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Framing, Strategizing & Planning

Dr. Hassan M. Wageih


By:
631-International Negotiations

Alaa Kassem Ghada A.Halim Wael Shams Eldin

a. Framing

Questions:
What is framing and reframing?
What are the types of frames? How could frames be a cause of trouble? What is cross cultural framing and how could it effect negotiations?

What is frames, framing and reframing


Frames are psychological lenses or assumptions that affect how people see and interpret the world around them. They are built up subconsciously by learning.

How many squares could you count ?

What is frames, framing and reframing


Framing are cognitive structures held in memory which provide meaning by filtering peoples perceptions and thoughts to define a situation, make sense of complex information and help us to interpret the world around us and represent the world to others.

How many legs could you count for an elephant ?

Types of frames
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Substantive frames what the conflict is about Outcome frames predisposition to achieving a particular outcome Power frames social control, legitimate sources Risk / information frames future expectations, assessments and reliability of info. Conflict management / process frames how to go about resolving the dispute. Identity frames how the parties define themselves. Characterization frames how the parties define the other parties. Loss / gain frames how the parties view risk associated with particular outcomes

Types of frames Quiz


Join the frames to their corresponding types:

Substantive frames Outcome frames Power frames Risk / information frames Conflict mng./process frames Identity frames Characterization frames Loss / gain frames

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8

( ) /

Frames Morals
Every word evokes a frame.
Words defined within a frame evoke the frame.

Negating a frame evokes the frame. Evoking a frame reinforces that frame.

b. Strategizing

Strategizing
It is simply a process of managing yours and others expectations.

Strategic Options

A negotiators choice of strategy is in the answers to two questions:


How important is achieving a substantive outcome? How important is the quality of the relationship with the other party?
Substantive outcome importance Yes Relation importance No

Yes

Collaboration

Accommodation

No

Competition

Avoidance

Active-Engagement Strategies
Competition = win-lose Collaboration = win-win Accommodation = Lose-Win

Non-Engagement Strategies
Avoidance = strong alternatives ( Direct winning, negotiation is time waster) Avoidance = Weak alternatives ( Direct Loss, to buy time)

Remember.. Its a dynamic process


Geris game

d. Case

Tax relief creates jobs


Why should best people be punished

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When Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait ,he declared that he had annexed Kuwait, after several negotiations the Arab league eventually framed Avery generous proposal to him. 1-Iraq would take control of the ramila oil fields which he claimed it was stolen from Iraq .2-iraq would take possession of Bubian island which was close to Iraqi shore line.3-the third concession entailed renegotiating $14billion war debt that Iraq held with Kuwait since the Iran Iraq war.

Saddam had two ways to view how he could frame the Arab leagues proposal .he could look at it from the view point of what he would win if he withdraw his troops or he could consider what he might stand to lose if he withdrew his troops, two different perspective frame works of the same situation. finally he chose to take the perspective of what he would lose .he decided that since he occupied all of Kuwait anything else would be seen as a loss to him . It was a costly lesson to learn . IS the glass half empty or is it half full ?How you view it can mean every thing.

To frame again ,to re describe from different perspective ,to relabel. A tool used by mediators that involves changing words ,the complexion on words the circumstances and the order in which ideas are presented.

Always be on the offense ,never go to the defense . Never whine or complain ,never act like a victim . Avoid the language of weakness, for example rising intonations in a statement ,your voice should be steady, you should be optimism. You should convey passionate conviction without loosing control. Never answer a question framed from your opponents point of view.(trap) always re frame the question to fit your values frames Show respect ,respond by reframing ,think and talk at the level of values and say what you believe .

Why an appreciation of different frames is actually comforting? Instead of seeing those with the opposite perspectives as stupid or irrational, you start to understand why they are coming from.