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CHPT 1

SAFETY and HELTH MOVEMENT, THEN and NOW

MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH3083)

Developments Before the Industrial Revolution Milestones in the Safety Movement Tragedies That Changed the Safety Movement Role of Organized Labor Role of Specific Health Problems Development of Accident Prevention Programs Development of Safety Organizations Safety and Health Movement Today
MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH3083)

Developments Before the Industrial Revolution


Code of Hammurabi-2000 s.m. Clauses dealing with injuries, allowable fees for physicians, and monetary damages assessed against those who injured others. Concern for proper handling of injuries. If a man has caused the loss of the gentlemans eye, his own eye shall be shall be caused to be lost King Rameses II Major construction of Ramesseum. Workers were required to bathe daily in the Nile. Regular medical examinations. Sick workers were isolated. MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH3083)

Developments Before the Industrial Revolution


Philip Aureolus ( 1567 ) On the Mines Sickness and other Miners Diseases Covering on the diseases of smelter workers and metallurgists and diseases associated with the handling of and exposure to mecury. Georgius Agricola De Re Metallica Emphasizing the need for ventilation in mines and illustrating various devices that could be used to introduce fresh air into mines. Bernardino Ramazzini Discourse on the Diseases of Workers Drew relationship between diseases suffered by workers and their occupation. Much of it still relevant till today
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Developments Before the Industrial Revolution Islamic


Ilmu Taharah kesucian/kebersihan Haram arak dan perkara yg kotor Firman Allah ayat Al Baqarah:222 Sesungguhnya Allah mengasihi mereka yang bertaubat dan mengasihi mereka yang sentiasa menyucikan diri, Sabda Rasulullah Ada dua nikmat yang banyak melegakan manusia: nikmat sihat dan nikmat masa lapang
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Industrial Revolution : Europe & United States Industrial Revolution


Labor young Work related risk increased Human and Machine interaction Low Safety and Health Standards

Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802 ( UK)


Marked the beginning of governmental involvement in workplace safety. Factory inspection (Massachusetts 1867) First barrier safeguard was patented (1868).
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Industrial Revolution : Europe & United States


1867 Massachusetts ( US) First Factory inspection 1868 First barrier safeguard was patented 1869 Bureau of Labour Statistic ( BLS) To study industrial accidents and report pertinent information about those accidents. 1892 First recorded safety program Joliet, Illinois, a steel plant in response to a scare caused when a flywheel exploded.
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1900 Frederick Taylor Studying the efficiency in manufacturing. Draw a connection between lost personnel time and management policies and procedures.
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Industrial Revolution : Europe & United States


U.S Department of the Interior 1907
Created Bureau of Mines to investigate accidents, examine health hazards, and make recommendations for improvement. Common thread was that all employees were provided with some amount of compensation for the on the job injuries regardless of who was at fault. Changed the name to National Safety Council (NSC) and is the premier safety organization in the U.S. Represents the most significant legislation to date in the history of the safety movement.
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Workers Compensation 1908

National Council of Industrial Safety (NCIS)

Occupational safety and Health Act 1970

TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY MOVEMENT


1. Hawks Nest Tragedy Unemployed miners and foundry workers experienced problems finding new jobs, physical examinations shows lung damage from breathing silica. Silicosis is known as King of occupational diseases. A company had to drill a passageway through a mountainand this mountain had an unusual high silica content. Workers spend 10 hours per day breathing the dust caused by drilling and blasting. Silicosis is a disease that normally takes 10 to 30 years to show up in exposed workers. Hawks Nest Tragedy that solidified public opinion in favor of protecting workers from silicosis. Gauley Bridge disaster entitled Hawks Nest by Hubert Skidmore created public outcry which led to the U.S Department of Labor to make silicosis compensable disease under workers compensation. Till today silicosis is still a problem.
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Silicosis. . .
Lung disease caused by breathing small pieces of sand or rock called silica. NO CURE!!!

Type Chronic Accelerated Acute

Time after exposure 10 years 5-10 years Weeks to 5 years

Silica exposure Lower levels Higher levels Highest levels

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TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY MOVEMENT


2.Asbestos Menace
Dr. Irving J. Selikoff 1964 told the biological effects of asbestos that this widely used material was killing workers. First to link asbestos to lung cancer and respiratory diseases. At the time of Selikoffs findings asbestos was used in homes, schools, offices, factories, ships, and even in the filters af cigarettes. In the 1970s and 1980s, asbestos became a controlled material. Regulation governing the use of asbestos were developed.

MM/FS/CK/ZH - OSH 1 (PH3083)

TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY MOVEMENT


3. Bhopal Tradegy 3rd December 1984, over 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) including hydrogen cyanide, leaked killing 3,000 people in its aftermath. The protective equipment was not in full working order. The refrigeration system that could have cooled the storage tank was shut down, the scrubbing system that could have absorbed the vapor was not immediately available and the flare system that would have burned any vapor that got past the scrubbing system was out of order. Union Carbide, the owner of the chemical plant was accused of many things, including Criminal Negligence Corporate Prejudice location of factory as a poverty stricken area and safety was not taken into consideration. Avoidance putting the plant in India to avoid stricker safety and health standards in U.S and OSHA
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Role of Organized Labor The Fellow Servant Rule


Employers were not liable workplace injuries that resulted from negligence of other employees If the actions of employees contributed to their own injuries, the employer was absolved of any liability Was based on the theory that people who accept a job assume the risks that go with it. Employee who work voluntarily should accept the consequences of their actions on the job rather than blame the employer.
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The Doctrine of Contributory Negligence

The Concept of Assumption of Risk

Role of Specific Health Problems


Create public awareness of dangerous and unhealthy working conditions
Legislation Regulation Better work procedures Better working conditions

E.g. Frequent contact of with coal dust led to anthrocosis also known as black spit.
Eliminated through ventilation and decreased work hours.

E.g. Coal-miners pnuemoconiosis (CWP )


Coal Miners Pnuemoconiosis and Compensable Disease 1934 Coal Miners Act passed US pada 1969
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Role of Specific Health Problems


The Gauley Bridge Disaster
Silicosis

Asbestos Usage
Training and Personal Protective Equipment

Mercury Poisoning
Minamata

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Development of Accident Prevention Program

3 Es of Safety 1.engineering ( kejuruteraan) 2.education ( pendidikan ) 3.enforcement ( penguatkuasaan )


Enforcement Education Engineering

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Safety and Health Movement Today


Comprehensive - engineering - chemical - management etc Development - raw materials and equipments - technological process

Rapid growth in the profession - roles & responsibilities


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Safety and Health Evolution in Malaysia

Previously no comprehensive system/act/regulation Factory and Machinery Act 1967 Boiler Enactment
1. Selangor 1896 2. Perak 1903 3. Johor 1937

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Safety and Health Evolution in Malaysia

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 Act 514 Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Malaysian Society of Occupational Safety and Health (MSOSH) National Security Council (BKN)
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