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BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

A revolution in wireless communication

ROAD MAP

Introduction

Basic Definitions Topology Protocols

Link Management & Security Applications and Future

Introduction

Aim :- To replace cables between mobiles, PC cards, headsets, desktops and other devices. Developed by Special Interest Group (SIG) Association of I.T majors like Intel, IBM, Nokia and Toshiba

Bluetooth Verses Infrared

Slower than IR as time taken to discover the intended recipient Penetration of solid objects Omni directional

Advantage of proximity so less time requirement No such feature Unidirectional with 30 degrees range

BT Verses IR
Data transfer rate 721 Kbps 30 feet range Mobility during data transfer Internet compatible (emulating EIA\ TIA 232)

Rate is 4 Mbps Range very less Relatively stationary

Bluetooth Definitions

Piconet : Collection of devices connected via Bluetooth in ad hoc fashion. Limited to 8 units in a Piconet Scatternet : Two or more independent unsynchronized Piconet.

Definitions

Master : A device in Piconet whose clock and hopping sequence are used to synchronize all the devices. It also numbers the communication channels
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Definitions

Slave : All other devices in the Piconet except master MAC : 3-bit media access control address used to differentiate between participating units

Bluetooth technology

Implemented using short range transreceivers Specifications comprises a system solution consisting of a hardware, a software & interoperability requirements Uses globally available unlicensed ISM radio band of 2.4 GHz. Frequency range 2.4 2.484 GHz

BT technology

Advantage of using an unlicensed frequency band is that it is globally acceptable

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Types of Links

Asynchronous Connection Links (ACL)

Supports symmetrical, asymmetrical, packetswitched & point to multipoint links Data Transfer Rate: 433.9 Kbps(sym.) 732.2 Kbps in one, 57.6 Kbps in reverse(asymmetric)

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Types of Links

Synchronous Connection Oriented Links (SCO)

Provide symmetrical, circuit-switched & point to point connections

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Audio and Video

For voice coding 64 Kbps channels are required Channels are derived through use of PCM or CVSDM Video encoding decoding using MPEG 4 format Radio links use freq. hopping spread spectrum techniques
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Spread Spectrum

Method of wireless communication that takes a narrow band signal and spreads it over a broader portion of the available frequency band. CDMA applies the same concept
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Advantages of Spread Spectrum Technique

Prevents Interference : where transmission disruption by external source such as noise from electromagnetic devices. Prevents Jamming : where stronger signal overwhelms the weaker one. No reflection off solids. No interception : where unauthorized users capture signal to determine the content.
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Performance Characteristics
Features\Functions
1.Connection Type 2.Spectrum 3.Transmission Power 4.Aggregate Data Rate Performance Spread spectrum 2.4GHz. ISM band 1 milliwatt 1 Mbps using frequency hopping Up to 30 feet Up to 8 devices per piconet
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5.Range 6.Supported stations

Features\Functions
Voice Channels Data Security

Performance
Up to 3 For authentication a 128 bit key; for encryption key size configurable (8128 bits)

Addressing

Each bit has 48 bit MAC address


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Bluetooth Topology

Ad-hoc connection where each Piconet is identified by a different hopping sequence Synchronization in unlicensed ISM band not permitted but BT devices do it using TDM Service discovery protocol allows wider applications ex: create LAN Clustering avoided using technical safeguards.

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Bluetooth Protocols

Bluetooth Protocol Layers

Bluetooth Core Protocols (Baseband, LMP, L2CAP, SDP) Cable Replacement Protocols (Radio Freq. Communication) Telephony Control Protocols (TCSBIN, ATCommands) Adopted Protocols (PPP, TCP, OBEX, WAP, vCard, vCalender)
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LMP and SDP

LMP : responsible for link setup & control between Bluetooth devices, including the control and negotiations of baseband packet sizes SDP : device information, services and characteristics of services can be queried.

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BLUETOOTH
LINK MANAGEMENT

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Link Management

Peer to Peer communication using LMP

Link Manager Messages Exchanged (PDUs) Within 30 seconds


55 different types of PDUs 7 bit op code

PDU

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AUTHENTICATION

General Response Messages

LMP_accepted LMP_not_accepted

Challenge- Response Scheme


Verifier sends(LMP_au_rand) Response is a function of challenge ,Claimant s (BD_ADDR)&Secret Key Common Secret key is required for proper calculation

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PAIRING

When no Common Link Key: 128 bit Initialization Key based on PIN and random no. Calculation of Response on key Verifier Approves the Link Key Response not correct then Error Code authentication failure (LMP_detach)

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Link Key is Created after authentication Link Key Created may be either combination of Keys or one of the units unit key(LMP_unit _key & LMP_comb_key) Waiting Interval:

Increased exponentially

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ENCRYPTION

Is an Option.

Masters Will in piconet

Master & Slave must Agree

Point to Point or also broadcast packets

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ENCRYPTION
Start

Stop

Master is configured to Transmit unencrypted packets and receive encrypted .

Master is configured to Transmit encrypted and receive unencrypted . Slave is configured To Transmit and Receive unencrypted . Master is configured to Transmit and Receive unencrypted .

Slave is configured To Transmit and Receive encrypted packets Master is configured to Transmit and Receive encrypted packets

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Clock Offset Request

Every Device has an Internal System Clock

Timing and frequncy determined by the master in Piconet.

Difference between slaves and masters. Clock offset is updated on each time a packet is received.

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BLUETOOTH SECURITY

Built in Security

Frequency Hopping

Pseudorandom code sequence Lasts 0.4 seconds 75 channels in 2.4GHZ

Authentication preventing spoofing unwanted access Encryption makes data unintelligible. Inhibiting user-friendly hence 3 levels of security.

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Security Modes

Mode 1:

Absence of security (Bypassing Link Level security functions) Exchange of vCard and vCalenders
Service Level Security for parallel applications Link Level Security LM enforces security at connection set up. Link Keys
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Mode 2:

Mode 3:

Key Length(8 and 128 bits)

128 bit challenge and 32 bit response . Depends on Level of Security Maximum length limited by Hardware

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LAYOUT

FIELDS OF APPLICATION. BLUETOOTH ADVANTAGE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE TECHNOLOGY. COMPARISON WITH IR & WLAN. MISNOMERS. RESEARCHES ON THE TECHNOLOGY. FUTURE ASPECTS.
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APPLICATIONS

WAP enabled smart phones. Electronic trading via handheld devices. ad hoc Home/personal area network. 3G Telephony.

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BLUETOOTH ADVANTAGE

Increased mobility in office by connecting various peripherals with BT. Voice and data transmission possible 721 kbps suffices most of the common uses. Built in sufficient encryption and authentication. Cheaper insatllation & maintainence.

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ERROR CORRECTION

1/3 rate FEC (Forward Error Correction) 2/3 rate FEC ARQ unnumbered scheme (Automatic Repeat Request). This reduces the available bandwidth.

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RADIATION THREATS

Penetration depth of RF is about 1.5 cm at 2450 MHz and about 2.5 cm at 900 MHz It cannot generate enough heat to produce fire hazards. Radiation not beamed but dispersed in all direction. But in long run EM radiation can cause ill effects in some persons.
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LOOPHOLES IN SECURITY

Key initialization is not reliable. Unit key can leak the information in traffic. BT device address can be used to generate logs of transaction. Battery draining denial of service scheme.

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BLUETOOTH v/s INFRARED


BT
Range-10 to 100 m Omnidirectional comm. Peak data rate- 1mbps Can support 8 devices in piconet

IrDA
20 cm to 2 m Bidirectional comm. 16 mbps 2 devices can interact at time
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BLUETOOTH v\s WLAN WLAN BT


Vendors

SPEED

Proxim, 3COM, Symbol, Cisco 11-54 Mbps

Most chip vendors 1-2 Mbps Every 30 feet Upto 30 feet polluted interference Cheaper (Rs1200-300)
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No. of access pts Every 200 feet required Distance Upto 300 feet coverage interference 2.4 GHz band is significant here Cost expensive

IrDa Response

Infra com launches RED BEAMER technology. Indirect and diffused IR will increase mobility of IR devices. Transmission at only 56kbps.

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BLUETOOTH FACTS

Its not WLAN. Data throughput is much less in BT. BT can jam WLAN as both use 2.4GHz RF. Not designed to carry heavy traffic loads. Not suitable in server-based applications.

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PIONEERS IN RESEARCH

IBM- Watch pad and cyber phones. MS- Intelligent apps for Windows. INTEL-wireless PC Cards, access points. MOTOROLA & TOSHIBA-pc mobile interface via bluetooth. GENERAL MOTORS- Better communication in cars. NEC-launched BT enabled notebook.
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BLUETOOTH FUTURE

100 million devices in use and around 2005 650 million devices will be deployed. 19% vehicles will be bluetooth enabled by 2007.

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SOME PRODUCTS IN MARKET

Ericsson R520 Bluetooth/WAP/GPRS/Triband Ericsson T36 Bluetooth/WAP/HSCSD/Triband Alcatel OneTouch 700 GPRS, WAP, Bluetooth TDK Bluetooth Product Range Bluetooth-enabled Nokia 9110 linked to a FujiFilm digital camera Ericsson Bluetooth GSM Headset Ericsson Communicator
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REFRENCES

www.countersys.com/tech/bluetooth.html www.bluetooth.com www.cnet.com www.motorola.com www.palowireless.com www.swedetrack.com www.mobileinfo.com www.computer.org www.informit.com www.erricsson.com

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