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Resin cast of the arterial supply of the brain.

Internal carotid arteriogram. This image is a lateral projection obtained by intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

Internal carotid arteriogram. This image is a Towne's projection obtained by intraarterial digital subtraction angiography

The arteries on the base of the brain. The anterior part of the right temporal lobe has been removed to display the initial course of the middle cerebral artery within the lateral fissure.

The circulus arteriosus on the base of the brain showing the distribution of central (perforating or ganglionic) branches. The anteromedial, posteromedial, posterolateral and anterolateral (lateral striate) vessels are shown. The medial striate and anterior choroidal arteries are also shown

Major arteries of the brain. A, medial aspect

lateral aspect

A, The lateral surface of the left cerebral hemisphere, showing the areas supplied by the cerebral arteries. B, The medial surface of the left cerebral hemisphere, showing the areas supplied by the cerebral arteries. In these figures the area supplied by the anterior cerebral artery is coloured blue, that by the middle cerebral artery pink and that by the posterior cerebral artery is yellow.

Vertebral arteriogram. This image is a lateral projection obtained by intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography

Vertebral arteriogram. This image is a Towne's projection obtained by intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography.

Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiogram of the right internal carotid artery in a patient with a complete right IIIrd nerve palsy. Lateral projection. Note the difference in the size of the posterior communicating artery in comparison to that in

Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiogram of the right internal carotid artery in a patient with a complete right IIIrd nerve palsy. Towne's projection.

Arterial supply to the internal capsule and parts of the basal ganglia of the left cerebral hemisphere. The outer layers of the hemisphere have been removed to reveal these structures. The putamen and globus pallidus are displaced downwards to display the internal capsule. Territory supplied by branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries is shown in red. Territory supplied by the anterior choroidal artery is shown in green.

The cerebral venous system (viewed from the left side) showing the principal superficial and deep veins of the brain and their relationship to the dural venous sinuses. The more deeply placed veins are shown in blue and those inside the brain are shown in interrupted blue

VENOUS DRAINAGE OF THE BRAIN

The external (superficial) cerebral veins of the left hemisphere and their relationship to the dural venous sinuses.

The internal (deep) cerebral veins, viewed from above after removal of the central portion of the corpus callosum

Lateral projection from a magnetic resonance venogram using time-of-flight methods

Frontal projection from a magnetic resonance venogram using time-of-flight methods

Origin and courses of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries as they ascend the neck to enter the skull

Arteries of the inferior surface of the brain. Note the formation of the circle of Willis. Part of the right temporal lobe has been removed to show the course of the middle cerebral artery

Areas supplied by the cerebral arteries. A: The lateral surface of the right cerebral hemisphere. B: The medial surface of the right cerebral hemisphere. The area supplied by the anterior cerebral artery is colored blue, the area supplied by the middle cerebral artery is pink, and the area supplied by the posterior cerebral artery is brown.

Coronal section of the cerebral hemispheres showing the arterial supply to the deep cerebral structures from the middle cerebral artery.

Venous drainage of the right cerebral hemisphere. A: Lateral surface. B: Medial surface

Circle of Willis showing the distribution of blood from the four main arteries

A: Arterial supply of the spinal cord showing the formation of two posterior spinal arteries and one anterior spinal artery. B: Transverse section of the spinal cord showing the segmental spinal arteries and the radicular arteries

Lateral internal carotid arteriogram. Male aged 20 years

Anteroposterior internal carotid arteriogram. Male aged 20 years

Lateral vertebral arteriogram. Male aged 20 years

Anteroposterior (angled) vertebral arteriogram. Woman aged 35 years.

Anterior spinal artery occlusion. Pink area denotes region of spinal cord affected.

The arteries of the inferior surface of the brain.