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Managing Organizational Structure and Culture

chapter ten

Learning Objectives
1. 2. 3. Identify the factors that influence managers choice of an organizational structure. Explain how managers group tasks into jobs that are motivating and satisfying for employees. Describe the types of organizational structures managers can design, and explain why they choose one structure over another. Explain why managers must coordinate jobs, functions, and divisions using the hierarchy of authority and integrating mechanisms List the four sources of organizational culture, and explain why and how a companys culture can lead to competitive advantage.
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4.

5.

Organizational Structure
Organizational Architecture
The organizational structure, control systems, culture, and human resource management systems that together determine how efficiently and effectively organizational resources are used.

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Designing Organizational Structure


Organizing
The process by which managers establish working relationships among employees to achieve goals.

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Designing Organizational Structure


Organizational Structure
formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members so they work together to achieve organizational goals.
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Factors Affecting Organizational Structure

Figure 10.1

Designing Organizational Structure


Organizational design
The process by which managers create a specific type of organizational structure and culture so that a company can operate in the most efficient and effective way

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Designing Organizational Structure


The way an organizations structure works depends on the choices managers make about: 1. How to group tasks into individual jobs 2. How to group jobs into functions and divisions 3. How to allocate authority and coordinate functions and divisions
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Grouping Tasks into Jobs: Job Design


Job Design
The process by which managers decide how to divide tasks into specific jobs. The appropriate division of labor results in an effective and efficient workforce.

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Job Design
Job Simplification
The process of reducing the tasks each worker performs.

Job Enlargement
Increasing the number of different tasks in a given job by changing the division of labor

Job Enrichment
Increasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a job
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Job Enrichment
1. Empowering workers to experiment to find new or better ways of doing the job 2. Encouraging workers to develop new skills 3. Allowing workers to decide how to do the work 4. Allowing workers to monitor and measure their own performance

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The Job Characteristics Model

Figure 10.2

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Grouping Jobs into Functions


Functional Structure
An organizational structure composed of all the departments that an organization requires to produce its goods or services.

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Functional Structure
Advantages
Encourages learning from others doing similar jobs. Easy for managers to monitor and evaluate workers. Allows managers to create the set of functions they need in order to scan and monitor the competitive environment

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Example A.C. Moore Arts & Crafts


A.C. Moore is organized with a functional structure Examples of divisions are Marketing & Merchandising, Stores & Loss Prevention, Store Operations, Merchandise Administration, Real Estate, and Legal

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Functional Structure
Disadvantages
Difficult for departments to communicate with others. Preoccupation with own department and losing sight of organizational goals.

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Divisional Structures
Divisional Structure
An organizational structure composed of separate business units within which are the functions that work together to produce a specific product for a specific customer. Product, market, geographic

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Product, Market, and Geographic Structures

Figure 10.4
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Types of Divisional Structures


Product Structure
Managers place each distinct product line or business in its own self-contained division Divisional managers have the responsibility for devising an appropriate business-level strategy to allow the division to compete effectively in its industry

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Product Structure
Allows functional managers to specialize in one product area Division managers become experts in their area Removes need for direct supervision of division by corporate managers Divisional management improves the use of resources
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Types of Divisional Structures


Geographic Structure
Divisions are broken down by geographic location

Global geographic structure


Managers locate different divisions in each of the world regions where the organization operates. Generally, occurs when managers are pursuing a multi-domestic strategy

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Types of Divisional Structures


Market Structure
Groups divisions according to the particular kinds of customers they serve Allows managers to be responsive to the needs of their customers and act flexibly in making decisions in response to customers changing needs

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Matrix Design Structure


Matrix Structure
An organizational structure that simultaneously groups people and resources by function and product. The structure is very flexible and can respond rapidly to the need for change. Each employee has two bosses

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Matrix Structure

Figure 10.6

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Product Team Design Structure


Product Team Structure
Does away with dual reporting relationships and two-boss managers Functional employees are permanently assigned to a cross-functional team that is empowered to bring a new or redesigned product to work

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Product Team Structure


Cross-functional team
A group of managers brought together from different departments to perform organizational tasks.

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Product Team Structure

Figure 10.6

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Allocating Authority
Authority
power to hold people accountable for their actions and to make decisions concerning the use of organizational resources.

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Allocating Authority
Line Manager
Someone in the direct line or chain of command who has formal authority over people and resources

Staff Manager
Managers who are functional-area specialists that give advice to line managers.

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Tall and Flat Organizations


Tall structures have many levels of authority and narrow spans of control.
As hierarchy levels increase, communication gets difficult creating delays in the time being taken to implement decisions. Communications can also become distorted as it is repeated through the firm. Can become expensive

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Tall Organizations

Figure 10.9

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Tall and Flat Organizations


Flat structures have fewer levels and wide spans of control.
Structure results in quick communications but can lead to overworked managers.

Figure 10.9

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Centralization and Decentralization of Authority


Decentralizing authority
giving lower-level managers and non-managerial employees the right to make important decisions about how to use organizational resources

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Integrating Mechanisms

Figure 10.10

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Sources of an Organizations Culture

Figure 10.11

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Employment Relationship
Human resource policies:
Can influence how hard employees will work to achieve the organizations goals, How attached they will be to it Whether or not they will buy into its values and norms

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Organizational Structure
In a centralized organization:
people have little autonomy norms that focus on being cautious, obeying authority, and respecting traditions emerge predictability and stability are desired goals

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Organizational Structure
In a flat, decentralized structure:
people have more freedom to choose and control their own activities norms that focus on being creative and courageous and taking risks appear gives rise to a culture in which innovation and flexibility are desired goals.

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Strong, Adaptive Cultures Versus Weak, Inert Cultures


Adaptive cultures
values and norms help an organization to build momentum and to grow and change as needed to achieve its goals and be effective

Inert cultures
Those that lead to values and norms that fail to motivate or inspire employees Lead to stagnation and often failure over time

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Video Case: Making Changes in New Orleans Most Troubled Schools


How would you rate teaching according to the five characteristics that determine how motivating a job is? Does establishing organizational culture in a school present any different challenges than establishing culture in other types of organizations?

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