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Sensory nerve : neuron that transmits impulses from a sensory receptor into the CNS, Motor nerve : transmits

impulses from CNS to an effector organ

Potential receptors

Sensory nerve : - Receptors


- Nerve - CNS

Modality labeled line principles

SOMATIC SENSATION
The somatic senses can be classified into three physiologic types : (1) the mechanoreceptive somatic senses, which include both tactile and position sensations that are stimulated by mechanical displacement of some tissue of the body; (2) the thermoreceptive senses, which detect heat and cold; and (3) the pain sense, which is activated by any factor that damages the tissues

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Dorsal column - medial lemniscal system Anterolateral system :

Motor system in Spinal Cord Motor system in Brainstem Motor system in Basal Ganglia

MOTOR SYSTEM

MOTOR SYSTEM IN SPINAL CORD

The brain stem consists of the medulla, pons, and mesencephalon. The brain stem is its own master because it provides many special control functions, such as the following:
1. Control of respiration 2. Control of the cardiovascular system 3. Partial control of gastrointestinal function 4. Control of many stereotyped movements of the body 5. Control of equilibrium 6. Control of eye movements

Finally, the brain stem serves as a way station for command signals from higher neural centers.

The reticular nuclei are divided into two major groups: (1) pontine reticular nuclei, located slightly posteriorly and laterally in the pons and extending into the mesencephalon, and (2) medullary reticular nuclei, which extend through the entire medulla, lying ventrally and medially near the midline. These two sets of nuclei function mainly antagonistically to each other, with the pontine exciting the antigravity muscles and the medullary relaxing these same muscles.

The pontine reticular nuclei have a high degree of natural excitability. In addition, they receive strong excitatory signals from the vestibular nuclei, as well as from deep nuclei of the cerebellum The medullary reticular nuclei transmit inhibitory signals to the same antigravity anterior motor neurons by way of a different tract, the medullary reticulospinal tract, located in the lateral column of the cord

The basal ganglia, like the cerebellum, constitute another accessory motor system that functions usually not by itself but in close association with the cerebral cortex and corticospinal motor control system. In fact, the basal ganglia receive most of their input signals from the cerebral cortex itself and also return almost all their output signals back to the cortex.

These ganglia consist of the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. They are located mainly lateral to and surrounding the thalamus, occupying a large portion of the interior regions of both cerebral hemispheres.

The vestibular nuclei transmit strong excitatory signals to the antigravity muscles by way of the lateral and medial vestibulospinal tracts in the anterior columns of the spinal cord. Without this support of the vestibular nuclei, the pontine reticular system would lose much of its excitation of the axial antigravity muscles The specific role of the vestibular nuclei, however, is to selectively control the excitatory signals to the different antigravity muscles to maintain equilibrium in response to signals from the vestibular apparatus.

Executing Patterns of Motor Activity The Putamen Circuit

Cognitive Control of Sequences of Motor PatternsThe Caudate Circuit

(1) dopamine pathways from the substantia nigra to the caudate nucleus and putamen, (2)gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathways from the caudate nucleus and putamen to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, (3) acetylcholine pathways from the cortex to the caudate nucleus and putamen, and (4) multiple general pathways from the brain stem that secrete norepinephrine, serotonin, enkephalin, and several other neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia as well as in other parts of the cerebrum.

Parkinson : decreased dopamine from subst nigrae Huntingtons chorea : GABA decrease produced by caudatus & putamen Athetosis : insufficiency in thalamicus nuclei ( lentikularis nuclei) Hemiballismus : subthalamicus nuclei

CEREBELLUM

Vermis : control functions for muscle movements of the axial body, neck, shoulders, and hips
The intermediate zone of the hemisphere is concerned with controlling muscle contractions in the distal portions of the upper and lower limbs, especially the hands and fingers and feet and toes.

The lateral zone of the hemisphere operates at a much more remote level because this area joins with the cerebral cortex in the overall planning of sequential motor movements.