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Chapter 3 : Matter
3.1 What is Matter? What is matter? To show air has mass To show air occupies space 3.2 The States of Matter The states of matter Showing the arrangement of particles in the three states of matter Showing that there are empty spaces between particles The random movement of particles
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Chapter 3 : Matter
3.3 The Concept of Density The concept of density Application 3.4 The Properties of Matter and Their Application in Everyday Life The properties of matter and their application in everyday life

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3.1 What is Matter?


Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Examples water, soil, air and living things

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3.1 What is Matter?


To show air has mass
Wooden block Balloon Adhesive tape A pin is used to poke the balloon through the adhesive tape

Two balloons are filled with air and are balanced onto a wooden rod
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The balloon that was poked with a pin has becomes lighter than the other balloon
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3.1 What is Matter?


To show air occupies space
When air is blown through delivery tube, we can see the water level in the test tube dropped. This is because air has displaced water in the test tube
Blow here Air

Delivery tube

Water
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3.2 The States of Matter


Kinetic theory of matter says that matter consist of tiny particles. Those tiny particles are discrete.

Water particle Copper(II) sulphate particle

The dispersal of copper(II) sulphate particles in water


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3.2 The States of Matter


Arrangement of particles Solid Distance between particles Level of energy Volume
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Liquid Further apart Medium Definite


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Gas Very far apart High

Closely packed Low Definite

Indefinite
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3.2 The States of Matter


Arrangement of particles Solid Vibrates at a fixed position Strong Cannot be compressed Liquid Moves randomly and freely Weak Cannot be compressed
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Movement of particles Attractive force between particles Ability to be compressed

Gas Move randomly, freely and faster in any direction Very weak Can be compressed

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3.2 The States of Matter


Showing the arrangement of particles in the three states of matter Cannot be compressed Space between solid particles are very small Solids cannot be compressed
Continue
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3.2 The States of Matter


Showing the arrangement of particles in the three states of matter Difficult to compress

Space between water particles are small Liquids are not easily compressed
Continue
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3.2 The States of Matter


Showing the arrangement of particles in the three states of matter
Easy to compress

Space between gas particles are big

Gases are easily compressed


Continue
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3.2 The States of Matter


The movement of particles in the three states of matter

Before

Gel

After a few days


Purple coloured gel

Potassium manganate(VII) solid

The particles of potassium manganate(VII) solid take a long time to disperse throughout the gel
Continue
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3.2 The States of Matter


The movement of particles in the three states of matter Before Water Potassium manganate(VII) solid The particles of potassium manganate(VII) solid disperse quickly throughout the water
Continue
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After a few days


Purple colour

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3.2 The States of Matter


The movement of particles in the three states of matter Before After a few days Dropper Bromine water Brown colour of bromine water diffuses throughout the gas jar

Gas jar The particles of bromine water disperse very fast throughout the air
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3.2 The States of Matter


To show that there are empty spaces between particles After 50cm of water is Before added Less than 3 50 cm 100 cm3 water mixture of water and 50 cm3 ethanol ethanol The particles of water and ethanol fill up empty spaces in between particles in each other
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3.2 The States of Matter


The random movement of particles

Collisions of particles of gases or liquids with one another cause particles to move randomly in zigzag manner
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3.3 The Concept of Density


Density of an object is mass per unit volume of that object Density SI unit = kg/m3 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3

Mass = Volume

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3. 3 The Concept of Density


Different objects have different densities Buoyancy is the ability of an object to float on liquid Objects with lower density float on liquids with higher density

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3.3 The Concept of Density


Application Buoy The density of buoy is less than the sea water Hot air balloon Hot air is less dense than cold air Submarine Density of submarine is controlled by regulating the volume of water in the ballast tank
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3.3 The Concept of Density


Application
1. Sea water is pumped into ballast tank 2. Submarine becomes denser than sea water Water

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3.3 The Concept of Density


Application
1. Air is pumped into ballast Ballast tank tank 2. Submarine becomes less dense than sea water

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3.4 The Properties of Matter and Their Application in Everyday Life


Wood is used to build houses Divers carry a tank of air that allow them to breathe while deep underwater Plastic is an example of a man-made material. It is a useful solid Gas can be compressed. Cooking gas is stored in cylinders and can be transported easily Iron is a solid. It is hard and strong. Iron and concrete are used in the construction of buildings Boats are structured inside with empty spaces filled with air. Thus, the density of the boat is less than the density of water. This makes the boat float

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The end

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Bab 3 : Jirim
3.1 Apakah itu Jirim? Apakah itu jirim? Menunjukkan udara mempunyai jisim Menunjukkan udara memenuhi ruang 3.2 Keadaan Jirim Keadaan jirim Menunjukkan susunan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan jirim Menunjukkan terdapatnya ruang kosong antara zarah-zarah Pergerakan rawak zarah-zarah
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Bab 3 : Jirim
3.3 Konsep Ketumpatan Konsep ketumpatan Penggunaan 3.4 Ciri-ciri Jirim dan Penggunaannya dalam Kehidupan Seharian Ciri-ciri jirim dan penggunaannya dalam kehidupan seharian

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3.1 Apakah itu Jirim?


Jirim ialah sebarang benda yang mempunyai jisim dan memenuhi ruang Contohnya air, tanih, udara dan benda hidup

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3.1 Apakah itu Jirim?


Mununjukkan udara mempunyai jisim
Blok kayu
Belon Pita pelekat Pin digunakan untuk mencucuk belon pada pita pelekat

Dua belon diisi dengan udara dan diimbangkan pada blok kayu

Belon yang dicucuk dengan pin menjadi ringan berbanding yang satu lagi
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3.1 Apakah itu Jirim?


Menunjukkan udara memenuhi ruang
Apabila udara ditiup melalui salur penghantar, kita dapat lihat aras air dalam tabung uji menurun. Ini kerana tabung uji berisi udara
Tiup di sini Udara

Salur penghantar Air


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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Teori kinetik jirim menyatakan bahawa jirim mengandungi zarah-zarah halus. Zarah-zarah halus ini adalah diskrit.

Zarah air Zarah kuprum(II) sulfat

Zarah-zarah kuprum(II) sulfat berselerak di dalam air


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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Susunan zarah-zarah Pepejal Jarak antara zarahzarah Aras tenaga Isipadu Rapat Rendah Nyata Cecair Jauh Medium Nyata Gas Sangat jauh Tinggi Tidak nyata

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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Susunan zarah-zarah Pepejal Bergetar pada kedudukan tetap Kuat Tidak boleh Cecair Bergerak rawak dan bebas Lemah Tidak boleh Gas Bergerak rawak, bebas dan cepat dalam semua arah

Pergerakan zarah-zarah Daya tarikan antara zarah Kebolehan memampat

Sangat lemah
Boleh
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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan susunan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan jirim Tidak boleh dimampat Ruang antara zarah-zarah pepejal sangat kecil Pepejal tidak boleh dimampatkan
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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan susunan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan pepejal Susah untuk dimampat

Ruang antara zarah-zarah air adalah kecil Cecair tidak mudah untuk dimampatkan
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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan susunan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan jirim
Senang dimampatkan

Ruang antara zarah-zarah gas besar

Gas senang dimampatkan


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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan pergerakan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan jirim
Sebelum Selepas beberapa hari

Gel

Pepejal kalium manganat(VII)


masa yang lama untuk berselerak ke seluruh gel

Gel berwarna ungu

Zarah-zarah pepejal kalium manganat(VII) mengambil


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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan pergerakan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan jirim Selepas beberapa Sebelum hari Air Pepejal kalium manganat(VII) Zarah-zarah pepejal kalium manganat(VII) berselerak dengan cepat ke seluruh air Berwarna ungu

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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan pergerakan zarah-zarah dalam tiga keadaan jirim Sebelum Penitis Selepas beberapa hari Warna perang air bromin merebak ke seluruh kelalang gas

Air bromin Kelalang gas

Zarah-zarah air bromin merebak sangat cepat ke seluruh udara

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3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Menunjukkan terdapatnya ruang kosong antara zarah-zarah 3 air Selepas ditambahkan 50 cm Sebelum 50 air 50 cm3 etanol Zarah-zarah air dan etanol memenuhi ruang kosong di antara zarah-zarah
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cm3

Kurang daripada 100 cm3 campuran air dan etanol

3.2 Keadaan Jirim


Pergerakan rawak zarah-zarah

Perlanggaran zarah-zarah gas atau cecair antara satu sama lain menyebabkan zarah bergerak rawak dalam keadaan zigzag
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3.3 Konsep Ketumpatan


Ketumpatan sesuatu objek adalah jisim per isi padu unit sesuatu objek Jisim Ketumpatan = Isi padu SI unit = kg/m3 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3
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3. 3 Konsep Ketumpatan
Objek berlainan mempunyai ketumpatan berlainan Keapungan adalah terapung atau tenggelamnya sesuatu objek dalam cecair Objek yang kurang tumpat terapung pada permukaan cecair berbanding dengan objek yang lebih tumpat

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3.3 Konsep Ketumpatan


Penggunaan
Boya Ketumpatan boya kurang berbanding air laut Belon udara panas Udara panas kurang tumpat berbanding udara sejuk Kapal selam Ketumpatan kapal selam dikawal oleh isi padu air dalam tangki balast

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3.3 Konsep Ketumpatan


Penggunaan 1. Air laut dipam ke dalam tangki balast 2. Kapal selam menjadi lebih tumpat daripada air laut

Air

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3.3 Konsep Ketumpatan


Application 1. Udara dipam ke dalam tangki Tangki balast balast 2. Kapal selam menjadi kurang tumpat berbanding air laut

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3.4 Ciri-ciri Jirim dan Penggunaannya dalam Kehidupan Seharian


Kayu digunakan untuk membina rumah Juruselam membawa tangki udara bagi membolehkan mereka bernafas semasa di dalam air Plastik adalah contoh bahan buatan manusia. Ia adalah pepejal yang berguna Gas boleh dimampatkan. Gas memasak disimpan di dalam silinder dan senang diangkut Besi adalah pepejal. Ia adalah keras dan kuat. Besi dan konkrit digunakan dalam pembinaan bangunan Bot direka dengan bahagian dalamnya kosong dengan udara. Mala ketumpatan bot kurang daripada ketumpatan air. Ini menyebabkan bot terapung

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