4 views

Uploaded by Shikhar Gupta

- ME - 703 wbut
- THESIS-OLME.pdf
- sol_tarea_1_2007
- The Ant System Optimization by a Colony of Cooperating Agents
- Aptitude Approximation
- 100625
- Chapter 3
- Errors s
- Single Machine Scheduling
- Practical Worksheet (Edwin Adrian)
- LEC_12
- Paper Model
- Ant Systems Overview
- Data Induktor
- PLC Training in Pune |Just Engineering
- page_130
- 100 Ovr Calculator
- ch3_brief (1)
- ODE_Chapter 05-03 [May 2013]
- Control Lect9

You are on page 1of 26

1

Prepared By:

Shikhar Gupta

M.Tech.

1202910511

Swarm Intelligence

Swarm intelligence (SI) is artificial

intelligence based on the collective

behaviour of decentralized, self-organized

systems

2

Characteristics of

Swarms

Composed of many individuals

Individuals are homogeneous

Local interaction based on simple rules

Self-organization

Constituting a natural model particularly

suited to distributed problem solving

3

4

5

Ant Colony Optimization

Optimization Technique Proposed by

Marco Dorigo in the early 90

Heuristic optimization method inspired by

biological systems

Multi-agent approach for solving difficult

combinatorial optimization problems

Has become new and fruitful research area

6

Natural behavior of ant

7

How can they manage such great

tasks ?

Ants are ,

essentially blind, deaf and dumb.

social creatures behavior directed to survival

of colony

Question: how can ants find the short path to

food sources?

8

Shortest Path

Ants deposit pheromones on ground that

form a trail. The trail attracts other ants.

Pheromones evaporate faster on longer paths.

Shorter paths serve as the way to food for

most of the other ants.

9

Applications

Traveling Salesman Problem

Quadratic Assignment Problem

Network Model Problem

Vehicle routing

Graph coloring

10

ACO system -PSEUDOCODE

Often applied to TSP (Travelling Salesman Problem): shortest

path between n nodes

Algorithm in Pseudocode:

Initialize Trail

Do While (Stopping Criteria Not Satisfied) Cycle Loop

Do Until (Each Ant Completes a Tour) Tour Loop

Local Trail Update

End Do

Analyze Tours

Global Trail Update

End Do

11

Algorithm

Ant Colony Algorithms are typically use to solve minimum

cost problems.

We may usually have N nodes and A undirected arcs

There are two working modes for the ants: either forwards or

backwards

The ants memory allows them to retrace the path it has

followed while searching for the destination node

Before moving backward on their memorized path, they

eliminate any loops from it. While moving backwards, the ants

leave pheromones on the arcs they traversed.

12

Algorithm

At the beginning of the search process, a constant amount of

pheromone is assigned to all arcs. When located at a node i an

ant k uses the pheromone trail to compute the probability of

choosing j as the next node:

where is the neighborhood of ant k when in node i.

0

k

i

ij k

i

k

il

ij l N

k

i

if j N

p

if j N

o

o

t

t

e

13

k

i

N

Algorithm

When the arc (i,j) is traversed , the pheromone value changes

as follows:

By using this rule, the probability increases that forthcoming

ants will use this arc.

After each ant k has moved to the next node, the pheromones

evaporate by the following equation to all the arcs:

k

ij ij

t t t +A

14

(1 ) , ( , )

ij ij

p i j A t t e

Steps for Solving a Problem by

ACO

1. Represent the problem in the form of sets of components

and transitions, or by a set of weighted graphs, on which

ants can build solutions

2. Define the meaning of the pheromone trails

3. Define the heuristic preference for the ant while constructing

a solution

4. If possible implement a efficient local search algorithm for

the problem to be solved.

5. Choose a specific ACO algorithm and apply to problem

being solved

6. Tune the parameter of the ACO algorithm.

15

TSP example

A

D

C B

1

[]

4

[]

3

[]

2

[]

d

AB

=8;d

BC

= 4;d

CD

=15;d

DA

=6

16

Iteration 1

A

D

C

B

1

[A]

3

[C]

2

[B]

4

[D]

17

How to build next sub-solution?

1

[A]

A

D

C B

18

Iteration 2

A

D

C

B

2

[B,C]

3

[C,D]

1

[A,B]

4

[D,A]

19

Iteration 3

A

D

C

B

2

[B,C,D]

3

[B,C,A]

4

[D,A,B]

1

[A,B,C]

20

Iteration 4

A

D

C

B

1

[A,B,C,D]

2

[B,C,D,A]

3

[C,D,A,B]

4

[D,A,B,C]

21

Path and Pheromone Evaluation

1

[A,B,C,D

L

1

=27

L

2

=25

L

3

=29

L

4

=18

2

[B,C,D,A]

3

[C,D,A,B]

4

[D,A,B,C]

22

Best tour

End of First Run

All ants die

New ants are born

Save Best Tour (Sequence and length)

23

Advantages and Disadvantages

For TSPs (Traveling Salesman Problem), relatively efficient

for a small number of nodes, TSPs can be solved by

exhaustive search

for a large number of nodes, TSPs are very computationally

difficult to solve exponential time to convergence

Performs better against other global optimization techniques

such as neural net, genetic algorithms, simulated annealing

Can be used in dynamic applications (adapts to changes such

as new distances, etc.)

Convergence is guaranteed, but time to convergence uncertain

24

Conclusion

Ant Colony Optimization is an efficient

approach of finding shortest path problems.

25

References

Marco Dorigo, Mauro Birattari, Ant Colony

Optimization, IEEE, 2006.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swarm_intelligen

ce

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_colony_opti

mization

26

- ME - 703 wbutUploaded bySuraj
- THESIS-OLME.pdfUploaded bystratosg
- sol_tarea_1_2007Uploaded byCamilo Ignacio Arriagada Jara
- The Ant System Optimization by a Colony of Cooperating AgentsUploaded byabuzar19
- Aptitude ApproximationUploaded bybankjobscoaching
- 100625Uploaded byvol2no6
- Chapter 3Uploaded byJazz Kaur
- Errors sUploaded byKurt Cargo
- Single Machine SchedulingUploaded byjalacs270
- Practical Worksheet (Edwin Adrian)Uploaded byEdwin Tan Pei Ming
- LEC_12Uploaded byAnkush Bhandari
- Paper ModelUploaded bymichaelpalimbinan
- Ant Systems OverviewUploaded byapi-3831656
- Data InduktorUploaded byWahyu Saputra
- PLC Training in Pune |Just EngineeringUploaded bymedixpress
- page_130Uploaded byAlexander Rodriguez Angulo
- 100 Ovr CalculatorUploaded byMark Alty
- ch3_brief (1)Uploaded bySaidSaifi
- ODE_Chapter 05-03 [May 2013]Uploaded bytharunenjp
- Control Lect9Uploaded byIbrahim Mohamed
- Combined Use of Data and Expert Estimates in Population Variability AnalysisUploaded byHelton Santana
- 06 RA41216EN20GLA0 RL20 Radio Bearer Control PptUploaded bysam_will
- PaperUploaded byvermatiet
- Python - Andrew JohansenUploaded byYanquiel Mansfarroll Gonzalez
- Chap009 (1).docUploaded byRationallyIrrationalSamiksha
- 10Uploaded bySarbu Ana
- Week 8 assignment MA 105 College Algebra.docxUploaded byShubhangi Dhokane
- PAPR_Tellado_CioffiUploaded bysoumyaknag
- Interesting MeasuresUploaded byJean Sorel

- 1st math lp week34 internalizationguideUploaded byapi-372488634
- Computer Fundamentals and Office AutomationUploaded bybogasrinu
- Concrete Mix Design - STFA - 09.06.2009Uploaded bymasahin
- 01 - A Brief History of the Planet EarthUploaded bydustinshay
- Odisha Approves ESDM Road Map Prepared by IESAUploaded bysangya01
- Reservoir ModelingUploaded byHaseen Kaur
- UtilityUploaded byapi-3788255
- Owner’s ManualUploaded byAntonio Velasquez
- Ch. 1 Everything's an Argument-1Uploaded bywickedblue
- _Beauty and the Beast_ From 'Beauty and the Beast' Sheet Music (Piano Solo) in Db Major - Download & Print - SKU_ MN0071548Uploaded byAndrei Gafton
- AstronomyUploaded byMadhav Rangan
- Ch 13 - Periodic MotionUploaded byAnonymous s6Gtfr2
- Burndy Products Master CatalogUploaded byLarry Batey
- Measurements of Sound Absorption CoefficientsUploaded byAgustín Arias
- ACC-25-50Uploaded bypujFierros
- 700bUploaded byAnanda Krishna
- Pipelay Equipment FamiliarisationUploaded byisidoro Villarreal
- CNC Tool Forks ISO30 HSK BT30 BT40 Plastic Gripper Clip FingersUploaded bySalce Smith
- Path Planning in Environments of Different Complexity - MATLAB & Simulink ExampleUploaded bytdit84
- Hy Gard DKE7358 Sep02Uploaded byJocelyn Milla Morales
- 2ZE_Ch14_p450-487_watermarked.pdfUploaded byNate Rodriguez
- Sttp Cad Hens Day1 Sec1Uploaded byNarendra Patel
- PDMS GuideUploaded byIVAN
- Senior Director AVP in Boston RI CT Resume Christopher MooreUploaded byChristopherMoore2
- CH3 LewickiUploaded byUsama Gilani
- Clark y Watson (1995): Constructing Validity: Basic Issues in Objective Scale DevelopmentUploaded byPablo Valencia Meléndez
- 141_2_vc-pekos-ansi-2013Uploaded byAan Supriyanto
- PorphyryUploaded byDevsamridhi Arora
- Robotica Guia Teorica y PracticaUploaded byFredy Chamorro
- Birla White 2Uploaded bysharadkakkar