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The table below shows the tasks involved in a project, with their durations and immediate predecessors.

Task A Duration (days) 2 Immediate predecessors -

B

C D E F G

4

5 3 6 3 8

A, B B C C D

D, F

Draw an activity network and use it to find the critical activities and the minimum duration of the project.

A(2)

1

B(4)

Activities A and B have no preceding activities, so can both begin at the start node.

3

A(2)

1

B(4) 2 Activity C depends on both A and B, but activity D depends on B only. We can deal with this by adding a dummy activity.

C(5)

3

A(2)

1

B(4) 2

D(3)

Now add activity C, which depends on both A and B ... and activity D, which depends on B only.

C(5)

3 4 F(3) E(6)

A(2)

1

B(4) 2 5 G(8)

D(3)

Activities E and F depend on C only and activity G depends on D only.

C(5)

3 4 F(3) H(2) E(6)

A(2)

1

6

B(4) 2 5 G(8)

D(3)

Activity H depends on activities D and F. To deal with this, we need a dummy activity from event 5. Now activity H can be added.

C(5)

3 4 F(3) H(2) E(6)

A(2)

1

E(6)

6

B(4) G(8) 2 5 G(8)

D(3)

A finish node is now needed.

C(5)

3 4

A(2)

1

E(6)

F(3) H(2)

6

B(4) G(8) 2 5

D(3) The next step is to find the early event times (EETs).

C(5)

3 4

A(2)

1

E(6)

F(3) H(2)

6

0 B(4) G(8) 2 5

C(5)

3 4

A(2)

1

E(6)

F(3) H(2)

6

0 B(4) G(8) 2 5

D(3)

4

Event 2 cannot occur until B has finished, so the earliest time for event 2 is 4.

4

C(5)

3 4

A(2)

1

E(6)

F(3) H(2)

6

0 B(4) G(8) 2 5

D(3)

4

Event 3 cannot occur until both A and B have finished, so the earliest time for event 3 is 4.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1

E(6)

H(2)

6

0 B(4) G(8) 2 5

D(3)

4

Event 4 cannot occur until C has finished, so the earliest time for event 4 is 4 + 5 = 9.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1

E(6)

H(2)

6

0 B(4) G(8) 2 5

D(3)

4 7

Event 5 cannot occur until D has finished, so the earliest time for event 5 is 4 + 3 = 7.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12

G(8) 2 5

D(3)

4 7

Event 6 cannot occur until both D and F have finished. The earliest time that D can finish is 7, and the earliest time that F can finish is 9 + 3 = 12, so the earliest time for event 6 is 12.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12

7

15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7

Event 7 cannot occur until E, G and H have all finished. The earliest time that E can finish is 9 + 6 = 15, the earliest time that G can finish is 7 + 8 = 15, and the earliest time that H can finish is 12 + 2 = 14, so the earliest time for event 7 is 15.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12

7

15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7

The next step is to find the late event times (LETs), working backwards through the network.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7

The latest time that event 7 can occur without delaying the project is 15.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7

The latest time that activity H can start is 13, so the latest time for event 6 is 13.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7 7

Activity G and a dummy activity both lead out of event 5. The latest time that activity G can start is 7, and the latest time that the dummy activity can start is 13, so the latest time for event 5 is 7.

4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7 7

Activities E and F both lead out of event 4. The latest time that activity E can start is 9, and the latest time that activity F can start is 9, so the latest time for event 4 is 9.

4 4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 7 7

The latest time that activity C can start is 4, so the latest time for event 3 is 4.

4 4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 4 7 7

Activity D and a dummy activity both lead out of event 2. The latest time that activity D can start is 6, and the latest time that the dummy activity can start is 4, so the latest time for event 2 is 4.

4 4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 4 7 7

4 4

C(5)

3 4 F(3)

A(2)

1 0 0 B(4)

E(6)

H(2) 12 13

7

15 15 G(8)

D(3)

4 4 7 7 The float in this example is analysed in the Notes and Examples.

The minimum duration of the project is 15 days. The critical activities are B, C, D, E and G.

Notice that there are two critical paths: BCE and BDH.

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