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APPLICATION OF WATERPROOF BREATHABLE FABRIC

SUBMITTED BY: ADITYA KUMAR 4TH SEM , DFT

o The term waterproof should mean , literally, something that is impervious to water. o Waterproof fabric completely prevents the penetration and absorption of liquid water , in contrast to water-repellent fabric ,which only delays the penetration of water. o Waterproof breathable fabric are highly water resistant and designed for use in garments that provide protection from weather , which is from wind , rain and loss of body heat.

o Traditionally, fabric were made waterproof by coating it with


continuous layer of impervious flexible material.

How it is done ?
o The materials used were animal fat, wax and hardened vegetable
oils. o Nowadays synthetic polymers such as polyvinylchloride(pvc) and polyurethane are used.. o Coated fabric are considered to be more uncomfortable to wear than water-repellent fabric, as they are relatively stiff and do not allow the escape of perspiration vapour

o The term breathable implies that the fabric is actively ventilated. o Breathable fabric passively allow water vapour to diffuse through them yet still prevent the penetration of liquid water.

How it works ?
o During physical activity the body provides cooling partly by producing insensible perspiration. o If the water vapour cannot escape to the surrounding atmosphere the relative humidity of the microclimate inside the clothing increases causing a corresponding increased thermal conductivity of the insulating air, and clothing becomes uncomfortable. 4

o If the body loses heat more rapidly than it is able to produce it, causes Hypothermia. o If perspiration cannot evaporate and liquid sweat (sensible perspiration) is produced, the body is prevented from cooling at the same rate as heat is produced.
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2.5
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 TEMPREATURE HEAT LOSS HEAT GAIN

o The body to remain at the physiologically required temperature , clothing has to permit the passage of water vapour from perspiration at the rates under the activity conditions. o The ability of fabric to allow water vapour to penetrate is commonly known as breathability. o Although perspiration rates water vapour permeability are usually quoted in units of gram per square metre per day or grams per day.
TYPES OF WATERPROOF BREATHABLE FABRIC

Densely woven fabric.

Membranes.

Coatings.

Densely woven water breathable fabric o The densely woven waterproof breathable fabrics of cotton or synthetic microfilament yarns with compact weave structure. o Usually combined yarns are weaved parallel to each other with no pores for water to penetrate. usually oxford weave is used.

HOW IT WORKS?
o When fabric surface is wetted by water the cotton fibers swell tansversely reducing the size of pores in the fabric and requring very high pressure to cause penetration. o Therefore waterproof is provided without the application of any water-repellent finishing treatment.

LAMINATED WATERPROOF BREATHABLE FABRICS OR MEMBRANE


o Laminated waterproof breathable fabrics made by application of membrane into textile product o These are thin membrane made from polymeric materials, which offer high resistance to water penetration but allow water vapour at the same time. o Maximum thickness of membrane is 10 micron. o They are of two types: Microporous membrane Hydrophilic membrane

o The microporous membranes have tiny holes on their surface smaller than rain drop but larger than water vapour molecule. o They are made from polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) polymer or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). o The hydrophilic membranes are thin films of chemically modified polyester or polyurethane, modified by incorporation of poly. o The poly (ethylene oxide) constitutes the hydrophilic parts of the membrane by forming amorphous region in the main polymer system. o This amorphous region act as intermolecular pores allowing water vapour molecules to pass through but preventing the penetration of liquid water due to solid nature of membrane.

COATED WATERPROOF BREATHABLE FABRIC

o Coated waterproof breathable fabric consist of polymeric materials applied on the surface of fabric. E.g. polyurethane o The coating are of two types: Microporous membrane Hydrophilic membrane o In microporous membrane coating contains very fine interconnected channels much smaller than finest raindrop but larger than water vapour molecule. o The hydrophilic coating is same as hydrophilic membrane but the difference between the microporous and hydrophilic material is the former water vapour passes through the permanent air-permeable structure whereas the later transmits vapour through mechanism involving adsorption10 diffusion and de-sorption.

CONCLUSION
o The outer surface of most laminated waterproof breathable fabric is treated with a durable water-repellent coatings (DWR) and improving the overall performance. o DWR coating will began to degrade after extended use and as the garment becomes soiled. o Water vapour transfer in waterproof breathable fabrics decreases as rain temperature increases. o However, the breathability of most of them ultimately ceases after long exposure to prolonged severe rainy condition.

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THANK YOU

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