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A vital living process carried by all living organisms

To get

Energy
For Various activities

excretion of waste products Muscles contractionlocomotion Cell division Transmission of nerves impulses Absorption of food digestion active transport Active transport of biochemical substances Maintaining body temperature Synthesis of lipids,hormones,proteins and enzymes
Carbohydrates, protein, lipid contain chemical energy

EXTERNAL RESPIRATION

INTERNAL RESPIRATION

BREATHING using respiratory structures

Mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases Between the Respiratory surfaces of an organisms and its environment

DEFINITION -Cellular respiration -Biochemical process which energy is made available to all living cells The energy are incorporated Into adenosine triphosphates (ATP)

Involves oxidation of organic molecules to releases chemical energy stored within these molecules

The main substrate are:

GLUCOSE

AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Require continuous supply of oxygen Oxygen from air or water taken to all over our body by circulatory system Glucose are oxidised by oxygen to release energy Happens at mitochondria

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Glucose Oxygen

6CO2 + 6H2O + 2898 kJ 38 ATP

Oxidation of glucose into carbon dioxide, water and energy


Involves aerobic organism

Driven by sequence of complex biochemical reactions that are catalysed by respiratory enzymes
The energy is released gradually

The rest of the energy are used to synthesise ATP

ADP + phosphate + energy


ATP

ATP

is an instant source of energy ; main energy for living things


each ATP consist of three phosphate groups The phosphate bonds can easily broken to release energy
Energy released ATP ADP + phosphate + energy

Process to breakdown glucose with little or no presence of oxygen Organism that respire anaerobically are called anaerobes

eg: bacteria and yeast


Also happens in muscle Occurs in cytoplasm

Anaerobic respiration in muscles


During prolonged physical activities Muscles are forced to work though doesnt have enough oxygen supply Cells used ATP at higher rate Lung and circulatory system cannot supply enough oxygen to cells for cellular respiration

muscle

cells will perform anaerobic respiration

They continue generate energy without presence of oxygen Muscle used up all available oxygen Breathing and heart rate increase The oxygen needed by the muscle exceeds the amount of oxygen supplied by blood The muscle are in the state of oxygen deficiency Oxygen debt incurred

Glucose are breakdown partially into lactic acid instead of carbon dioxide
The energy released are less than during aerobic respiration

less

efficient compared to aerobic respiration

Every molecule glucose releases 2 ATP or 150 kJ energy


The accumulation of lactic acid ---muscle cramps and fatigue

To overcomeperson needs to breath deeply and rapidly


To inhale more oxygen To oxidise the accumulated lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water (occur in liver) It used to produce energy and converted into glycogen (muscle)

Oxygen debt are paid off once all lactic acid is removed

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION (DURING VIGOROUS EXERCISES)

C6H12O6 Glucose

2C3H6O3+ 150kJ (2 ATP) lactic acid

OXIDATION OF ACCUMULATED LACTIC ACID IN LIVER

Lactic acid + oxygen

carbon dioxide + water + energy

exercise

recovery

Oxygen deficite Oxygen consumed during exercise

Oxygen debt

Start of exercise

End of exercise TIME(MINUTES)

End of recovery

Anaerobic respiration in yeast


Occur in microorganism such as yeast Fermentation Need enzyme zymase Produces ethanol, carbon dioxide and energy Ethanol are used in wine and beer making Bread making

FERMENTATION IN YEAST

C6H12O6 Glucose

2C2H5OH + 2CO2+ 210kJ (2 ATP) ethanol