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is a mass of nerve tissue containing cell bodies of neurons that is located outside the central nervous system.

AUTONOMIC GANGLIA Sympathetic

LOCATION =>located near target organs =>consist of Celiac, Hypogastric, Superior mesenteric and Inferior mesenteric

Parasympathetic

=>near target organs in the head (Ciliary, Pterygopalatine, Submandibular and Otic) =>embedded in the walls of target organs in the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

GANGLION-BLOCKING DRUGS

Tetraethylammonium (TEA)
Hexamethonium Mecamylamine Trimethaphan

absorption of quaternary ammonium (Hexamethomium, Tetraetylammonium) and sulfonium (Trimethaphan) from the enteric tract is incomplete. confined primarily to the extracellular space and are excreted mostly unchanged by the kidney.

MECAMYLAMINE:
=> a secondary amine, crosses both the blood brain, and placental barriers and well absorbed orally => concentrates in the liver and kidney,and excreted slowly in an unchanged form.

TRIMETHAPHAN: is inactive orally and is given by IV infusion.

FIRST GROUP: characterized by nicotine stimulates ganglia and then blocks them causing a persistent depolarization Ex:

SECOND GROUP: inhibit the postsynaptic action of Ach nondepolarizing blockade

carbamoylcholine tetraethylammonium

Either: ->by competing w/ Ach for ganglionic nicotinic receptor sites ( Ex: Trimethaphan) ->by blocking the channel (Ex: Hexamethonium)

EFFECT OF GANGLIONIC BLOCKADE


SITE Arterioles PREDOMINANT TONE Sympathetic (adrenergic) Vasodilation; increased peripheral blood flow; hypotension

Veins

Sympathetic (adrenergic)

Dilation: peripheral pooling of blood; decreased venous return; decreased cardiac output

Sweat glands

Sympathetic (cholinergic)

Anhidrosis (deficiency or absence of perspiration)

SITE

PREDOMINANT TONE Parasympathetic (cholinergic)

EFFECT OF GANGLIONIC BLOCKADE

Heart (S-A node)

Tachycardia

Iris

Parasympathetic (cholinergic)

Mydriasis (dilation of the pupil)

Parasympathetic (cholinergic) Ciliary muscle Parasympathetic (cholinergic)

Cycloplegiafocus to far vision

Gastrointestinal tract Salivary glands

Reduced tone and motility; constipation; decreased gastric and pancreatic secretions Xerostomia (dry mouth )

Parasympathetic (cholinergic)

SITE

PREDOMINANT TONE

EFFECT OF GANGLIONIC BLOCKADE


Urinary retention Precipitate urinary retention in men with prostatic hypoplasia.

Urinary bladder

Parasympathetic (cholinergic)

Sympathetic (ejaculation) and parasympathetic (erection) Genital tract

Decreased stimulation

MILD: Mydriasis Dry mouth Urinary hesistancy Constipation Abdominal discomfort Diarrhea

MORE SERIOUS: Hypotension Paralytic ileus Anginal pain

=> Many responses are undesirable effects that limit the therapeutic usefulness of these agents.

=>Are still important in pharmacological and physiological research because of their ability to block autonomic ganglia.

MECAMYLAMINE (INVERSINE):

blocks central nicotinic receptor reported effects: tremors, seizures and mental confusion possible adjunct with the transdermal nicotine patch to reduce nicotine craving in patients

attempting to quit smoking.

rarely used as an antihypertensive drugs

TRIMETHAPHAN (ARFONAD):

is an extremely short-acting agent used in the emergency treatment in hypertensive crisis due to direct vasodilating properties. production of controlled hypotension in certain surgical procedures to reduce

bleeding.