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Unit 05 Motivation and Behavior

Motivation
The word motivation is derived form motive which means any ideas, need, emotion state that promotes the person to do an action. Motivation is defined as The inner force that activates or moves a person toward achievement of a goal.

Characteristics of Motivation
Motivation is a psychological concept. The whole individual is motivated, not the part of him only. Motivation is an infinite process. Frustration of basic needs makes a man sick. Goals are motivators.

Results of Motivation
Best utilization of resources. Willingness to work and contribute.

Reduction in labour problems.


Increase in production and productivity. Improvement upon skill and knowledge.

Types of Motivation
Positive Motivation
It makes people to do their work in best possible manner and to improve their performance. It provides better facilities and rewards for their performance. desirable & the object of directed behavior.

Negetive Motivation
Aims to control the negetive efforts of the workers. Its based on the concept that if man fails in achieving the goals, he should be punished. undesirable & behavior is directed away from it.

Both needs & goals are interdependent. Needs & goals are constantly changing.

Hawthorns studies and its findings-1924


The Hawthorne studies focused attention on the human side of organizations. Studies tried to determine how economic incentives and physical environment affected productivity. Involved 29,000 people over 7-8 years. Concluded that human needs were an important factor in increasing productivity. Resulted in The Hawthorne Effect.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow thought that his research felt that
85% of physiocological needs are satisfied. 70% of safety needs are satisfied 50% of social needs are satisfied

40% of esteem needs are satisfied


Only 10% of self actualization needs are satisfied

X and Y Theory
Douglas McGregor was the founder of X and Y theory.

McGregor's ideas (1960) about managerial behavior had a profound effect on management thinking and practice. His propositions sum up the precepts of a unitary and normative frame of reference for managerial practice.
McGregor defined assumptions (theories/propositions) that he felt underpinned the practices and stances of managers in relation to employees. These were evident from their conversations and actions. Two sets of propositions were dubbed Theory X and Y.

DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION X THEORY Y THEORY


MANGEMENT STAFF

THEORYX-AUTHORITARIAN,REPRESSIVE STYLE.TIGHT CONTROL,NO DEVELOPMENT,PRODUCES LIMITED DEPRESSED CULTURE

THEORY Y-LIBERATING AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONTROL ACHIEVEMENT AND CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT ACHIEVED BY ENABLING,EMPOWERING AND GIVING RESPONSIBILITY

STAFF MANGEMENT

X THEORY
Theory X is the traditional view of direction and control by managers.

1. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid if he or she can.
2. Because of this human characteristic of dislike of work, most people must be controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. 3. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, wants security above all. Theory X leads naturally to an emphasis on the tactics of control - to procedures and techniques for telling people what to do, for determining whether they are doing it, and for administering rewards and punishment.