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Chapter 12

Thermal Properties of Matter

Topics:

Atomic model of matter

The ideal gas model

Ideal-gas processes

Specific heat and heat of transformation

Heat transfer modes

Sample question:

Chapter 12 Thermal Properties of Matter Topics: • Atomic model of matter • The ideal gas

This thermal image of an elephant shows energy that the elephant

radiates. How important is this radiated energy to the elephant’s

energy balance?

Phases of matter Gas

Phases of matter — Gas

Phases of matter Liquid

Phases of matter — Liquid

Phases of matter Solid

Phases of matter — Solid

Avogadro’s Number

A mole is the amount of a substance containing as many elementary entities (basic particles atoms or molecules) as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon-12.

Experimentally, this number is given by the Avogadro’s number:

N A = 6.02 x 10 23 mol 1

Each mole contains ~ a trillion trillion molecules!

n moles of gas contains N = nN A molecules.

Atomic/Molecular Mass

The atomic or molecular mass of a substance is the mass, in grams, of one mole of that substance.

For example,

Helium:

Copper:

m( 4 He) = 4.00260 (g/mol, u) m( 63 Cu) = 63.546 (g/mol, u)

What is the atomic mass of carbon-12?

m( 12 C) = 12 u, exact (by definition!)

The mass of an individual atom is given by the

atomic mass divided by Avogadro’s number.

Checking Understanding

What is the mass, in u, of a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2?

A.12

B.24

C.32

D.36

E.44

Answer

What is the mass, in u, of a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2?

44

Checking Understanding

Rank the following in terms of the number of moles, from greatest number of moles to least:

A.20 g of He (A = 4) B.60 g of Ne (A = 20) C.120 g of O 2 (atomic oxygen, O, has A = 16) D.160 g of Ar (A = 40) E.200 g of Pb (A = 207)

Answer: A - D - C - B - E

The Ideal Gas at the micro-level avg  3 2 k T 1  m v

The Ideal Gas

at the micro-level

K avg

3

2

k B T

1

m v

2

2

rms

v rms

3k B T m
3k B T
m

E th N K avg

3

2 N k B T

The Ideal Gas at the micro-level avg  3 2 k T 1  m v

Ideal Gas Parameters

The Ideal gas T = temperature (kelvin, K)

p = pressure (N/m 2 = pascal, Pa)

V = volume (m 3 ) n = number of moles

• • N = number of particles (atoms or molecules)

The kinetic energy of the particles determines the temperature; collisions with the walls determines the pressure.

Checking Understanding

How do the pressures of the

gases inside and outside of a balloon compare?

  • A. They are the same.

    • B. pinside > poutside pinside < poutside

Checking Understanding How do the pressures of the gases inside and outside of a balloon compare?

The Definition of Pressure

Pressure

The Definition of Pressure Pressure Force per unit area N/m = pascal, Pa

Force per unit area

The Definition of Pressure Pressure Force per unit area N/m = pascal, Pa

N/m 2 = pascal, Pa

The Definition of Pressure Pressure Force per unit area N/m = pascal, Pa

The net force on a surface depends on the difference in pressure on the two sides.

The net force on a surface depends on the difference in pressure on the two sides.

The atmospheric pressure

Standard atmosphere = absolute pressure at sea level

= 1 atm = 101,300 Pa = 101.3 kPa

gauge pressure = absolute pressure 1 atm

The atmospheric pressure Standard atmosphere = absolute pressure at sea level = 1 atm = 101,300

Checking Understanding

A mass sits on top of a piston that is free to

slide in a cylinder of gas. The pressure in the gas in the cylinder is

A.greater than the pressure of the

atmosphere outside the cylinder.

B.equal to the pressure of the atmosphere outside the cylinder.

C.less than the pressure of the atmosphere

outside the cylinder.

Checking Understanding A mass sits on top of a piston that is free to slide in

Answer

A mass sits on top of a piston that is free to

slide in a cylinder of gas. The pressure in the gas in the cylinder is

A.greater than the pressure of the

atmosphere outside the cylinder.

Answer A mass sits on top of a piston that is free to slide in a

The Ideal-Gas Law

Changing the temperature,

volume or number of particles changes the pressure of the gas. We can understand this using our atomic model of the

ideal gas… …and a human demo :-)

The Ideal-Gas Law Changing the temperature, volume or number of particles changes the pressure of the
The Ideal-Gas Law Changing the temperature, volume or number of particles changes the pressure of the

Kinetic Theory

Microscopic Quantities

Molecules

Microscopic Quantities Molecules Position Velocity KE, etc.

Position Velocity KE, etc.

Macroscopic Quantities

Bulk

Temperature (T) Pressure (p) Volume (V)

Kinetic Theory Microscopic Quantities Molecules Position Velocity KE, etc. Macroscopic Quantities Bulk Temperature (T) Pressure (

Kinetic Theory

Averaged over large numbers of molecules (N)

Assumptions:

N identical molecules of mass m are inside a container of volume V; each molecule acts as a point particle.

They move randomly and obey Newton’s laws.

Collisions with each other and with the walls are elastic.

Main idea of the kinetic theory:

Pressure is a result of the collisional impact of molecules on the wall.

Main idea of the kinetic theory: Pressure is a result of the collisional impact of molecules

A quantitative consideration of the physics of collisions and resulting impact forces leads to the following main result of the kinetic theory:

N 1

  2

p ÊÊ 2

3

V

m v

 

2

rms

N Ê Ê 2 K avg 3 V
N
Ê Ê 2
K
avg
3
V
  • 2 3 k B T from Chapter 11

[ Carefully read pp. 381-382 of Knight, Jones, and Field. ]

The Ideal-Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ]

Number of basic particles in the gas

The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas

Boltzmann’s constant [ 1.38 × 10 23 J/K ]

p V N k B T

The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas

Absolute pressure in Pa

The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas
The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas

Volume of the gas in m 3

The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas

p V n R T

Temperature of the gas in K

Number of moles in the gas

The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas
The Ideal- Gas Law [ ―equation of state‖ ] Number of basic particles in the gas

Gas constant [ 8.31 J/mol·K ] R = NA kB

Checking Understanding

The two identical cylinders shown both

have the same mass on the piston and the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. Both gases are at the same temperature.

The number of moles of hydrogen is A.greater than the number of moles of nitrogen.

B.equal to the number of moles of nitrogen.

C.less than the number of moles of nitrogen.

Checking Understanding The two identical cylinders shown both have the same mass on the piston and

Answer

The two identical cylinders shown both

have the same mass on the piston and

the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. Both gases are at the same temperature. The number of moles of hydrogen is

B. equal to the number of moles of

nitrogen.

Answer The two identical cylinders shown both have the same mass on the piston and the

Checking Understanding

The two identical cylinders shown both

have the same mass on the piston and the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. The mass of gas in each cylinder is the same. The

temperature of the hydrogen gas is A.greater than the temperature of the nitrogen.

B.equal to the temperature of the nitrogen.

C.less than the temperature of the nitrogen.

Checking Understanding The two identical cylinders shown both have the same mass on the piston and

Answer

The two identical cylinders shown both

have the same mass on the piston and the same volume. One contains hydrogen, the other nitrogen. The mass of gas in each cylinder is the same. The

temperature of the hydrogen gas is

Answer The two identical cylinders shown both have the same mass on the piston and the

A.less than the temperature of the nitrogen.

Ideal-Gas Processes

p i V i p f V f  T i T f
p i V i
p f V f
T i
T f

Initial and final states of

an ideal gas in a sealed container (N =constant).

Each point on a pV diagram represents a single, unique state of the gas.

Ideal-Gas Processes p i V i p f V f  T i T f Initial

A process of changing state is then represented by a path on this diagram.

Ideal-Gas Processes p i V i p f V f  T i T f Initial

Constant-Volume Process

(―Isochoric‖)

p i V

T i

p f V

T f

p T

V  constant T i T f
V
 constant
T i
T f

No change in volume, so

W 0

Constant-Volume Process (―Isochoric‖) p V i  p V f p  T V  constant

E th Q

Thus,

Constant-Pressure Process

(―Isobaric‖)

pV i

T i

pV f

T f

V T

p  constant T i T f
p  constant
T i
T f
Constant-Pressure Process (―Isobaric‖) pV i  pV f V  T p  constant T i

Constant pressure, so

W  W gas   p V

E th Q pV

Thus,

Constant-Temperature Process

(―Isothermal‖)

p i V i

T

p f V f

T

1 P  V
1
P 
V

E th 0 Q W gas

T constant

p i p f
p
i
p
f

Thus,

Q W gas

(Heat input = Work output)

Constant-Temperature Process (―Isothermal‖) i i T f f  T 1 P  V  E
Constant-Temperature Process (―Isothermal‖) i i T f f  T 1 P  V  E

Work

When a gas expands, it does work on the environment. When a gas is compressed, it receives work from the environment.

Work • When a gas expands, it does work on the environment. • When a gas
Wgas  area
Wgas  area

Adiabatic process:

Q 0

so that E th W  W gas

Adiabatic process: Q  0  E  W   W “Adiabat”

“Adiabat”

To achieve no heat flow

1. System insulation

To achieve no heat flow 1. System insulation 2. A rapid volume change Heat has no
To achieve no heat flow 1. System insulation 2. A rapid volume change Heat has no

2. A rapid volume change

Heat has no time to flow in or out of the system. High
Heat has no time to flow
in or out of the system.
High

Checking Understanding

A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a

moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is

A.higher than the initial temperature. B.the same as the initial temperature. C.lower than the initial temperature.

Checking Understanding A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a moveable piston. The force

Answer

A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a

moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is

A.higher than the initial temperature.

Answer A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a moveable piston. The force on

Checking Understanding

A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a

moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is

A.higher than the initial temperature. B.the same as the initial temperature. C.lower than the initial temperature.

Checking Understanding A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a moveable piston. The force

Answer

A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a

moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is

lower than the initial temperature.

Answer A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a moveable piston. The force on

Checking Understanding

A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a

moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is

A.higher than the initial temperature. B.the same as the initial temperature. C.lower than the initial temperature.

Checking Understanding A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a moveable piston. The force

Answer

A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a

moveable piston. The force on the piston can be varied, altering the pressure and volume. A sample of gas is taken from an initial state to a final state following a curve on a pV diagram at right. The final temperature is

the same as the initial temperature.

Answer A sample of gas is in a cylinder with a moveable piston. The force on

Checking Understanding

Suppose you have a sample of gas at 10°C that you need to

warm up to 20°C. Which will take more heat energy: raising the temperature while keeping the pressure constant or raising the temperature while keeping the volume constant?

A.It takes more energy to raise the temperature while keeping

the volume constant.

B.It takes more energy to raise the temperature while keeping the pressure constant.

C.The heat energy is the same in both cases.

Answer

Suppose you have a sample of gas at 10°C that you need to

warm up to 20°C. Which will take more heat energy: raising the temperature while keeping the pressure constant or raising the temperature while keeping the volume constant?

It takes more energy to raise the temperature while keeping the pressure constant.

Checking Understanding

When I do work on a gas in an adiabatic process, compressing

it, I add energy to the gas. Where does this energy go?

A.The energy is transferred as heat to the environment. B.The energy is converted to thermal energy of the gas. C.The energy converts the phase of the gas.

Answer

When I do work on a gas in an adiabatic process, compressing

it, I add energy to the gas. Where does this energy go?

The energy is converted to thermal energy of the gas.

Example question

A child has been given a helium balloon. Ignoring repeated

parental suggestions of tying it to his wrist, he lets it go so

that it rapidly rises into the sky. As the balloon rises, it expands, because the pressure of the atmosphere

decreases. Ignoring heat exchanges with the atmosphere (a

good approximation if it rises quickly) what will happen to the

temperature of the balloon? Will it increase, decrease, or stay the same? Explain.

Example Problem 1

Referring to the pV diagram below,

a) What are the initial and final temperatures?

p (kPa)

n = 0.02 mol

End 600 Start 200 0
End
600
Start
200
0
  • 0 100

300

  • b) What kind of process is this likely to be?

  • c) What are some other ways to get from the initial to the final state?

V (cm 3 )

Example Problem 1 Referring to the pV diagram below, a) What are the initial and final

Isobaric

Isochoric

Example Problem 2

A child attending a carnival in a quaint seaside town has been given a spherical helium balloon that is 30 cm in diameter.

a)How many moles of helium does the balloon contain?

b)She “wants to keep the balloon fresh,” so she puts in the freezer, cooling it down from the hot 28°C outside temperature to a frosty 10°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon at this lower temperature?

Example Problem 3

What is the heat Q associated with the process indicated in the following pV diagram?

p (kPa)

n = 0.005 mol, monatomic gas 400 200 0
n = 0.005 mol, monatomic gas
400
200
0
  • 0 100

    • 200 300

V (cm 3 )

Example Problem 4

To blow up a rubber balloon, you need to provide a gauge pressure

of about 2000 Pa. Suppose you inflate a spherical balloon from a diameter of 10 cm to a diameter of 30 cm.

a)What is the change in volume of the balloon?

b)How much work do you do in blowing up the balloon?

Question:

What happens to a physical system when heat is added to it?

Heat

Q

Question: What happens to a physical system when heat is added to it? Heat Q System

System

Question: What happens to a physical system when heat is added to it? Heat Q System

Temperature rises

Question: What happens to a physical system when heat is added to it? Heat Q System
Question: What happens to a physical system when heat is added to it? Heat Q System

?

?

Question:

How much heat must be added to raise the

temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 K?

Answer: specific heat (J/kg·K)

Heat added (J) to

raise the temperature

Question: How much heat must be added to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a
Question: How much heat must be added to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a

Q T M c T

Question: How much heat must be added to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a
Question: How much heat must be added to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a

―Rise‖ in

temperature (K)

T T f T i

Mass of substance (kg)

By definition, specific heat is always positive. Q > 0 and ΔT > 0 (heat is added to a system) Q < 0 and ΔT < 0 (heat is removed from a system) ―Heat added is negative.‖

Calorimetry

Measurement of heat transfer

⌛ Teq
Teq

If the mass of the flask can be ignored, and the

insulation keeps any heat from escaping, then

Heat absorbed

by water

Calorimetry — Measurement of heat transfer — ⌛ Teq If the mass of the flask can

Q w Q b 0

Calorimetry — Measurement of heat transfer — ⌛ Teq If the mass of the flask can

Heat absorbed by object

Calorimetry — Measurement of heat transfer — ⌛ Teq If the mass of the flask can

Total heat to or from the system is zero

Calorimetry equation

Heat absorbed

by water

Calorimetry equation Heat absorbed by water Heat absorbed by object M c  T ÊÊ 

Heat absorbed

by object

Calorimetry equation Heat absorbed by water Heat absorbed by object M c  T ÊÊ 

M w c w T w ÊÊÊÊM b c b T b ÊÊÊÊ0

  • M w c w (T eq ÊÊT w )ÊÊÊÊM b c b (T eq ÊÊT b )ÊÊÊÊ0

Calorimetry equation Heat absorbed by water Heat absorbed by object M c  T ÊÊ 
Calorimetry equation Heat absorbed by water Heat absorbed by object M c  T ÊÊ 

The common final (―equilibrium‖) temperature

1. Write the equation as a statement of conservation of energy.

  • 2. Always:

T T final T initial

The original definition of the calorie: One calorie (cal) is the amount of heat needed to

The original definition

of the calorie:

One calorie (cal) is the amount of heat needed to raise the

temperature of 1 gram

of water from 14.5° C to 15.5° C.

1 cal = 4.186 J

To three significant figures

Follow-up Question:

What else can happen when heat is added?

Heat

Q

Follow-up Question: What else can happen when heat is added? Heat Q System Temperature increase A

System

Temperature increase

Follow-up Question: What else can happen when heat is added? Heat Q System Temperature increase A

A gas can expand without

a change in temperature

Follow-up Question: What else can happen when heat is added? Heat Q System Temperature increase A
Follow-up Question: What else can happen when heat is added? Heat Q System Temperature increase A

Isothermal expansion

Ice melts, Water vaporizes, Dry ice sublimes, etc.

Phase change

Phase can change when heat is added

When two phases are present, any additional heat goes into changing the phase, and not raise the temperature, until one phase has completely turned into the other, at which point any remaining heat will raise the temperature.

Phase can change when heat is added When two phases are present, any additional heat goes

Heat of transformation (also called ―latent heat‖)

The heat of transformation, L, is the heat energy that must be added to or removed from 1 kg of a substance to convert it from one phase to another. During the conversion, the temperature of the system remains

constant. (Energy is used to break or form molecular bonds.)

Qphase = ± ML

Heat of transformation (also called ―latent heat‖) The heat of transformation , L , is the
Heat of transformation (also called ―latent heat‖) The heat of transformation , L , is the
Heat of transformation (also called ―latent heat‖) The heat of transformation , L , is the

latent heat [J/kg]

heat added (+) or removed () [J]

mass [kg]

Lf = heat of fusion for melting and freezing Lv = heat of vaporization for boiling and condensing

TABLE 12.5

Melting/boiling temperatures and heats of transformation at 1 atm

Solid Liquid Liquid Gas
Solid
Liquid
Liquid
Gas

80 kcal/kg

540 kcal/kg

Why perspiration cools (through ―evaporation‖) A liquid in a closed container will come to equilibrium with

Why perspiration cools (through ―evaporation‖)

A liquid in a closed container will come to equilibrium with its vapor. However, an open liquid will not, as its vapor keeps escaping – it will continue to ―evaporate‖ without reaching equilibrium with the surrounding gas.

An open liquid

Higher-energy molecules escape,

robbing the liquid of thermal energy.

Why perspiration cools (through ―evaporation‖) A liquid in a closed container will come to equilibrium with
Phase Equilibrium If a liquid is put into a sealed container with a vacuum above it,

Phase Equilibrium

If a liquid is put into a sealed container with a vacuum above it, some of the molecules in the liquid will evaporate, especially the higher-energy ones.

With many molecules ―air-borne,‖ some will begin to return to the liquid. Equilibrium is reached when the numbers remain constant equal numbers joining and leaving the liquid.

Phase Equilibrium If a liquid is put into a sealed container with a vacuum above it,
Phase Equilibrium If a liquid is put into a sealed container with a vacuum above it,
Equilibrium Equilibrium vapor pressure Temperature dependent
Equilibrium
Equilibrium
vapor pressure
Temperature
dependent
Phase Equilibrium If a liquid is put into a sealed container with a vacuum above it,
The temperature at which Vapor pressure = External pressure . = 1 atm Vapor pressure

Boiling Point

The temperature at which Vapor pressure = External pressure . = 1 atm Vapor pressure

The temperature at which Vapor pressure = External pressure.

= 1 atm
= 1 atm

Vapor pressure

curve

Boiling point of water (at sea level)

Never insist on a ―3-minute egg‖ in Denver!

What would it be on Mars?

A general, schematic phase diagram On the phase boundary curves, the neighboring phases coexist in equilibrium.

A general, schematic phase diagram

On the phase boundary curves, the neighboring phases coexist in equilibrium.

Densities of liquid and gas become equal

at the critical

point.

 

Triple point

 
 

All three phases can coexist in equilibrium.

A general, schematic phase diagram On the phase boundary curves, the neighboring phases coexist in equilibrium.

A simplified phase diagram for water (Fig. 12.23)

Ice, when compressed, becomes water! Water is denser than ice Ice floats in water!
Ice, when
compressed,
becomes water!
Water is denser
than ice
Ice floats in water!

Summary:

Specific Heat and Heat of Transformation

∆T
∆T
phase
phase
Solving calorimetry problems: for the combined system + –
Solving calorimetry problems:
for the combined system
+

Checking Understanding

Which needs the most heat to bring to a final temperature

of 50°C? A.100 g of iron at 0°C B.100 g of water at 0°C C.100 g of ice at 0°C

Answer

Which needs the most heat to bring to a final temperature

of 50°C?

100 g of ice at 0°C

Example Problem 5

On a hot summer day, a cup of flavored shaved ice can be a

welcome treat. Suppose you ignore the obvious ―brain freeze‖

danger and eat an 8 oz (0.22 kg) cup of ice rather quickly. When

it melts in your stomach, how much will this reduce your body temperature?

Example Problem 6

Suppose you are bicycling at a good clip, using a total energy of 400 W. As you exercise, your body will start to warm upand you will perspire to keep yourself cool.

A.If your body is 25% efficient while cycling, by what rate

would your body temperature rise if you had no means of

exhausting excess thermal energy?

B.Assume that the only means by which your body cools itself is evaporation. To keep your body temperature constant, what mass of water must be evaporated during a

  • 1.0 h ride?

C.What volume of water must you drink each hour to keep

from becoming dehydrated? (1.0 kg of water has a volume of

  • 1.0 l.)

Example Problem 7

A typical hot tub contains about 1 m 3 of water. Suppose the tub

is filled with tap water at 10°C. If the tub has a 5500 W electric

heater, how long must the heater run to heat the water to a final temperature of 40°C, ignoring any thermal losses? If electricity costs 10¢ per kilowatt-hour, how much will this energy cost?

Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer

Checking Understanding

If you get a cup of coffee in a paper cup, you may be given a

corrugated paper sleeve to put around it to make it comfortable to hold. Explain the purpose of the paper sleeve, and how it accomplishes this. Why is the paper sleeve

corrugated?