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University of Tehran Dept.

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Wireless Sensor networks


survey and research challenges
Presented by

Hosein Sabaghian-Bidgoli
hsabaghianb@gmail.com
January 11, 2009

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WSN survey and research challenges

Outlines

Main references Introduction


Definition Communication Architecture Protocol stack WSN Characteristics WSN Design factors

WSANs WSN Structures WSN Constraints WSN Applications WSN types .

Wireless Ad hoc Network (Fall 2008)

WSN survey and research challenges

Outlines (cont.)

Task classification
Internal sensor system
Standard Storage Testbed Diagnostic and debugging support Localization Synchronization Coverage Compression and aggregation Security Transport Network Data link Physical Cross-layer

Network services

Communication protocol

Conclusion
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WSN survey and research challenges

Wireless Ad hoc Network (Fall 2008)

Main references
1.

2.

3.

Ian F. Akyildiz, Weilian Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, and Erdal Cayirci, A Survey on Sensor Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2002 Ian F. Akyildiz, Ismail H. Kasimoglu, Wireless sensor and actor networks research challenges, Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks 2 (2004) 351367 Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal, Wireless sensor network survey, Elsevier Computer Networks 52 (2008) 22922330

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WSN survey and research challenges

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Introduction WSN Definition


A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes that are densely deployed inside or very close to the phenomenon
random deployment self-organizing capabilities

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Introduction
WSN communication Architecture

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Introduction
Components of Sensor Node

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Introduction
Protocol Stack
Protocols

should be

Power aware Location aware Application aware

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Introduction WSN Characteristics

Major differences between sensor and ad-hoc network


Number of nodes is higher Densely deployment Sensor nodes are prone to failure. Frequent topology changes Broadcast communication paradigm Limited processing and power capabilities. Possible absence of unique global ID
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Introduction
WSN Design Factors
Fault

Tolerance Scalability Production Costs Hardware Constraints Sensor Network Topology Environment Transmission Media Power Consumption
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WSN Design Factors Fault Tolerance


Each

Nodes are prone to unexpected failure (more than other network) Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures.
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WSN Design Factors Scalability


Size:

Number of node (100 ~1000) Density : (R)=(N R2)/A Protocol should


be able to scale to such high degree take advantage of the high density of such networks
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WSN Design Factors Production Costs


The

cost of a single node must be low given the amount of functionalities Much less than $1

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WSN Design Factors Hardware Constraints


All

these units combined together must

Extremely low power Extremely small volume

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WSN Design Factors Topology


Must

be maintained specially in very high densities


Pre-deployment and deployment phase Post-deployment phase Re-deployment of additional nodes phase

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WSN survey and research challenges

WSN Design Factors Environment

May be inaccessible
either because of hostile environment or because they are embedded in a structure

Impact of environment condition


Temperature Humidity Movement Underwater Underground

[1]

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WSN Design Factors


Transmission Media
RF

Infrared
Optical Acoustic

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WSN Design Factors


Power Consumption
Power

conservation

Sensing Communication Data processing

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wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs)

WSAN Capabilities
Observing the physical world Processing the data Making decisions Performing appropriate actions battlefield surveillance microclimate control in buildings nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection Home automation environmental monitoring
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WSAN applications:

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WSANs unique characteristics


Real-time

requirement Coordination:
Sensor-Actor Coordination Actor-Actor Coordination

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WSN structure
A

WSN typically has little or no infrastructure There are two types of WSNs
Structured model Unstructured model

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Unstructured model
Densely

deployed (many node) Randomly Deployed Can have uncovered regions Left unattended to perform the task Maintenance is difficult
managing connectivity detecting failures
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Structured model
Deployed

in a pre-planned manner Fewer nodes Lower network maintenance Lower cost No uncovered regions

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WSN constraints

Resource constraints
limited energy short communication range low bandwidth limited processing limited storage

Design constraints
application dependent environment dependent
size of the network / number of node deployment scheme network topology (obstacle)

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Available sensors in the market

Generic nodes (take measurements)


Light, Temperature, Humidity, barometric pressure, velocity, Acceleration, Acoustics, magnetic field

Gateway (bridge) node


gather data from generic sensors and relay them to the base station higher processing capability higher battery power higher transmission (radio) range

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Types of sensor network

Depending on the environment


1. terrestrial WSN
Ad Hoc (unstructured) Preplanned (structured)

2. underground WSN
Preplanned more expensive equipment, deployment, maintenance

3. underwater WSN
fewer sensor nodes( sparse deployment) more expensive than terrestrial acoustic wave communication

Limited bandwidth long propagation delay signal fading

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Types of sensor network (cont.)

Depending on the environment


4. multi-media WSN
sensor nodes equipped with cameras and microphones pre-planned to guarantee coverage High bandwidth/low energy, QoS, filtering, data processing and compressing techniques

5. mobile WSN
ability to reposition and organize itself in the network Start with Initial deployment and spread out to gather information deployment, localization, self-organization, navigation and control, coverage, energy, maintenance, data process

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WSN applications
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WSN applications (Open research issues)

application-specific characteristics and requirements of


environmental monitoring health monitoring industrial monitoring Military tracking

Coupled with todays technology Lead to different hardware platforms and software development more experimental work is necessary to make these applications more reliable and robust in the real world Applying sensor technology to industrial applications will improve business

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Tasks Classification

Systems
Each sensor node is an individual system Development of new platforms, operating systems, and storage schemes

Communication protocols
Between sensors In different layer(app, trspt, net, DLink, phy)

services
which are developed
to enhance the application to improve system performance and network efficiency

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Internal sensor system

sensor platform
radio components processors Storage sensors (multiple)

OS
OS must support these sensor platforms

researches: Designing platforms that support


automatic management optimizing network longevity, distributed programming
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Platform Sample 1
(Bluetooth-based sensor networks)

WSN typically uses single freq (Share channel) BTnodes use spread-spectrum transmission A special version of TinyOS is used Two radio communication
Master (up to 7 connection) Slave

Note:
Bluetooth is connection oriented New node enables its slave radio Topology: connected tree high throughput, high energy consumption
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Platform Sample 2:VigilNet


(Detection-and-classification system)

detection and classification


vehicles persons persons carrying ferrous objects

200 sensor nodes with


Magnetometer motion sensor, and a microphone

deployed in a preplanned manner four tiers hierarchical architecture


sensor-level, node-level, group-level, and base-level
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Internal sensor system


Standards

IEEE 802.15.4:
standard for low rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) low cost deployment low complexity low power consumption topology :star and peer-to-peer physical layer: 868/915 MHz ~2.4 GHz MAC layer: CSMA-CA mechanism
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Internal sensor system


Standards

ZigBee
higher layer communication protocols built on the IEEE 802.15.4 standards for LR-PANs. simple, low cost, and low power embedded applications can form mesh networks connecting hundreds to thousands of devices together. types of ZigBee devices:
ZigBee coordinator: stores information, bridge ZigBee router: link groups of devices ZigBee end device: sensors, actuators communicate only to routers
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Internal sensor system


Standards

IEEE 802.15.3:
physical and MAC layer standard high data rate WPAN. support real-time multi-media streaming data rates (11 Mbps to 55 Mbps) time division multiple access (TDMA) =>QoS synchronous and asynchronous data transfer wireless speakers, portable video, wireless connectivity for gaming, cordless phones, printers, and televisions
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Internal sensor system


Standards

WirelessHART (released in September 2007)


Process measurement and control applications based on IEEE 802.15.4 supports channel hopping, and time-synchronized messaging Security with encryption, verification, authentication and key management support mesh, star, and combined network topologies manages the routing and network traffic
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Internal sensor system


Standards

ISA100.11a
defines the specifications for the OSI layer, security, and system management low energy consumption, scalability, infrastructure, robustness interoperability with other wireless devices use only 2.4 GHz radio and channel hopping to minimize interference provides simple, flexible, and scaleable security functionality.
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Internal sensor system


Standards

6LoWPAN
IPv6-based Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks over an IEEE 802.15.4 based network. Low power device can communicate directly with IP devices using IPbased protocols

Wibree
designed for low power consumption, short-range communication, and low cost devices is designed to work with Bluetooth operates on 2.4 GHz data rate of 1 Mbps linking distance is 510 m. was released publicly in October 2006.
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Internal sensor system


Storage

problems
storage space is limited Communication is expensive

Solutions
Aggregation and compression query-and-collect (selective gathering) a storage model to satisfy storage constraints and query requirements

GEM: Graph Embedding


provides an infrastructure for routing and data-centric storage
1. choosing a labeled guest graph 2. embed the guest graph onto the actual sensor topology

Each node has a label encoded with its position each data item has a name that can be mapped to a label

TSAR: Two-tier sensor storage architecture Multi-resolution storage: provides storage and long-term querying of the data for data-intensive applications [3]

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Internal sensor system


Testbeds

Provides researchers a way to test their protocols, algorithms, network issues and applications in real world setting Controlled environment to deploy, configure, run, and monitoring of sensor remotely Some testbeds: ORBIT: Open access research testbed for next generation wireless networks
64 nodes, 1 GHZ MoteLab: web-based WSN testbed central server handles scheduling, reprogramming and data logging of the nodes Emulab: remotely accessible mobile and wireless sensor (such

as a robot)
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Internal sensor system


Diagnostics and debugging support

Measure and monitor the sensor node performance of the overall network to guarantee the success of the sensor network in the real environment Sympathy:
is a diagnosis tool for detecting and debugging failures in sensor networks designed for data-collection applications detects failures in a system by selecting metrics such as
Connectivity data flow nodes neighbor

can identify three types of failures: self, path and sink

Analysis of data packet delivery:


packet delivery performance at the physical and MAC layers [3]

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Internal sensor system


Open research issues

optimization of (HW, SW, HW/SW) to make a WSN efficient more practical platform solution for problems in new applications data structure
Performance energy-efficient storage

Performance
communication throughput when network size increases Scalability issues can degrade system performance Optimizing protocols at different layers

services to handle node before and after failures


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Network services
Localization Synchronization Coverage Compression and aggregation Security

[3]
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Network services Localization


Problem:
determining the nodes location (position)

Solutions:
global positioning system (GPS)
Simple Expensive outdoor

beacon (or anchor) nodes


does not scale well in large networks problems may arise due to environmental conditions

proximity-based
Make use of neighbor nodes to determine their position then act as beacons for other nodes [3]
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Network services Localization


Other

solutions:

Moores algorithm:
distributed algorithm for location estimation without the use of GPS or fixed beacon (anchor) nodes algorithm has three phases:

cluster localization phase cluster optimization phase cluster transformation phase


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Network services Localization


Other

solutions:

RIPS: Radio Interferometric Positioning System


Two radio transmitters create an interference signal at slightly different frequencies At least two receivers are needed to measure relative phase of two signal The relative phase offset is a function of the relative positions
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Network services Localization

Other solutions:
Secure localization:
goal is to prevent malicious beacon nodes from providing false location to sensors Sensors must only accept information from authenticated beacon nodes Sensors should be able to request location information at anytime Upon a location request, information exchange must take place immediately and not at a later time. SeRloc, Beacon Suite, DRBTS, SPINE, ROPE
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Network services Localization


Other

solutions:

MAL: Mobile-assisted localization


Mobile node collects distance information between itself and static sensor nodes for node localization given a graph with measured distance edges

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Network services
Synchronization
Time

synchronization is important for

routing power conservation Lifetime Cooperation Scheduling

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Network services
Synchronization
Uncertainty-driven approach Lucarellis algorithm Reachback firefly algorithm (RFA) Timing-sync protocol for sensor network (TPSN) CSMNS Time synchronization (TSync) Global synchronization

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Network services
Synchronization

Synchronization protocol classification:


application-dependent features approaches
single-hop vs. multi-hop networks stationary vs. mobile networks MAC layer-based vs. standard-based

synchronization issues
adjusting their local clocks to a common time scale masterslave synchronization peer-to-peer synchronization clock correction untethered clocks internal synchronization, external synchronization, Probabilistic synchronization, deterministic synchronization, sender to receiver synchronization, and receiver-to-receiver synchronization.

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Network services
Coverage
Is

important in evaluating effectiveness Degree of coverage is application dependent Impacts on energy conservation Techniques:
selecting minimal set of active nodes to be awake to maintain coverage sensor deployment strategies
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Network services
Compression and aggregation

Both of them
reduce communication cost increase reliability of data transfer

Data-compression
compressing data before transmission to base Decompression occurs at the base station no information should be lost

data aggregation
data is collected from multiple sensors combined together to transmit to base station Is used in cluster base architectures
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Network services
Security
Constraints

in incorporating security into

a WSN
limitations in storage limitations in communication limitations in computation limitations in processing capabilities

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Network services
Open research issues

localization
efficient algorithms minimum energy minimum cost minimum localization errors

Coverage: optimizing for better energy conservation time synchronization: minimizing uncertainty errors over long periods of time and dealing with precision compression and aggregation: Development of various scheme
event-based data collection continuous data collection

Secure monitoring: protocols have to monitor, detect, and respond to attacks


It has done for network and data-link layer (can be improved) Should be done for different layers of the protocol stack Cross-layer secure monitoring is another research area

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Communication protocol
Transport

layer Network layer Data-link layer Physical layer

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Communication protocol
Transport layer

Packet loss
may be due to
bad radio communication, congestion, packet collision, memory full, node failures

Detection and recovering


Improve throughput Energy expenditure
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Communication protocol
Transport layer
Congestion

control/packet recovery

hop-by-hop
intermediate cache more energy efficient (shorter retransmission) higher reliability

end-to-end
source caches the packet Variable reliability
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Communication protocol
Transport layer
Sensor transmission control protocol (STCP) Price-oriented reliable transport protocol (PORT) GARUDA Delay sensitive transport (DST) Pump slowly, fetch quickly (PSFQ) Event-to-sink reliable transport (ESRT) Congestion detection and avoidance (CODA):

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Communication protocol Transport layer (Open research issues)


cross-layer

optimization

selecting better paths for retransmission getting error reports from the link layer
Fairness

assign packets with priority frequently-changing topology


Congestion

control with active queue management


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Communication protocol
Network layer
Important:

energy efficiency traffic flows


Routing

protocols

location-based: considers node location to route data cluster-based: employs cluster heads to do data aggregation and relay to base station
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Communication protocol
Network layer (Open research issues)

Future research issues should address


Security
Experimental studies regarding security applied to different routing protocols in WSNs should be examined

QoS
guarantees end-to-end delay and energy efficient routing

node mobility
handle frequent topology changes and reliable delivery

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Communication protocol
Data-link layer (Open research issues)

system performance optimization Cross-layer optimization


Cross-layer interaction can
reduce packet overhead on each layer reduce energy consumption

Interaction with the MAC layer provide


congestion control information enhance route selection

Comparing performance of existing protocols of static network in a mobile network improve communication reliability and energy efficiency
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Communication protocol
Physical layer
Bandwidth

choices Radio architecture Modulation schemes

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Communication protocol
Physical layer (Open research issues)

Minimizing the energy consumption


Optimizing of circuitry energy
reduction of wakeup and startup times

Optimizing of transmission energy


Modulation schemes

Future work
new innovations in low power radio design with emerging technologies exploring ultra-wideband techniques as an alternative for communication creating simple modulation schemes to reduce synchronization and transmission power building more energy-efficient protocols and algorithms
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Communication protocol
Cross-layer interactions (Open research issues)
Collaboration

between all the layers to achieve higher


energy saving network performance network lifetime

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Conclusion

Large number of application is exist regarding to WSN Large number of work has done on WSN There are still many open issue research in WSN Open research area:
Application-specific characteristic Power efficient algorithm Cross-layer optimization more experimental work to reach more reliability Improvement of existing protocol Security Error reduction in localization
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Main references
1.

2.

3.

Ian F. Akyildiz, Weilian Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, and Erdal Cayirci, A Survey on Sensor Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2002 Ian F. Akyildiz, Ismail H. Kasimoglu, Wireless sensor and actor networks research challenges, Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks 2 (2004) 351367 Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal, Wireless sensor network survey, Elsevier Computer Networks 52 (2008) 22922330

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