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Chapter 16

Global Consumer Culture

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e
Michael R. Solomon

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Chapter Objectives
When you finish this chapter, you should understand why:

Styles act as a mirror to reflect underlying


cultural conditions.

We distinguish between high and low


culture.

Many modern marketers are reality


engineers.

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Chapter Objectives (continued)

New products, services, and ideas spread


through a population. Different types of people are more or less likely to adopt them.

Many people and organizations play a role in


the fashion system that creates and communicates symbolic meaning to consumers.

Fashions follow cycles.

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Chapter Objectives (continued)

Products that succeed in one culture may


fail in another if marketers fail to understand the differences among consumers in each place.

Western (and particularly American) culture


has a huge impact around the world, though people in other countries dont necessarily ascribe the same meanings to products as we do.

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Where Does Culture Come From?

Influence of inner-city teens Hip-hop/black urban culture Outsider heroes, anti-oppression messages,
and alienation of blacks

Flavor on the streets

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Figure 16.1 The Movement of Meaning

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Figure 16.2 Culture Production Process

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Culture Production System

A culture production system is the set of


individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural product

It has three major subsystems Creative Managerial Communications

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Cultural Gatekeepers

Cultural gatekeepers are responsible for


filtering the overflow of information and materials intended for customers Tastemakers Throughput sector

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High Culture and Popular Culture

An art product is an object we admire for its


beauty and our emotional response

A craft product is admired because of the


beauty with which it forms a function

Mass culture creates products for a mass


market

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Table 16.2 Cultural Formulae in Public Art Forms


Art Form/Genre Time Location Protagonist Heroine Villain Secondary characters Plot Theme Costume Locomotion Weaponry Western 1800s Edge of civilization Cowboy Schoolmarm Outlaws Town folk Restore law and order Justice Cowboy hat, boots Horse Rifle Family Sitcom Anytime Suburbs Father Mother Boss, neighbor Kids, dogs Solve problem Chaos and confusion Regular clothes Station wagon, SUV Insults

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Discussion

Can you identify a cultural formula at work in


romance or action movies?

Do you see parallels among the roles


different characters play (e.g., the hero, the evildoer, the temptress, etc.)?

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Reality Engineering

Many consumer environments have


images/characters spawned by marketing campaigns or are retreads

Marketers use pop culture as promotional


vehicles New vintage (e.g., used jeans) Elements used are both sensory and spatial

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Product Placement and Branded Entertainment

Insertion of specific products and use of


brand names in movie/TV scripts

Directors incorporate branded props for


realism

Is product placement a positive or negative


when it comes to consumer decisionmaking?

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Advergaming

Advergaming refers to online games merged


with interactive advertisements

Advertisers gain many benefits with


advergames

Plinking is the act of embedding a product in


a video

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The Diffusion of Innovations

Innovation: any product that consumers


perceive to be new New manufacturing technique New product variation New way to deliver product New way to package product

Diffusion of innovation Successful innovations spread through


the population at various rates
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Figure 16.3 Types of Adopters

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Behavioral Demands of Innovations

Three major types of innovations (amount of


disruption/change they bring to our lives): Continuous innovation Evolutionary rather than revolutionary Dynamically continuous innovation More pronounced change to existing product Discontinuous innovation Creates major changes in the way we live

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Prerequisites for Successful Adoption


Compatibility
Innovation should be compatible with consumers lifestyles People are more likely to adopt an innovation if they can experiment with it prior to purchase A product that is easy to understand will be chosen over competitors Innovations that are easily observable are more likely to spread Product should offer relative advantage over other alternatives

Trialability

Complexity

Observability Relative Advantage

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The Fashion System

The fashion system includes all those people


and organizations involved in creating symbolic meanings and transferring these meanings to cultural goods Fashion is code Fashion is context-dependent Fashion is undercoded

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Behavioral Science Perspectives and Models of Fashion

Psychological

Economic
Sociological Medical

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Motives and Psychological Models of Fashion

Conformity Desire for variety seeking Need to express personal


creativity

Sexual attraction

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Figure 16.4 Normal Fashion Life Cycle

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Fashion Life Cycle Example

Introduction stage: small number of music


innovators hear a song

Acceptance stage: song enjoys increased


visibility

Regression stage: song reaches stage of


social saturation as it becomes overplayed

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Figure 16.5 Comparison of Acceptance of Fads, Fashions, and Classics

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Discussion

What is and what should be the role of


fashion in our society? How important is it for people to be in style? What are the pros and cons of keeping up with the latest fashions?

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Figure 16.6 Behavior of Fads

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How Might We Know if a Trend is a Fad?

Does it fit with basic lifestyle changes? Are there benefits? Can we personalize it? Is it a trend or a side effect? Is it a carryover effect? Who adopted the change?

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Cultural Differences and Marketing

People around the world develop their own


unique preferences

Marketers must be aware of a cultures


norms and manage the relationship between brand and culture strategically

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Think Globally, Act Locally

Adopt a standardized strategy Adopt a localized strategy

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Consumers and Global Brands


Global citizens
Global dreamers Antiglobals Global agnostics

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Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies

Creolization occurs when foreign influences


integrate with local meanings

Peruvian boys carry rocks painted like radios Chivas Regal wrappers on drums in highland
Papua New Guinea

Japanese use Western words for anything


new and exciting I feel Coke and sound special

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Chapter Summary

Styles are like a mirror that reflect culture. We can distinguish between high and low
forms of culture.

Marketers are also reality engineers. New products spread through the
population. Certain characteristics make it more likely that they will be adopted.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Chapter Summary

The fashion system creates and


communicates symbolic meaning for consumers.

Fashion follows cycles. Products that succeed in one culture may fail
in another due to cultural differences.

Western culture has a huge influence on


other cultures.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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