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SIGNAL REPRESENTATION & ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

Content
Syllabus Books to refer Representation of signals a) signals and its classification b) system and its classification

syllabus

Signal representation & analysis

Representation of signals Analogy between vectors and signals Fourier series Fourier transforms Properties of Fourier transform Co-relation Representation aperiodic signal Convolution property Hilbert transform Noise

Digital Communications
Revision of analog communication Continuous Vs discrete signals Sampling and data reconstruction processes Quantization Z-transform Digital communication tech.,(PAM,PWM,PPM,PCM,DM and ADM) FSK,TDMA,FDMA,CDMA

BOOKS TO REFER
SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS ALAN V OPPENHIUM COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS BP LATHI COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS SIMON HAYKIN APPLIED FOURIER ANALYSIS HARCOURT BRACE JOVANAVICH

Representation of signals

Signal
A Signal is defined as information carrying function. (or) A signal is defined as a function of time that represents a physical variable associated with system. the signals are function of one or more independent variable and which carry certain information about the behavior or nature of phenomenon. Ex:- traffic signals, speech signal,ECG.

Characteristic of signal
More than one variable eg: 1) speech signal -1D 2) image signal - 2D 3) T.V picture - 3D 4) temperature - 4D Randomness Bandwidth

Types of signals
Continuous signal (analog) : signal which is defined at any time. both time and amplitude.
f(t)

f(t) = e-2t u(t)


t

Discrete signal :
continuous amplitude , discrete in time (integer values).

f(t)

f(nT) = e-2nT u(nT)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Digital signal:
signal which is discrete both in time and amplitude is digital signal.

5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Classification of signals
Even and odd signals Energy and power signals Time variant and time invariant signals Periodic and aperiodic signals

Systems
It is an operator which matches relation between input and output.
x(t) T{ } Y(t)

Lumped and Distributive Time invariant and Time variant Linear and non-linear Causal and non causal Static and dynamic Stable and unstable Invertible and non-invertible

Lumped system
In

a lumped system the energy in a system is considered to be stored or dissipated in a isolated element i.e, R,L,C.it is assumed that disturbance at an point is propagated instantaneously at every point in a system.

Distributive system
In

such system it takes a finite amount of time for disturbance at one point to be propagate to the other point. ex: transmission lines,anteenas,wave guide.

Time variant & time invariant


The

system whose parameter change with time is known as time variant. The response of the system do not change with time is time invariant.

Linear and non-linear

Additive x1(t) y1(t) x2(t) y2(t) x1(t)+x2(t) y1(t)+y2(t) Homogeneity (scaling) ax(t) ay(t) x1(t)+x2(t)y1(t)+y2(t)

Causal and non causal

A system is causal if the present output depends on the present input and past values of the input but not on future values. ex: y(t)=x2(t) y(t)=sin[x(t)] y(t)=x(7-t)

Static and dynamic


A system is static(memoryless) if the present output depends on present input at the same time. eg: y(t)=x3(t) Dynamic (memory) Any differential term in the equation system is dynamic,due to energy storing elements. eg: y(t)= dx(t)/dt All static systems are causal.

Invertible and non-invertible

A system is invertible if different input leads to different outputs that is for a given system two different inputs should not produce same output.