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Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace

Chapter 3

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Chapter 3 Outline

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4.

Values Assessing Cultural Values Values in the Canadian Workplace Attitudes

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Terms and Definitions

Values Terminal values Instrumental values Ethics Power distance Individualism Masculinity Femininity

Uncertainty avoidance Long-term orientation Short-term orientation Attitudes Job satisfaction Core self-evaluation
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Terms and Definitions (cont.)

Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect Organizational commitment
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Affective commitment Normative commitment Continuance commitment Employee engagement

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Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace What are values? How can we understand values across cultures? Are there unique Canadian values? What are attitudes and why are they important?

Learning Goals

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Values Values represent basic convictions that, a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. They contain a judgemental element that carry an individuals ideas about what is right, good, or desirable They tend to be relatively stable and enduring

Learning Goal 1

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Values (cont.) Two frameworks used to understand values:


Milton Rokeachs terminal and instrumental values Kent Hodgsons general moral principles

Learning Goal 1

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Rokeach Value Survey People hold two sets of values:


Terminal Values: Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetimes Instrumental Values: Preferable ways of behaving

Learning Goal 1

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Rokeach Value Survey (cont.)

Learning Goal 1

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Rokeach Value Survey (cont.)

Learning Goal 1

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Hodgsons General Moral Principles Ethics is the study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us whether actions are right or wrong Ethical values are related to moral judgements Hodgson identified seven general moral principles, which he calls the Magnificent Seven

Learning Goal 1

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Hodgsons General Moral Principles (cont.) The Magnificent Seven Principles


Dignity of human life Autonomy Honesty Loyalty Fairness Humaneness The common good

Learning Goal 1

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Assessing Cultural Values Two frameworks for understanding how values differ across cultures
Hofstedes Framework for Assessing Cultures The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures

Learning Goal 2

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Hofstedes Framework for Assessing Cultures Study done by Geert Hofstede showed five value dimensions of national culture
Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Masculinity vs. femininity Uncertainty avoidance Long-term vs. short-term orientation

Learning Goal 2

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Hofstedes Framework for Assessing Cultures (cont.)

Learning Goal 2

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The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures The GLOBE dimensions for assessing culture are:
Assertiveness Future orientation Gender differentiation Uncertainty avoidance Power distance Individualism versus collectivism In-group collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation

Learning Goal 2

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Values in the Canadian Workplace Where individual and organizational values align the results are positive However, within an organization individual values are not all the same Differences appear as:
Cultural differences Generational differences

Learning Goal 3

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Cultural Differences 2006 immigrant population


46 percent of Torontos population 40 percent of Vancouvers 21 percent of Montreals

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2006 Census findings on language


20.1 percent spoke neither English nor French. Of these: Largest majority spoke Chinese (mainly Mandarin or Cantonese) Followed by Italian, German, Punjabi, and Spanish

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Cultural Differences (cont.) Research has also shown that Canadian and American values are becoming increasingly dissimilar Cultural differences appear in
Francophone and Anglophone values Aboriginal values Asian values

Learning Goal 3

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Cultural Differences (cont.)

Learning Goal 3

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Francophone and Anglophone Values

Francophone Values More collectivist or grouporiented Concerned with interpersonal aspects of workplace More committed to their workplaces

Anglophone Values Individualist or I-centred Take more risks Value autonomy

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Aboriginal Values Number of entrepreneurial activities by Aboriginals has been growing, especially between 1996 and 2001 Values include:
More collectivist in orientation. More community-oriented. Greater sense of family in the workplace. Greater affiliation and loyalty. Power distance lower than non-Aboriginal culture Lower uncertainty avoidance and fewer rules and regulations

Learning Goal 3

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Asian Values

East and Southeast Asia Guanxi relations:


Based on reciprocation Relationships meant to be long-term and enduring Enforcement relies on personal power and authority Governed by shame (external pressures on performance)

North America Networked relations:


Based on self-interest Relationships viewed with immediate gains Enforcement relies on institutional law Governed by guilt (internal pressures on performance)

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Generational Differences Values held by different age groups can be categorized:


The Elders Baby Boomers Generation X The Ne(x)t Generation

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The Elders Those over 60 Core values:


Belief in order Authority Discipline Judeo-Christian moral code The Golden Rule

Learning Goal 3

80 percent resemble this description of traditional values

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Baby Boomers Born mid-1940s to mid-1960s Four groups:


Autonomous rebels Anxious communitarians Connected enthusiasts Disengaged Darwinists

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Baby Boomers (cont.) All but Disengaged Darwinists reflect:


Rejection of authority Skepticism regarding the motives of big business and government Strong concern for the environment Strong desire for equality in the workplace and society

Learning Goal 3

Disengaged Darwinists are:


Angry Intimidated by change Anxious about their professional and financial futures

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Generation X Born mid-1960s to early 1980s Values:


Flexibility Life options Achievement of job satisfaction Skeptical, particularly of authority Enjoy team-oriented work Less willing to make personal sacrifices Rate high on true friendship, happiness, and pleasure

Learning Goal 3

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Generation X (cont.) Five groups


Thrill-seeking materialists Aimless dependents Social hedonists New Aquarians Autonomous post-materialists

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The Ne(x)t Generation Born between 1977 and 1997 Values:


Have high expectations Seek meaning in their work Life goals more oriented to becoming rich and famous At ease with diversity Take technology for granted Tend to be questioning, socially conscious, and entrepreneurial

Learning Goal 3

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The Generations Meet in the Workplace Baby Boomers are currently dominate the workplace, but their years in charge are limited The Elders who play-by-the-rules are replaced by the more egalitarian Baby Boomers Generation Xers are not interested in copying the workaholic behaviour of their parents Requires a manager to be flexible, observant, and willing to adjust more to individual needs

Learning Goal 3

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Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statementseither positive or negativeabout objects, people, or events Attitudes not the same as values Values are convictions about what is important Attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour

Learning Goal 4

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Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction refers to an individuals general attitude toward his or her job Some attitudes toward job satisfaction
40 percent of Canadians are very satisfied with their jobs 47 percent of Americans are happy 54 percent of Danish workers are happy 40 percent of Canadians say they would not recommend their place of work

Learning Goal 4

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Job Satisfaction (cont.) Reasons for dissatisfaction include


Workers never see any of the benefits of their companys profitability. Red tape and bureaucracy 55 percent of Canadians say they have too much to do

Learning Goal 4

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What Causes Job Satisfaction Enjoying the work is the cause most strongly linked to job satisfaction For the poor, job satisfaction is correlated to pay When employees are comfortable, the correlation almost disappears People who have positive core self-evaluations are more satisfied with their jobs

Learning Goal 4

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Job Satisfaction and Productivity Correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is moderately strong It is not clear whether satisfaction causes performance or performance causes satisfaction Organizations with more satisfied employees are more effective than those with fewer satisfied employees

Learning Goal 4

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Job Satisfactions and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour


Learning Goal 4

Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements Individuals with high OCB will go beyond their usual job duties, providing performance that is beyond expectations Job satisfaction influences OCB, but through perceptions of fairness Job satisfaction is unrelated to OCB when fairness is considered

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Job Satisfactions and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (cont.)


Learning Goal 4

When an organization processes are viewed as being fair, trust is developed When trust is developed job satisfaction increases and workers will voluntarily go beyond formal job requirements

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Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees in service organizations increase customer satisfaction and loyalty Customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how front-line employees deal with customers Dissatisfied customers can also lead to job dissatisfaction

Learning Goal 4

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How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Dissatisfied employees can express their dissatisfaction through
Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect

Learning Goal 4

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How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction (cont.)

Learning Goal 4

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Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals Three types of commitment:
Affective commitment: An individuals relationship to the organization Normative commitment: The obligation an individual feels to staying with an organization. Continuance commitment: An individuals calculation that it is in his or her best interest to stay with the organization

Learning Goal 4

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Organizational Commitment (cont.) Five reasons why employees commit themselves:


They are proud of [the companys] aspirations, accomplishments, and legacy; they share its values. They know what each person is expected to do, how performance is measured, and why it matters. They are in control of their own destinies; they savour the high-risk, high-reward work environment. They are recognized mostly for the quality of their individual performance. They have fun and enjoy the supportive and highly interactive environment.

Learning Goal 4

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Employee Engagement Employee engagement is an individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does Companies that had high average levels of employee engagement had higher levels of customer satisfaction, were more productive, had higher profits, and had lower levels of turnover and accidents

Learning Goal 4

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Summary and Implications

Summary

1. What are Values?


Values guide how we make decisions about and evaluations of behaviours and events.

2. How can we understand values across cultures?


Hofstede found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. This insight is expanded on by the GLOBE program.

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Summary and Implications (cont.)

Summary

3. Are there unique Canadian values?


Canadian values are affected by both generational and cultural factors.

4. What are attitudes and why are they important?


Attitudes are positive or negative feelings about objects, people, or events. They affect the way people respond to situations.

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TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

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Affective Commitment An individuals emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization.

Definition

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Attitudes Positive or negative feelings about objects, people, or events.

Definition

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Continuance Commitment An individuals calculation to stay with the organization based on the perceived costs of leaving the organization.

Definition

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Core Self-evaluation The degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself or herself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment.

Definition

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Employee Engagement An individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does.

Definition

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Ethics The study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and inform us whether actions are right or wrong.

Definition

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Exit Dissatisfaction expressed by actively attempting to leave the organization.

Definition

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Femininity A national culture attribute that sees little differentiation between male and female roles; women are treated as the equals of men in all respects.

Definition

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Individualism A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups.

Definition

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Instrumental Values Preferable ways of behaving.


Definition

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Job Satisfaction An individuals general attitude toward his or her job.

Definition

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Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence.

Definition

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Loyalty Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.

Definition

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Masculinity A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favours traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control.

Definition

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Neglect Dissatisfaction expressed by passively allowing conditions to worsen.

Definition

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Normative Commitment The obligation an individual feels to staying with the organization.

Definition

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Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.

Definition

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Organizational Commitment A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.

Definition

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Power Distance A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

Definition

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Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations.

Definition

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Terminal Values Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetimes.

Definition

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Uncertainty Avoidance A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them.

Definition

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Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.

Definition

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Voice Dissatisfaction expressed by actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions.

Definition

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