Thermal Properties of Matter
Topics:
•

Atomic model of matter

•

The ideal gas model

•

Idealgas processes

•

Specific heat and heat of transformation

•

Heat transfer modes

Sample question:
This thermal image of an elephant shows energy that the elephant
radiates. How important is this radiated energy to the elephant’s
energy balance?
Phases of matter — Liquid
Avogadro’s Number
A mole is the amount of a substance containing as many elementary entities (basic particles — atoms or molecules) as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon12.
Experimentally, this number is given by the Avogadro’s number:
N _{A} = 6.02 x 10 ^{2}^{3} mol ^{–}^{1}
Each mole contains ~ a trillion trillion molecules!
n moles of gas contains N = nN _{A} molecules.
Atomic/Molecular Mass
The atomic or molecular mass of a substance is the mass, in grams, of one mole of that substance.
For example,
Helium:
Copper:
m( ^{4} He) = 4.00260 (g/mol, u) m( ^{6}^{3} Cu) = 63.546 (g/mol, u)
What is the atomic mass of carbon12?
m( ^{1}^{2} C) = 12 u, exact (by definition!)
The mass of an individual atom is given by the
atomic mass divided by Avogadro’s number.
Checking Understanding
What is the mass, in u, of a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2?
A.12
B.24
C.32
D.36
E.44
Answer
What is the mass, in u, of a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2?
• 44
Checking Understanding
Rank the following in terms of the number of moles, from greatest number of moles to least:
A.20 g of He (A = 4) B.60 g of Ne (A = 20) C.120 g of O _{2} (atomic oxygen, O, has A = 16) D.160 g of Ar (A = 40) E.200 g of Pb (A = 207)
Answer: A  D  C  B  E
The Ideal Gas
at the microlevel
^{K} avg
3
2
k _{B} T
1
m v
2
2
rms
^{v} rms
^{E} th ^{} ^{N} ^{K} avg
3
_{2} N k _{B} T
Ideal Gas Parameters
The Ideal gas • T = temperature (kelvin, K)
• p = pressure (N/m ^{2} = pascal, Pa)
V = volume (m ^{3} ) n = number of moles
•
• • N = number of particles (atoms or molecules)
The kinetic energy of the particles determines the temperature; collisions with the walls determines the pressure.
Checking Understanding
How do the pressures of the
gases inside and outside of a balloon compare?
•
The Definition of Pressure
Pressure
Force per unit area
N/m ^{2} = pascal, Pa
The net force on a surface depends on the difference in pressure on the two sides.
The atmospheric pressure
Standard atmosphere = absolute pressure at sea level
= 1 atm = 101,300 Pa = 101.3 kPa
gauge pressure = absolute pressure – 1 atm
Checking Understanding
A mass sits on top of a piston that is free to
slide in a cylinder of gas. The pressure in the gas in the cylinder is
A.greater than the pressure of the
atmosphere outside the cylinder.
B.equal to the pressure of the atmosphere outside the cylinder.
C.less than the pressure of the atmosphere
outside the cylinder.
Answer
A mass sits on top of a piston that is free to
slide in a cylinder of gas. The pressure in the gas in the cylinder is
A.greater than the pressure of the
atmosphere outside the cylinder.
Changing the temperature,
volume or number of particles changes the pressure of the gas. We can understand this using our atomic model of the
ideal gas… …and a human demo :)
Kinetic Theory
Microscopic Quantities
Molecules
Position Velocity KE, etc.
Macroscopic Quantities
Bulk
Temperature (T) Pressure (p) Volume (V)
Averaged over large numbers of molecules (N)
Assumptions:
•

N identical molecules of mass m are inside a container of volume V; each molecule acts as a point particle.

•

They move randomly and obey Newton’s laws.

•

Collisions with each other and with the walls are elastic.

Main idea of the kinetic theory:
Pressure is a result of the collisional impact of molecules on the wall.
A quantitative consideration of the physics of collisions and resulting impact forces leads to the following main result of the kinetic theory:
N 1
2
p Ê Ê ^{2}
3
V
m v
[ Carefully read pp. 381382 of Knight, Jones, and Field. ]
The IdealGas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ]
Number of basic particles in the gas
Boltzmann’s constant [ 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} J/K ]
p V N k _{B} T
Absolute pressure in Pa
Volume of the gas in m ^{3}
p V n R T
Temperature of the gas in K
Number of moles in the gas
Gas constant [ 8.31 J/mol·K ] R = NA kB
Checking Understanding
The two identical cylinders shown both
have the same mass on the piston and the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. Both gases are at the same temperature.
The number of moles of hydrogen is A.greater than the number of moles of nitrogen.
B.equal to the number of moles of nitrogen.
C.less than the number of moles of nitrogen.
Answer
The two identical cylinders shown both
have the same mass on the piston and
the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. Both gases are at the same temperature. The number of moles of hydrogen is
B. equal to the number of moles of
nitrogen.
Checking Understanding
The two identical cylinders shown both
have the same mass on the piston and the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. The mass of gas in each cylinder is the same. The
temperature of the hydrogen gas is A.greater than the temperature of the nitrogen.
B.equal to the temperature of the nitrogen.
C.less than the temperature of the nitrogen.
Answer
The two identical cylinders shown both
have the same mass on the piston and the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. The mass of gas in each cylinder is the same. The
temperature of the hydrogen gas is
A.less than the temperature of the nitrogen.
IdealGas Processes
p i V i
p f V f
T i
T f
Initial and final states of
an ideal gas in a sealed container (N =constant).
Each point on a pV diagram represents a single, unique state of the gas.
A process of changing state is then represented by a path on this diagram.
ConstantPressure Process
(―Isobaric‖)
pV _{i}
^{T} i
pV _{f}
^{T} f
Constant pressure, so
W W _{g}_{a}_{s} p V
E _{t}_{h} Q pV
Thus,
ConstantTemperature Process
(―Isothermal‖)
^{p} i ^{V} i
T
^{p} f ^{V} f
T
E _{t}_{h} 0 Q W _{g}_{a}_{s}
T constant
_{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,}
Q W _{g}_{a}_{s}
(Heat input = Work output)
Work
• When a gas expands, it does work on the environment. • When a gas is compressed, it receives work from the environment.
_{s}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} E _{t}_{h} W W _{g}_{a}_{s}
“Adiabat”
Checking Understanding
A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a
moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is
A.higher than the initial temperature. B.the same as the initial temperature. C.lower than the initial temperature.
Answer
A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a
moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is
A.higher than the initial temperature.
Checking Understanding
A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a
moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is
A.higher than the initial temperature. B.the same as the initial temperature. C.lower than the initial temperature.
Answer
A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a
moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is
•lower than the initial temperature.
Checking Understanding
A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a
moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is
A.higher than the initial temperature. B.the same as the initial temperature. C.lower than the initial temperature.
Answer
A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a
moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is
•the same as the initial temperature.
Checking Understanding
Suppose you have a sample of gas at 10°C that you need to
warm up to 20°C. Which will take more heat energy: raising the temperature while keeping the pressure constant or raising the temperature while keeping the volume constant?
A.It takes more energy to raise the temperature while keeping
the volume constant.
B.It takes more energy to raise the temperature while keeping the pressure constant.
C.The heat energy is the same in both cases.
Answer
Suppose you have a sample of gas at 10°C that you need to
warm up to 20°C. Which will take more heat energy: raising the temperature while keeping the pressure constant or raising the temperature while keeping the volume constant?
•It takes more energy to raise the temperature while keeping the pressure constant.
Checking Understanding
When I do work on a gas in an adiabatic process, compressing
it, I add energy to the gas. Where does this energy go?
A.The energy is transferred as heat to the environment. B.The energy is converted to thermal energy of the gas. C.The energy converts the phase of the gas.
Answer
When I do work on a gas in an adiabatic process, compressing
it, I add energy to the gas. Where does this energy go?
•The energy is converted to thermal energy of the gas.
Example question
A child has been given a helium balloon. Ignoring repeated
parental suggestions of tying it to his wrist, he lets it go so
that it rapidly rises into the sky. As the balloon rises, it expands, because the pressure of the atmosphere
decreases. Ignoring heat exchanges with the atmosphere (a
good approximation if it rises quickly) what will happen to the
temperature of the balloon? Will it increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain.
Referring to the pV diagram below,
a) What are the initial and final temperatures?
p (kPa)
n = 0.02 mol
300
V (cm ^{3} )
Isobaric
Isochoric
A child attending a carnival in a quaint seaside town has been given a spherical helium balloon that is 30 cm in diameter.
a)How many moles of helium does the balloon contain?
b)She “wants to keep the balloon fresh,” so she puts in the freezer, cooling it down from the hot 28°C outside temperature to a frosty – 10°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon at this lower temperature?
What is the heat Q associated with the process indicated in the following pV diagram?
p (kPa)
n = 0.005 mol, monatomic gas
400
200
0
V (cm ^{3} )
To blow up a rubber balloon, you need to provide a gauge pressure
of about 2000 Pa. Suppose you inflate a spherical balloon from a diameter of 10 cm to a diameter of 30 cm.
a)What is the change in volume of the balloon?
b)How much work do you do in blowing up the balloon?
Question:
What happens to a physical system when heat is added to it?
Heat
Q
Temperature rises
?
?
Question:
How much heat must be added to raise the
temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 K?
Answer: specific heat (J/kg·K)
Heat added (J) to
raise the temperature
Q _{}_{T} M c T
―Rise‖ in
temperature (K)
T T _{f} T _{i}
Mass of substance (kg)
By definition, specific heat is always positive. Q > 0 and ΔT > 0 (heat is added to a system) Q < 0 and ΔT < 0 (heat is removed from a system) ―Heat added is negative.‖
Calorimetry
— Measurement of heat transfer —
If the mass of the flask can be ignored, and the
insulation keeps any heat from escaping, then
Heat absorbed
by water
Q _{w} Q _{b} 0
Heat absorbed by object
Total heat to or from the system is zero
Calorimetry equation
Heat absorbed
by water
Heat absorbed
by object
M _{w} c _{w} T _{w} ÊÊ ÊÊM _{b} c _{b} T _{b} ÊÊ ÊÊ0
The common final (―equilibrium‖) temperature
1. Write the equation as a statement of conservation of energy.
^{}^{T} ^{} ^{T} final ^{} ^{T} initial
The original definition
of the calorie:
One calorie (cal) is the amount of heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 gram
of water from 14.5° C to 15.5° C.
To three significant figures
Followup Question:
What else can happen when heat is added?
Heat
Q
A gas can expand without
a change in temperature
Ice melts, Water vaporizes, Dry ice sublimes, … etc.
When two phases are present, any additional heat goes into changing the phase, and not raise the temperature, until one phase has completely turned into the other, at which point any remaining heat will raise the temperature.
Heat of transformation (also called ―latent heat‖)
The heat of transformation, L, is the heat energy that must be added to or removed from 1 kg of a substance to convert it from one phase to another. During the conversion, the temperature of the system remains
constant. (Energy is used to break or form molecular bonds.)
Qphase = ± ML
latent heat [J/kg]
heat added (+) or removed (–) [J]
mass [kg]
Lf = heat of fusion for melting and freezing Lv = heat of vaporization for boiling and condensing
TABLE 12.5
Melting/boiling temperatures and heats of transformation at 1 atm
80 kcal/kg
540 kcal/kg
Why perspiration cools (through ―evaporation‖)
A liquid in a closed container will come to equilibrium with its vapor. However, an open liquid will not, as its vapor keeps escaping – it will continue to ―evaporate‖ without reaching equilibrium with the surrounding gas.
An open liquid
Higherenergy molecules escape,
robbing the liquid of thermal energy.
Phase Equilibrium
If a liquid is put into a sealed container with a vacuum above it, some of the molecules in the liquid will evaporate, especially the higherenergy ones.
With many molecules ―airborne,‖ some will begin to return to the liquid. Equilibrium is reached when the numbers remain constant — equal numbers joining and leaving the liquid.
Equilibrium
Equilibrium
vapor pressure
Temperature
dependent
_{B}_{o}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{P}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
The temperature at which Vapor pressure = External pressure.
Vapor pressure
curve
Boiling point of water (at sea level)
Never insist on a ―3minute egg‖ in Denver!
What would it be on Mars?
A general, schematic phase diagram
On the phase boundary curves, the neighboring phases coexist in equilibrium.
Densities of liquid and gas become equal
at the critical
point.

Triple point



All three phases can coexist in equilibrium.

Summary:
Specific Heat and Heat of Transformation
Checking Understanding
Which needs the most heat to bring to a final temperature
of 50°C? A.100 g of iron at 0°C B.100 g of water at 0°C C.100 g of ice at 0°C
Answer
Which needs the most heat to bring to a final temperature
of 50°C?
•100 g of ice at 0°C
On a hot summer day, a cup of flavored shaved ice can be a
welcome treat. Suppose you ignore the obvious ―brain freeze‖
danger and eat an 8 oz (0.22 kg) cup of ice rather quickly. When
it melts in your stomach, how much will this reduce your body temperature?
Suppose you are bicycling at a good clip, using a total energy of 400 W. As you exercise, your body will start to warm up—and you will perspire to keep yourself cool.
A.If your body is 25% efficient while cycling, by what rate
would your body temperature rise if you had no means of
exhausting excess thermal energy?
B.Assume that the only means by which your body cools itself is evaporation. To keep your body temperature constant, what mass of water must be evaporated during a
C.What volume of water must you drink each hour to keep
from becoming dehydrated? (1.0 kg of water has a volume of
A typical hot tub contains about 1 m ^{3} of water. Suppose the tub
is filled with tap water at 10°C. If the tub has a 5500 W electric
heater, how long must the heater run to heat the water to a final temperature of 40°C, ignoring any thermal losses? If electricity costs 10¢ per kilowatthour, how much will this energy cost?
Checking Understanding
If you get a cup of coffee in a paper cup, you may be given a
corrugated paper sleeve to put around it to make it comfortable to hold. Explain the purpose of the paper sleeve, and how it accomplishes this. Why is the paper sleeve
corrugated?