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Factors Affecting Cognitive Development

Francis A. Loresto

BIOLOGICAL FACTORS

A. Sense organs
Sense organs are important because they receive stimuli from the environment. Their proper development helps in receiving correct stimuli and the correct concepts are formed. Defective sense organs collect defective stimuli and as a result wrong concepts can be formed and the cognitive development will not be perfect

B. Intelligence
It has been seen that cognitive development of intelligent children is better. Children with low Intelligence Quotient are not able to receive stimuli from the environment properly, thus their cognitive development lags behind. Intelligence affects all mental capacities.

C. Heredity
Cognitive development is also influenced by the hereditary traits; one gets from his parents. Their development is similar to their parents cognitive development.

D. Maturation
As the child gets matured he gets more interactive with his environment. For a good cognitive development interaction with environment is very necessary which the child does with the help of his mental and motor maturation. They help directly in the development of cognition.

ENVIRONMENT FACTORS

D. Learning opportunities
The opportunity a child gets to learn affects the cognitive development. The more opportunities he gets the better is the cognition, because he will be able to add to his mental capacities by learning through these opportunities.

B. Economic status
Economic state of the family also helps in the development of cognition. Children from better economic status get more opportunities and better training and it helps in cognitive development.

C. Play Play is also quite important in developing cognition. Through play activities, the child interacts with the environment, receives stimuli and responds to them.

When you say yes, Thats she/he learn best

D. Various types of stimuli


The instructions and motivation help in cognitive development of the child. The child gets these stimuli from his toys and activities like identifying different colour shapes, smell, and sounds, etc.

E. Family and society


Family is very important from the point of view of providing the child hereditary traits, which are the of development family also providing opportunities to learn, good encourage atmosphere to the child if the family provides such atmosphere to the child in which he maximum stimuli from the environment, would be encouraged to learn and with his environment. His cognitive development will be good

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Eye contact, smiles and imitation set the stage for more sustained communication and meaningful exchanges and engagement with parents and other caregivers, and a growing world of relationships

EARLY ENVIRONMENTS AND EXPERIENCES


Early experiences involve all senses through: Touch - e.g., skin-to-skin holding Smell - e.g., smell of mothers skin and breastmilk Taste - e.g., taste of breastmilk Sight - e.g., eye contact, gazing at face Hearing - e.g., hearing a familiar voice