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QR CODES

Presented byEllina Priyadarshini

WHAT IS A QR CODE ?
QR code: Quick Response code Is a 2-D bar code Used to encode information(URLs, automated SmS, text data) in two dimensional space.

HISTORY
Created

by a Japanese company- Toyota subsidiary Denso-wave in 1994. Used to track parts during vehicle manufacture

BARCODES V/S QR CODES


Stores

data in two dimensions unlike the 1-D barcodes. High storage capacity in less space. Can be scanned by any smart phone with the app installed.

QR CODES IN EVERYDAY LIFE

INSIDE QR CODES

Finder Patterns: Finds if the given code is a QR Code Timing Pattern: Tracks the timing of the incoming code Separators: Separates data from the patterns Alignment Pattern: Tells about initiation & Separation of data. Dark Module: A black module placed beside the bottom left finder pattern.

QR CODE GENERATION
DATA ANALYSIS DATA ENCODING ERROR CORRECTING STRUCTURE FINAL MESSAGE DATA MASKING FORMAT INFORMATION STRING

DATA ANALYSIS
MODES

SUPPORTED BY QR CODES:

NUMERIC: for decimal digits from 0-9 ALPHA-NUMERIC: digits from 0-9,upper-case
alphabets & symbols($,%,*,+,-,/,space)

BYTE: strings in form of hexadecimal bytes

DATA ENCODING:
STEP STEP STEP STEP STEP STEP

1: Select error correction level.

2: Determine the smallest version for the data. 3: Add the mode indicator

4: Add the character count indicator


5: Encode using the selected mode 6: Breaking up to form code-words

ERROR CORRECTION CODING

Allows the QR code readers to detect & correct the errors in the code.

Reed-Solomon error-correcting algorithm is used.


Encoding symbols are derived from the coefficients of a polynomial constructed by multiplying p(x) with a generator polynomial.

STRUCTURE FINAL MESSAGE


If

code-word is small, it is left as such.

Larger

QR codes are broken up into blocks of either 15 or 16 data codewords each.

MODULE PLACEMENT IN MATRIX

The final string is placed in the QR code matrix along with the function patterns (discussed earlier).

Fig. 1

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Fig. 4

CONTINUED..

Fig. 4

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DATA MASKING
MASKING

means, changing the color of a module. QR codes define 7 masking patterns. For ex: in mask pattern #1, every even numbered row in the matrix is masked

FORMAT INFORMATION STRING

Includes the error correction level & the masking pattern currently in use.

(7x4) i.e. 28 format information strings exist.


Format string table gives the list of 28 format

information strings.

HOW TO USE QR CODES?

Use a smart phone installed with a QR scanner app.

Open the app & place it in front of the QR code.


Get the result!!

EXAMPLE:-

HELLO WORLD

DATA WORD

ENCODED DATA

00100000 01011011 00001011 01111000 11010001 01110010 11011100 01001101 01000011 01000000 11101100 00010001 11101100

ERROR CORRECTION CODE

196 35 39 119 235 215 231 226 93 23


STRUCTURE FINAL MESSAGE
0100001111110110101101100100011 0010101011111011011100110111101110100011 0010000101111011101110110100001100000011101 110111010101100101011101110110001100101100001 000100110100001100000011100000110010101011111 0011101101101010101101010100111010101.

QR CODE GENERATED

QUERIES