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SADIA KHAN

HINA SALEEM

SIDRA KHAN

MADIHA BIBI

FACES

Faces are integral to human interaction

Manual facial recognition is already used

in everyday authentication applications

ID Card systems (passports, health card, and

drivers license)

Booking stations

Surveillance operations

Facial Recognition technology automates the recognition

of faces using one of two 2 modeling approaches:

Face appearance

2D Eigen faces

3D Morphable Model

Face geometry

3D Expression Invariant Recognition

2D Eigenface

Principle Component Analysis (PCA)

3D Face Recognition

3D Expression Invariant Recognition

3D Morphable Model

Facial Recognition

ICA finds the directions of

maximum independence

Facial Recognition: Eigenface

Decompose face

images into a small

set of characteristic

feature images.

A new face is

compared to these

stored images.

A match is found if

the new faces is close

to one of these

images.

Create training set of faces and calculate the

eigenfaces

Project the new image onto the eigenfaces.

Check if image is close to face space.

Check closeness to one of the known faces.

Add unknown faces to the training set and re-

calculate

Facial Recognition: PCA - Overview

Facial Recognition: PCA Training Set

Facial Recognition: PCA Training

Find average of

training images.

Subtract average face

from each image.

Create covariance

matrix

Generate eigenfaces

Each original image

can be expressed as a

linear combination of

the eigenfaces face

space

A new image is project into the facespace.

Create a vector of weights that describes this image.

The distance from the original image to this

eigenface is compared.

If within certain thresholds then it is a recognized

face.

Facial Recognition: PCA Recognition

Independent component analysis (ICA) is a method for

finding underlying factors or components from multivariate

(multi-dimensional) statistical data. What distinguishes ICA

from other methods is that it looks for components that are

both statistically independent, and nonGaussian.

A.Hyvarinen, A.Karhunen, E.Oja

Independent Component Analysis

What is ICA?

Blind Signal Separation (BSS) or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is the

identification & separation of mixtures of sources with little prior

information.

Applications include:

Audio Processing

Medical data

Finance

Array processing (beamforming)

Coding

and most applications where Factor Analysis and PCA is currently used.

While PCA seeks directions that represents data best in a |x

0

- x|

2

sense,

ICA seeks such directions that are most independent from each other.

Often used on Time Series separation of Multiple Targets

ICA

Principle 1: Nonlinear decorrelation. Find the

matrix W so that for any i j , the components y

i

and

y

j

are uncorrelated, and the transformed components

g(y

i

) and h(y

j

) are uncorrelated, where g and h are

some suitable nonlinear functions.

Principle 2: Maximum nongaussianity. Find the

local maxima of nongaussianity of a linear

combination y=Wx under the constraint that the

variance of x is constant.

Each local maximum gives one independent

component.

ICA estimation principles

Given a set of observations of random variables x

1

(t),

x

2

(t)x

n

(t), where t is the time or sample index, assume

that they are generated as a linear mixture of independent

components: y=Wx, where W is some unknown matrix.

Independent component analysis now consists of

estimating both the matrix W and the y

i

(t), when we only

observe the x

i

(t).

ICA mathematical approach

ICA Principal (Non-Gaussian is Independent)

Key to estimating A is non-gaussianity

The distribution of a sum of independent random variables tends toward a Gaussian

distribution. (By CLT)

f(s

1

) f(s

2

) f(x

1

) = f(s

1

+s

2

)

Where w is one of the rows of matrix W.

y is a linear combination of s

i

, with weights given by z

i

.

Since sum of two indep r.v. is more gaussian than individual r.v., so z

T

s is more gaussian

than either of s

i

. AND becomes least gaussian when its equal to one of s

i

.

So we could take w as a vector which maximizes the non-gaussianity of w

T

x.

Such a w would correspond to a z with only one non zero comp. So we get back the s

i.

s z As w x w y

T T T

= = =

We need to have a quantitative measure of non-gaussianity for ICA Estimation.

Kurtotis : gauss=0 (sensitive to outliers)

Entropy : gauss=largest

Neg-entropy : gauss = 0 (difficult to estimate)

Approximations

where v is a standard gaussian random variable and :

2 2 4

}) { ( 3 } { ) ( y E y E y kurt =

}

= dy y f y f y H ) ( log ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( y H y H y J

gauss

=

{ }

2

2

2

) (

48

1

12

1

) ( y kurt y E y J + =

{ } { } | |

2

) ( ) ( ) ( v G E y G E y J ~

) 2 / . exp( ) (

) . cosh( log

1

) (

2

u a y G

y a

a

y G

=

=

Centering

x = x E{x}

But this doesnt mean that ICA cannt estimate the mean, but it just simplifies

the Alg.

ICs are also zero mean because of:

E{s} = WE{x}

After ICA, add W.E{x} to zero mean ICs

Whitening

We transform the xs linearly so that the x

~

are white. Its done by EVD.

x

~

= (ED

-1/2

E

T

)x = ED

-1/2

E

T

Ax = A

~

s

where E{xx

~

} = EDE

T

So we have to Estimate Orthonormal Matrix A

~

An orthonormal matrix has n(n-1)/2 degrees of freedom. So for large dim A we

have to est only half as much parameters. This greatly simplifies ICA.

Reducing dim of data (choosing dominant Eig) while doing whitening also

help.

Data Centering & Whitening

0) Centring = make the signals centred in zero

x

i

x

i

- E[x

i

] for each i

1) Sphering = make the signals uncorrelated. I.e. apply a transform V to x

such that Cov(Vx)=I // where Cov(y)=E[yy

T

] denotes covariance matrix

V=E[xx

T

]

-1/2

// can be done using sqrtm function in MatLab

xVx // for all t (indexes t dropped here)

// bold lowercase refers to column vector; bold upper to matrix

Scope: to make the remaining computations simpler. It is known that

independent variables must be uncorrelated so this can be fulfilled

before proceeding to the full ICA

Computing the pre-processing steps for ICA

Computing the rotation step

Fixed Point Algorithm

Input: X

Random init of W

Iterate until convergence:

Output: W, S

1

) (

) (

=

=

=

W W W W

S X W

X W S

T

T

T

g

=

=

T

t

T

t

T

G Obj

1

) ( ) ( ) ( I W W x W W

0 W X W X

W

= =

c

c

T T

g

Obj

) (

where g(.) is derivative of G(.),

W is the rotation transform sought

is Lagrange multiplier to enforce that

W is an orthogonal transform i.e. a rotation

Solve by fixed point iterations

The effect of is an orthogonal de-correlation

This is based on an the maximisation of an

objective function G(.) which contains an

approximate non-Gaussianity measure.

The overall transform then

to take X back to S is (W

T

V)

There are several g(.)

options, each will work best

in special cases. See FastICA

sw / tut for details.

Two architectures for performing ICA on images. (a) Architecture I for

finding statistically independent basis images. Performing source

separation on the face images produced IC images in the rows of U. (b)

The gray values at pixel location i are plotted for each face image. ICA in

architecture I finds weight vectors in the directions of statistical

dependencies among the pixel locations. (c) Architecture II for finding a

factorial code. Performing source separation on the pixels produced a

factorial code in the columns of the output matrix, U. (d) Each face

image is plotted according to the gray values taken on at each pixel

location. ICA in architecture II finds weight vectors in the directions of

statistical dependencies among the face images

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