepper Motor

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Half-Step Stepper Motor

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Using an Atmel Tiny2313 and SN754410 H-Bridge

http://www.instructables.com/id/Drive-a-Stepper-Motor-with-an-AVR-Microprocessor/

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Motor Drivers
Simple, 1- dc motor (brushes), on/off driver
+9 V

M1 DC Brush

D1 1N5817 (Schottky)

Q1 2222A (NPN)
E

R1 1 k

On: to +9 V Off: to GND or disconnected

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Transistors
PNP Bipolar Transistor
C

NPN Bipolar Transistor


C

http://www.kilowattclassroom.com/Archive/AN0007.pdf
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DC Brushed Motor Drivers


Simple, 1-motor, on/off driver

+9 V
E

Q2 2907A (PNP)
C

R2 1 k
B

On:

to GND or disconnected Off: to +9 V

M1 DC Brush

D1 1N5817 (Schottky)

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Motor Drivers
Classic Bipolar H-Bridge
On:
Off:

to GND or disconnected to +9 V
R4 1 k B Q4 2907A (PNP) C

On:
+9 V +9 V Off:

to GND or disconnected to +9 V
R2 1 k

Terminal 4

D4 1N5817 (Schottky)

D2 1N5817 (Schottky)

E B C Q2 2907A (PNP)

Terminal 2

M
R3 1 k Q3 2222A (NPN) C B D3 1N5817 (Schottky) M1 DC Brush Q1 2222A (NPN) B E R1 1 k

Terminal 3

D1 1N5817 (Schottky)

Terminal 1

On: Off:

to +9 V to GND or disconnected

On: Off:

to +9 V to GND or disconnected
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Taken from Intermediate Robot Building by David Cook

Motor Drivers
Classic Bipolar H-Bridge
+9 V

R4 1 k B
from microcontroller

D4 1N5817 (Schottky)

D2 1N5817 (Schottky)

E B C Q2 2907A (PNP)

R2 1 k

NC

NC

8 7 6 5

Q4 2907A (PNP)

4427

2
GND from microcontroller 3 4

IN A GND IN B

OUT A VDD OUT B

M
R3 1 k Q3 2222A (NPN) C B D3 1N5817 (Schottky) M1 DC Brush Q1 2222A (NPN) B E R1 1 k

D1 1N5817 (Schottky)

Taken from Intermediate Robot Building by David Cook

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Motor Drivers
Typical H-Bridge Motor Driver
+5 VDC

220 F

0.1 F

Disconnected or from microcontroller From microcontroller

1 2 3

ENABLE A&B

VLOGIC

16 15 14 13 From microcontroller

INPUT A

INPUT C

OUTPUT A

OUTPUT C

SN754410

M1 DC Brush

GND

GND

M
5
OUT B GND

M
GND

12 11 10

M2 DC Brush

6 7

OUTPUT B

OUTPUT D

from microcontroller +4.5 to +36 VDC


220 F 0.1 F

INPUT B

INPUT D

From microcontroller Disconnected or from microcontroller

VMOTOR

ENABLE C&D

Taken from Intermediate Robot Building by David Cook

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